111183940 vimuttidhamma from chakra to dhammachakra

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    Piyadhassi BhikkhuVimidmmFm C Dmmc

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    Vimuttidhamma: From Chakra to Dhammachakra

    Piydi Bi

    Published by Dhamma Publication FundWat Tam Doi Tone, Chiang Mai, Thailand

    First Publishing, May 2011

    1,300 copies(Free Distribution)

    All rights reserved.

    Cover picture: Dhamek Stupa and Image of theBuddha giving the First Sermon at Sarnath, India.

    Cover design by Thaiis Co., www.thaiis.org

    ISBN : 978-616-03-0372-4

    Donation for Dhamma publication: please contactWat Tam Doi Tone, Mae Win Sub-District, MaeWang District, Chiang Mai 50360 Thailand

    Tel. 66-53-268511E-mail: [email protected]: www.vimuttidhamma.org

    Printed at Dhamma Sapha Publishing House, 1/4-5,Baromarajachonni 119, Sala Dhammasop Sub-District,Thaweewatana District, Bangkok 10170,Tel. 66-2-888-7940, 66-2-441-1535,Fax: 66-2-441-1983.

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    Sahasrra in the cortical layer of the brain

    Third jhna

    Fourth jhna

    Visuddha behind the throat

    Second jhna

    Anhata near the heart

    First jhna Manpura in the spinal chord

    Access concentration Svdhistna nerve center

    Mladhra base of the spinal cordMomentary concentration

    Realm of neither perception nornon-perception - NevasaansaayatanaRealm of nothingness -

    kicayatanaRealm of boundless consciousness -ViacyatanaRealm of boundless space - ksnacyatana

    Ajna

    Heart

    Kualin

    I nd

    Suuma nd

    Pigal nd

    Nibbnadhatu

    Dimensions of Mind

    Remark: - Mind in the four arpajhnas has the same components as mind in the fourth rpajhna.The only difference is that the objects of arpa concentration are formless elements.

    - in : Mind perceives past objects.Inner energy moves within the left channel.

    - pigaln : Mind perceives future objects.

    Inner energy moves within the right channel.- suuma n: Mind perceives present objects.Inner energy moves within the middle channel.

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    Contents

    Contents I

    lIst of fIgures IX

    abbrevIatIons XI

    prefaCe XIII

    translator notes XvI

    ChaPter I 1

    The Buddhas First Utterance 1

    The Round of Rebirth 2

    Rare States 4

    Existence of a Happy State 5

    Nature of the Buddha 6Four Kinds of Miracles 8

    ChaPter II 11

    sdd pcic lii 11

    The Path to Liberation 11Standard Ways of Practice to Liberation 14

    Mind in the Path:

    The Balance of Tranquility and Insight 15

    Path Leading to the Balance of

    Tranquility and Insight 17

    The Right Approach to Enlightenment 18

    Happiness To Be Feared / Not To Be Feared 19

    VimuttidhammaI

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    Encounter with Mra 20

    The Yogi in States of Jhna 23Four Modes of Progress to Liberation 26

    Celestial State 29

    Power over the Mind 30Wisdom Generated from Concentration 30Mind Devoid of Hindrances 31The Fortress 32Experiencing Sensual Pleasure without Attachment 36Right Concentration 40Four Kinds of Concentration 40Mind Inclined to Nibbna 42Sriputta, Son of the Lord Buddha 44Dhamma in the First Jhna 44Dhamma in the Second Jhna 45Dhamma in the Third Jhna 45

    Dhamma in the Fourth Jhna 45Dhamma in the Realm of Boundless Space 46

    Dhamma in the Realm of Boundless Consciousness 46

    Dhamma in the Realm of Nothingness 46

    Dhamma in the Realm of

    Neither Perception nor Non-Perception 47

    Dhamma in the Realm of

    Cessation of Perception and Feeling 47

    Sriputta, the Expert 48

    Sriputta, the Lord Buddhas Son 48

    CHapter III 51

    th o Wy 51

    Mah Satipahna Sutta 51

    Vimuttidhamma II

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    Benets of Satipahna Practice 70

    Development Process of Satipahna 71Mental Bondage 72

    Essence of Satipahna 73A Summary of Satipahna Practice 78Mindfulness is Necessary in All Cases 95

    CHapter Iv 99

    Cyc ad exi 99

    Dependent Origination 100Cause Linked to Effect 103Effect Linked to Cause 103Cause Linked to Effect 104

    CHapter v 111

    th aim h n th 111

    Characteristics of Maggacitta: Some Metaphors 114

    Omens Occurring Before

    the Attainment of Enlightenment 115

    Omens of the Buddhas Enlightenment 116

    Insight in Concentration 117

    Successive Steps of Insight Knowledge 120Attainment of the Four Levels of Enlightenment 126

    Wisdom of the Path of the Stream-Enterer 127

    Flash of Lightning 130Concentration Bases at

    the Attaining Moment of Enlightenment 131

    Three Aspects of Liberation 132

    VimuttidhammaIII

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    Wisdom Leading to

    the State of the Once-Returner 135Wisdom leading to the State of the Non-Returner 136Wisdom Leading to

    the State of the Fully Enlightened 138The Wheel and Wisdom of Liberation 139Sea of Sasra 140Those Who Transcend the States of Misery 143

    CHapter vI 149

    The State of Nibbna 149The State of Nibbna 149The End of Suffering 149

    Two Conditions of Nibbna 150

    The Released through Discernment(Pavimutti) 154The Released Both Ways

    (Ubhatobhgavimutti) 155Two Kinds of Genius 155

    The Present Dwelling of the Enlightened One 157

    CHapter vII 161

    Mj Dhmm 161

    The One Thing 161

    Mindfulness of Breathing

    Highly Acclaimed by the Buddha 162

    Dwelling Prior to Enlightenment 163After the Enlightenment 163

    Benets of Mindfulness of Breathing 165

    Vimuttidhamma IV

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    Dhamma Supporting Mindfulness of Breathing 165

    Discourse on Mindfulness of Breathing(npnasati Sutta) 166Mindfulness of Breathing 169

    Fulllment of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness 171Fulllment of the Seven Enlightenment Factors 174Fulllment of True Knowledge and Deliverance 175

    CHapter vIII 179

    bhi Mdii: th pcic 179

    Dimensions of Mind 179

    Chakras in the Science of Yoga 180States of Body and Mind in Absorption Concentration 182

    Introduction to the Practice 182

    The Noble Right Concentration 184

    Cycle of the Mind in the Wheel of Rebirth 184

    Beginning of the World of Phenomena and Time 188

    Mindfulness of Breathing: Practice Section 191

    Three Breath-Touching Points 192

    Section One: Contemplation of the Body 192

    Concentrative Prociency 212

    Section Two: Contemplation of Feelings 214Section Three: Contemplation of the Mind 226

    Section Four: Contemplation of the Mental-Qualities 228

    Techniques of Entering into Absorption Concentration 229

    A Memoir on the Meditation Experiences of an

    Anonymous Bhikkhu :Wisdom of a Stream Enterer 235The Eye of Dhamma 237Wisdom leading to the Path of Once-Returning 238

    VimuttidhammaV

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    Mind Training of the Higher Level 239

    The Completion of Right Concentration 239Wisdom leading to the Path of Non-Returning 242

    The Cessation of Perception and Feelings 244

    Saavedayitanirodha 246

    Wisdom of the Path of the Fully Enlightened 248

    The Wheel of Dhamma 251

    Wisdom of Liberation 252

    Two Levels of Transcendental Jhna 253The Vibration of the Rened Physical 255Three levels of Dhammadhtu vibration 255Dhammachakra and its Cycling 256

    CHapter IX 259

    Threefold Attainments 259Meditative Attainment 259

    Fruition Enjoyment 259

    Extinction Attainment 261

    Progressive Abiding 263Pairs of Adverse Conditions 265

    Mental Rust, Golden Rust 266Noble Disciples and the Coral Tree Flowers 267

    referenCe 272

    InDeX 275

    Vimuttidhamma VI

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    LIst oF FIgures

    fi 1: Forty Techniques of Concentration Exercises 39fi 2: The Interrelated States in Satipahna 82-83fi 3: Dependent Origination 99

    fi 4: Mental Process While Attaining Nibbna 124fi 5: Functions of the Three Knowledges

    Concerning the Four Noble Truths 133fi 6: Classication of Noble Ones 151

    fi 7: Dimensions of Mind 178

    fi 8: Cycle of the Mind in the Wheel of Rebirth 185

    fi 9: Concentration in Buddhism and Rjayoga 186

    fi 10: Dimensions of Mind 187

    fi 11: Visualized image-Conceptualized image 198

    fi 12: Cetasika 202

    fi 13: Mladhra - Momentary Concentration 204

    fi 14: Svdhistna - Access Concentration 206

    fi 15: Manpura - First Jhna 208

    fi 16: Anhata - Second Jhna 213

    fi 17: Visuddha - Third Jhna 216

    fi 18: Sahasrra - Fourth Jhna 219

    fi 19: Fire Contemplation 230

    fi 20: Mental Process While Attaining Absorption

    Concentration 234

    fi 21: Progressive Abidings;

    Mental States of Gradual Attainment-

    Cessation of Perception and Feeling 241

    VimuttidhammaVII

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    fi 22: Progressive Abidings; Mental States of

    Gradual Attainment-The Backward Order 243fi 23: Progressive Abidings:

    Mental States of Gradual Attainment -

    The Forward Order 245

    fi 24: Dhammachakra - The Wheel of Dhamma 250

    fi 25: Vibration of the Rened Physical Elements 254

    fi 26: Dimensions of Mind 270

    Vimuttidhamma VIII

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    aBBreVIatIons

    A.N. = Anguttara Nikya

    D.N. = Digha Nikya

    Kh.N. = Khuddaka Nikya

    M.N. = Majjhima Nikya

    S.N. = Sayutta Nikya

    VimuttidhammaIX

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    Like a lake unrufed by any breeze,

    the concentrated mind is a faithful reector

    that mirrors what ever is placed before it

    exactly as it is.

    Vimuttidhamma X

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    PreFaCe

    Vimuttidhamma is the true freedom, which does not change

    according to any causes or factors, transcending all kinds of

    conditioned phenomena. On the path to liberation (the noble

    eightfold path), vimuttidhamma is the nal goal for all beings.

    Regarding the noble eightfold path, there are three levels

    of learning and practice. Firstly, thesila

    level or the level ofadjusting ones own physical and verbal conducts to support and

    be conducive to the training of ones mind. Second is the level of

    concentration or mind training according to the principle of the four

    foundation of mindfulness (satipahna practice). Practitioners

    will be able to experience the rising and falling states within the

    framework of their own body and mind. In Pali, body (rpa) and

    mind (nma) are mere aggregates of compounded things. Such

    rising and falling continuum appears from gross to subtler levels,

    namely from the worldly to the form and formless realms.

    Chakra is a knowledge at the level of absorption concentration

    (appansamdhi) which covers both the form and formless realms.

    Knowledge of chakra existed prior to the emergence of Buddhism.

    Before enlightenment, the Buddha achieved all the eight levels

    of absorption concentration from two masters, the yogies Alra

    Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta. However, the knowledge of high

    level of concentration or chakra was not sufcient for reaching

    vimuttidhamma. The Buddha, therefore had to leave the two

    masters in order to seek, by himself, the higher and subtler kind

    of knowledge.

    With tremendous effort and long-accumulated spiritual

    intuitive faculty which heightened to its peak, the Buddha was

    VimuttidhammaXI

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    able to discover the higher kind of knowledge, or the third level

    of practice, namely insight orvipassan. Only when absorptionconcentration is accompanied by insight, the ordinary kind of

    concentration will escalate and change itself into the noble right

    concentration. When both kinds of power, insight (vipassanbala)

    and concentration (samdhibala), develop up to the level of

    completion of factors of enlightenment (bojjhaga), the mind will

    be free from the cycle of rebirth. Before being able to reach the

    highest form of knowledge (vimuttiadassana), practitioners willexperience an excellent kind of chakra, namely dhammachakra.

    Dhammachakra is a special state when ones experience only

    the rising and falling of aggregates without accompaniment of

    ignorance, craving and clinging force (which are the causes of

    suffering). The perception at this level is called kiriyacitta* which

    functions independently of both wholesome and unwholesome

    factors. When dhammachakra cycles and escalates its speed, up

    to one point, the cycling stops, and there emerges the last and

    the highest kind of knowledge, vimuttiadassana which will

    become clear only to those who can attain it.

    Vimuttidhamma was translated from Thai to English by a

    group of practitioners, namely, Krisda Dhiradityakul, ApinyaFeungfusakul with the help of Matt Meyers, Steve Rhodes,Rudy Stoert, Arthur McKeown and Zarina Parpia. Those whonancially supported the publication are Thai meditator groupin Boston,Yaowalak Phenglee, Phorn Phivilay, Dalom Phivilay,Pawaranan Wisitweradilok, Nattakini Jiramanthip, Pipaspon

    * Kiriyacitta is karmically neutral, having no karma results, both negative or positive.

    It is the mental state of the arahat or the fully enlightened, accompanied by two or three

    noble roots (greedlessness, hatelessnes and undeludedness). See detailed description

    on p. 256-257.

    Vimuttidhamma XII

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    Udompolpunit, Thomas Mathsanghane, Jenjira Jenny Mathsanghane,

    Nupan Chalanukroa, Ubonwan Singphanomchai. The layout designwas done by Thaiis Co. I would like to express my thanks andconvey the blessing to all these people.

    Vimuttidhamma will be a guiding friend for those who seek

    and practice Dhamma and will lead them to the knowledgeabout

    chakra and the higher knowledge of the excellent dhammachakra.On the noble path, may the cycling of dhammachakra reveal itself

    transparently to everybody who devotedly and persistently keepson training the mind.

    Piyadhassi Bhikkhu

    Visaka Puja, 2011Wat Tam Doi Tone, Chiang Mai

    VimuttidhammaXIII

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    transLator notes

    In 2001, during the three month period of the rainy season known asthe Vassa, Kris Dhiradityakul, who ordained and studied Dhammaat Wat Tam Doi Tone cave monastery in Thailand, got to knowand befriend George, a French-born American monk. Kris wastremendously inspired by Vimuttidhamma, the book written byhis master, mentor and the Abbot of the monastery, VenerablePhra Ajahn Nawee Piyadhassi. The book was rst published inOctober 1997 and since then has been reprinted four times. Krisfelt strongly committed to making it possible for George and other

    westerners to read the book and taste the knowledge of his master.

    Kris approached Phra Ajahn (the respectful title means Monk

    Teacher in Thai) to ask permission to translate, and then embarkedupon a very difcult task. On the one hand, the book followsTheravda tradition in its tone and style as well as its systematicanalysis of the whole corpus of Dhamma. The rich quotations fromthe Pli Canon help the reader to understand the interrelatedness ofBuddhist core concepts. On the other hand, the book debates andchallenges mainstream Theravada beliefs regarding meditation.

    However, the greatest challenge for the translators lay in the section

    of the book that deals with meditative experiences. The two last

    chapters of the book offer practical guidelines for beginners whileallowing the reader a glimpse into the transcendental realm of

    higher level meditation. The book captures Phra Ajahns more

    than 20 years of experience as a meditation teacher and also his

    own unutterable moments in the world beyond.

    After years of endeavour, Kris handed his rst draft to

    Apinya Feungfusakul, one of Phra Ajahns close disciples, who

    Vimuttidhamma XIV

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    revised the entire manuscript and spent months searching through

    different versions of English translations of Buddhist Scripturesand Commentaries which were quoted as references. In addition,

    she added more than 60 footnotes to clearly explain Pli termsand did multiple quality and accuracy reviews of the nal draft.

    Many English speaking friends who practice meditation with

    Phra Ajahn offered invaluable help. Steve Rhodes and Arthur

    McKeown edited the entire book, Rudy Stoert edited chapters one

    to fve, Matt Meyers edited chapters eight and nine, and SamaneriPema (Karen Schaefer) edited chapter eight. Wanda Weinberger

    proof read a large part of the book, and Zarina Parpia edited the

    nal version, checking the Pli spelling, doing meticulous proofreading four times and preparing the index. Last but not least,

    Wanachai Wongtala, Prapasri Poung-Ngernmak and the Thaiis

    Co. team were in charge of the lay-out and book cover design.

    Throughout the course of our journey, Phra Ajahn played avital role in guiding us along the frequently rocky road and kept

    us walking on the right spiritual path. It has been an incredible

    experience to go through the manuscript with the author at his

    beautiful and peaceful monastery, Wat Tam Doi Tone. To complete

    the translation is a way of paying homage to our teacher and to

    the Triple Gem, the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.

    Though this book contains many complicated Buddhist

    philosophies and teachings, practitioners are always welcome

    to seek further discussion with the author at Wat Tam Doi Tone,

    where formal courses in meditation are organized to serve the

    needs of practitioners of all levels, from beginning meditators to

    those with years of experience.

    VimuttidhammaXV

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    The book has now been completed. We have done our job in

    making it available to the world. Still, the task of constant practicein order to achieve the ultimate goal continues. That is the goal

    our great master wants all of us to reach.

    Enjoy the book, and enjoy Dhamma.

    Vimuttidhamma XVI

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    The widespread misery of the world

    reveals itself to his mind

    so nakedly, so powerful

    that the cry for the end of it

    drowns every other voice:forth, forth, forth

    to the other shore.

    VimuttidhammaXVII

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    Vimuttidhamma 1

    ChaPter I

    t Bdd Fi uc

    Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammsambuddhassa.

    Homage to Him, the Blessed One, the Holy One, thePerfectly Self-Enlightened One.

    Monks, it is because of not understanding and not penetratingthe Four Noble Truths that you and I have roamed and wandered

    through this long course ofsasra (the round of rebirth). Whatfour?

    It is, monks, because of not understanding and not penetratingthe noble truth of suffering of the origin of suffering of the

    cessation of suffering of the path leading to the cessation ofsuffering that you and I have roamed and wandered through this

    long course of sasra.

    That noble truth of suffering, monks, that noble truth of theorigin of suffering of the cessation of suffering of the way

    leading to the cessation of suffering has been understood and

    penetrated. Craving for existence has been cut off; the conduit

    to existence has been destroyed; now there is no more renewedexistence.1

    1 S.N. (vol.2), Mah-vagga, Sacca-sayutta, Koigma (21), p.1852, Bhikkhu Bodhi.

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    the Buddhas First utterance2

    th rd rih

    At Savatthi, there the Blessed One said: From an inconstruablebeginning comes transmigration. A beginning point is notevident, though beings hindered by ignorance and fettered bycraving are transmigrating and wandering on. Just as a stickthrown up in the air lands sometimes on its base, sometimes onits side, sometimes on its tip; in the same way, beings hindered byignorance and fettered by craving, transmigrating and wandering

    on, sometimes go from this world to another world, sometimescome from another world to this.

    Why is that? From an inconstruable beginning comes

    transmigration ....2

    An aeon is long, monks. Its not easy to count it and say it is somany years, or so many hundreds of years, or so many thousands

    of years, or so many hundreds of thousands of years. Suppose,monks, there was a great stone mountain ayojana3 long, a yojanawide and a yojana high, without holes or crevices, one solid massof rock. At the end of every hundred years, a man would stroke itonce with a piece of Ksian4 cloth. By this effort that great stonemountain might be worn away and eliminated but the aeon would

    still not have come to an end. So long is an aeon, monks. And ofaeons of such length, we have wandered through so many aeons,so many hundreds of aeons, so many thousands of aeons, so manyhundreds of thousands of aeons. For what reason? Because, monks,this sasra is without discoverable beginning. I i h xpinc vlin wad all main, ngh

    2 S.N., Nidna-vagga, Anatamagga-sayutta, 15.9, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

    3 An ancient Indian unit of measurement.4 Ksi, an ancient Indian city state, was well known for its cloth products.

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    Vimuttidhamma 3

    cm dii wd hm, h id

    m hm.5

    Excellent, monks. Excellent. It is excellent that you thus understandthe Dhamma taught by me.

    This is the greater: the tears you have shed while transmigrating

    and wandering this long, long time, crying and weeping frombeing joined with what is displeasing, being separated from whatis pleasing not the water in the four great oceans.

    Long have you experienced the death of a mother. The tearsyou have shed over the death of a mother... are greater than thewater in the four great oceans.

    Long have you experienced the death of a father... the deathof a brother... the death of a sister... the death of a son... the deathof a daughter... loss with regard to relatives... loss with regard to

    wealth... loss with regard to disease. The tears you have shed overloss with regard to disease while transmigrating and wandering

    this long, long time, crying and weeping from being joined withwhat is displeasing, being separated from what is pleasing aregreater than the water in the four great oceans.

    Why is that? From an inconstruable beginning comes

    transmigration. A beginning point is not evident, though beings

    hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving are transmigratingand wandering on. Long have you thus experienced stress,experienced pain, experienced loss, swelling the cemeteriesh cm dichd wih icd hi,

    h cm dii, h d.6

    5 S.N. (vol.1), Nidna-vagga, Anamatagga-sayutta (5), p. 654, Bhikkhu Bodhi.6 S.N. Nidna-vagga, Anatamagga-sayutta, 15.3, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    the Buddhas First utterance4

    r s

    Monks, suppose that this great earth were totally covered withwater, and a man were to toss a yoke with a single hole there.A wind from the east would push it west, a wind from the westwould push it east. A wind from the north would push it south,a wind from the south would push it north. And suppose a blindsea-turtle were there. It would come to the surface once everyone hundred years. Now what do you think: would that blind

    sea-turtle, coming to the surface once every one hundred years,stick his neck into the yoke with a single hole?

    It would be a sheer coincidence, Lord, that the blind sea-turtle,coming to the surface once every one hundred years, would stickhis neck into the yoke with a single hole.

    Its likewise a sheer coincidence that one obtains the human

    state. Its likewise a sheer coincidence that a Tathgata,7

    , worthyand rightly self-awakened, arises in the world. Its likewise asheer coincidence that a doctrine and discipline expounded by a

    Tathgata appears in the world. Now, this human state has beenobtained. A Tathgata, worthy and rightly self-awakened, hasarisen in the world. A doctrine and discipline expounded by aTathgata appears in the world.

    Therefore your duty is the contemplation, This is [suffering]...This is the origination of [suffering]... This is the cessation of[suffering]. Your duty is the contemplation, This is the path ofpractice leading to the cessation of [suffering].8

    7 The Perfect One, an epithet of the Lord Buddha.8 S.N., Mah-vagga, Sacca-sayutta, 56.48, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    Vimuttidhamma 5

    exic Hy s

    This was saidby the BlessedOne, said by the arahant(a fullyenlightened person), so I have heard:

    When a deva(a celestial being) is about to pass away fromthe company of devas, ve omens appear: his garlands wither,his clothes get soiled, sweat comes out of his armpits, a dullnessdescends on his body, he no longer delights in his own deva-seat.The devas, knowing from this that This deva-son is about to passaway, encourage him with three sayings: Go from here, honorablesir, to a good destination. Having gone to a good destination, gainthe gain that is good to gain. Having gained the gain that is goodto gain, become well-established.

    When this was said, a certain monk said to the Blessed One,What, Lord, is the devas reckoning of going to a good destination?

    What is their reckoning of the gain that is good to gain? What istheir reckoning of becoming well-established?

    The human state, monks, is the devas reckoning of goingto a good destination. Having become a human being, acquiringconviction in the Dhamma-and-Vinaya9 taught by the Tathgata:this is the devas reckoning of the gain that is good to gain. Whenthat conviction is settled within one rooted, established, and

    strong, not to be destroyed by any priest or contemplative deva,Mra10, orbrahma11; or anyone else in the world: this is the devasreckoning of becoming well-established.

    9 Doctrine and discipline of the Lord Buddha. The word dhamma has several meanings.Dhamma is the teaching or doctrine of the Buddha, while dhamma can mean thebearer, consitution (or nature of a thing), norm, law, doctrine, justice, righteousness,quality, object of mind, or phenomenon.10 Mra is the tempter-gure. He appears in the texts both as a real person (i.e. as a

    deity, or the Lord of Evil) and as the personication of evil and passions, of the totalityof worldy existence, and of death.11 Being residing in the higher heavenly planes of the form and formless realms.

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    the Buddhas First utterance6

    When a deva passes away from the company of devas

    through his life-spans ending, three sounds sound forth thedevas encouragement. Go from here, honorable sir, to a gooddestination, to companionship with human beings. On becoming ahuman being, acquire a conviction unsurpassed in True Dhamma.That conviction of yours in True Dhamma, well-taught, should

    be settled, rooted, established undestroyed as long as youlive. Having abandoned bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct,

    mental misconduct, and whatever else is awed; having done withthe body what is skillful, and much that is skillful with speech,having done what is skillful with a heart without limit, with noacquisitions, then having made much of that basis of merit throughgiving, establish other mortals in True Dhamma and the holy life.With this sympathy, the devas, when they know a deva is passingaway, encourage him: Come back, deva, again and again.12

    n h bddh

    On one occasion, the Blessed One was walking on the highwaybetween Ukkatth and Setavy. And it happened that the BrahminDona was also walking along that road. Dona, the Brahmin, sawon the footprints of the Blessed One the wheel marks with their

    thousand spokes, with felly and hub, perfect in every respect.Seeing these marks, he thought to himself: It is truly wonderful,it is astonishing! These certainly cannot be the footprints of a

    human being!

    Meanwhile the Blessed One had left the highway and had

    sat down under a tree not far off, with legs crossed, keeping hisbody erect, having set mindfulness before him. Then Dona the

    12 K.N., Itivuttaka, 3.34, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    Brahmin, following the Blessed Ones footprints, saw him seated

    under a tree, of pleasing appearance, inspiring condence, withcalm features and calm mind, in perfect composure and equipoise,controlled and restrained [like] a well-trained bull elephant. Seeingthe Blessed One, Dona approached him and said:

    Will Your Reverence become a deva?

    No, Brahmin, I shall not become a deva.

    Then Your Reverence might become agandhabba (a kind ofcelestial being skilled in music)... ayakkha(an ogre) a humanbeing?

    No, Brahmin, I shall not become a gandhabba a yakkhaa human being.

    What, then, will Your Reverence become?

    Brahmin, those taints whereby, if they were not abandoned, Imight become a deva, a gandhabba, a yakkha, or a human being -these taints are abandoned by me, cut off at the root, made barrenlike palm-tree stumps, obliterated so that they are no more subjectto arise in the future.

    Just as, Brahmin, a blue, red or white lotus, though bornand grown in the water, rises up and stands unsoiled by the

    water, so, Brahmin, though born and grown in the world, I haveovercome the world and dwell unsoiled by the world. Consider me,O Brahmin, a bddh.13

    13 A.N.,The Chapter of the Fours (58), p. 87-8, Bhikkhu Nyanaponika and BhikkhuBodhi.

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    the Buddhas First utterance8

    f Kid Mic

    Monks, on the manifestation of a Tathgata, an arahant, a fullyenlightened one, wndl and mavll hing aremanifested. What four?

    People generally nd i chm, take delightin attachments and enjoy attachments. But when the Dhamma -chm is taught by the Tathgata, people wish to listento it, give ear and try to understand it.

    People generally nd i cci, take delight inconceit and enjoy conceit. But when the Dhamma is taught bythe Tathgata hii cci, people wish to listento it, give ear and try to understand it.

    People generally nd i i xcim, takedelight in excitement and enjoy excitement. But when the cful

    Dhamma is taught by the Tathgata, people wish to listen to it,give ear and try to understand it.

    People generally live in ignorance, are lindd y ignncand fettered by ignorance. But when the Dhamma is taught by theTathgata for the ii ic, people wish to listento it, give ear and try to understand it.

    On the manifestation of a Tathgata, an Arahant, a Fullyenlighnd on, h fu wndful nd mvllu hingcm mi.14

    14 Ibid. (78), p. 109-10.

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    Vimuttidhamma 9

    By what track can you trace

    that trackless Buddha of limitless range,whose victory nothing can undo,

    whom none of the vanquished delements

    can ever pursue?

    Hard is it to be born a human being

    hard is the life of mortals.

    Hard is it to gain the opportunity

    (to hear) the Sublime Truth,

    and hard to encounter

    is the arising of the Buddhas.

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    the Buddhas First utterance10

    The good shine even from afar,like the Himalayan mountain.

    But the wicked are unseen,

    like arrows shot in the night.

    Just as a solid rock

    is not shaken by a storm,

    even so the wise are not affected

    by praise or blame.

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    Vimuttidhamma 11

    ChaPter II

    sdd Pcic f Libi

    th ph lii

    There are, O monks, these ve bases of liberation, and whena monk dwells diligent, ardent and resolute in any of these, hisunliberated mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taints

    undergo destruction, and he attains the as-yet-unattained unsurpassedsecurity from bondage. What ve?

    1. Here, monks, the Teacher or a certain fellow monk in theposition of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a monk. Even as theTeacher ch hDhmm to him, that monkxich mi d h Dhmm. When he gains such experience,gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises; for one upliftedby rapture, the body becomes calm; one calm in body feels happy;for one who is happy the mind becomes concentrated. This is therst base of liberation, and when a monk dwells diligent, ardentand resolute here, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, hisundestroyed taints undergo destruction, and he attains the as-yet-unattained unsurpassed security from bondage.

    2. Further, monks, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monkin the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a monk. Butthe monk himselfch h Dhmm i di to others as he

    has learned it and mastered it. Even as he teaches the Dhamma,that monkxic h mi d hDhmm. Whenhe gains such experience, gladness arises the mind becomesconcentrated. This is the cd ii.

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    3. Further, monks, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk in

    the position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a monk, nor doeshe himself teach the Dhamma in detail to others as he has learned

    it and mastered it. But he ci h Dhmmi di as hehas learned it and mastered it. Even as he recites the Dhamma,the monkxic h mi d h Dhmm. Whenhe gains such experience, gladness arises the mind becomesconcentrated. This is the hid ii.

    4. Further, monks, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk inthe position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a monk, nor doeshe himself teach the Dhamma in detail to others, nor does he recitethe Dhamma in detail. But he d, xmi d myii h Dhmm as he has learned it and mastered it.Even as he ponders the Dhamma, that monk xic hmi d h Dhmm. When he gains such experience,

    gladness arises the mind becomes concentrated. This is theh ii.

    5. Further, monks, neither the Teacher nor a fellow monk inthe position of a teacher teaches the Dhamma to a monk nor

    does he ponder the Dhamma. But he has learned well a cijc cci, d i w, i i w, d

    i hhy wih widm. Even as he learns well

    an object of concentration, that monkxic h miand h Dhamma. When he gains such experience, gladnessarises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises; for one uplifted byrapture, the body becomes calm; one calm in body feels happy;for one who is happy the mind becomes concentrated. This is thefth base of liberation, and when a monk dwells diligent, ardentand resolute here, his unliberated mind comes to be liberated, his

    undestroyed taints undergo destruction, and he attains the as-yet-unattained unsurpassed security from bondage.

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    These, monks, are the ve bases of liberation, and when

    a monk dwells diligent, ardent and resolute in any of these, hisunliberated mind comes to be liberated, his undestroyed taintsundergo destruction, and he attains the as-yet-unattained unsurpassedsecurity from bondage.15

    Wisdom cannot be perfectly developed

    In those with unstable minds,

    Who know not the noble truth,and who live with false faith.

    15 A.N., The Chapter of the Fives (98), p.130-31, Bhikku Nyanaponika and BhikkuBodhi.

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    a smmy h fi phwy lii

    1. Listening to Dhamma

    2. Teaching Dhamma

    3.Reciting Dhamma

    4. Contemplating Dhamma

    5. Samdhinimitta: a method of concentration usingcertain mental images as concentrative objects

    sdd Wy pcic lii

    Friends, whatever monks or nuns declare before me that theyhave attained the nal knowledge of arahantship, all these do soin one of four ways. What four?

    1. Here, friends, a monk develops inigh pcdd bynquiliy. While he thus develops insight preceded by tranquility,the path arises in him. He now pursues, develops, and cultivatesthat path, and while he is doing so, the fetters are abandoned andthe underlying tendencies eliminated.

    2. Or again, friends, a monk develops qiiy cddy inigh. While he thus develops tranquility preceded by insight,

    the path arises in him. He now pursues, develops, and cultivatesthat path, and while he is doing so, the fetters are abandoned andthe underlying tendencies eliminated.

    3. Or again, friends, a monk develops nquiliy nd inighjid ii. While he thus develops tranquility and insightjoined in pairs, the path arises in him. He now pursues, develops,and cultivates that path, and while he is doing so, the fetters are

    abandoned and the underlying tendencies eliminated.

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    4. Or again, friends, a monks mind is seized by ii

    cd yhih mid. But there comes a time whenhis mind becomes internally steadied, composed, unied andconcentrated; then the path arises in him. He now pursues, develops,and cultivates that path, and while he is doing so, the fetters areabandoned and the underlying tendencies eliminated.16

    Mid i h ph:th bc tqiiy d Iih

    The eightfold path17, when fully developed to the level wheretheir culminating power functions simultaneously, will create anoverwhelming light of wisdom to realize the truth and eradicate the

    hindrance of delements. th mnn in which ll cmnn fh h gn hi w imulnuly i clld magga,

    h, which signies the very moment when all componentsrealize themselves in full. When this process happens, the resultwhich follows is calledphala, or fruit, which is the penetrativeunderstanding of the truth.

    And if this enlightenment process proceeds gradually in

    order, magga will function more and more strongly until all foursuccessive stages of enlightenment are completed. Therefore,

    these four stages of enlightenment are called four maggas and thefollowing four states of fruition are called four phalas. These fourmaggas and four phalas are also called the noble maggas and thenoble phalas, which can be identied as follows:sotpattimagga

    16 Ibid., The Chapter of the Fours (83), p.114.

    17 The eightfold path consists of right view, right thought, right speech, right action,right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

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    standard PracticeFor LiBeration16

    (the path of the stream-enterer18),sotpattiphala (the fruition of

    the stream-enterer), sakadgmimagga (the path of the once-returner), sakadgmiphala (the fruition of the once-returner),angmimagga (the path of the non-returner), angmiphala(the fruition of the non-returner), arahattamagga (the path of thefully enlightened),and arahattaphala (the fruition of the fullyenlightened).

    In terms of its components, magga can be divided into eight

    aspects (the eightfold path), therefore it is called ahagikamagga(ahagika means eight, magga means path). In terms of itsfunction, there are four stages called catumagga or four maggasas just described.

    The manner in which all factors function simultaneously

    within a single instant, followed by a tangible result, is alsoreferred to asDhammasmagg(the accordance of Dhamma) whichhas the same meaning as bodhi (enlightenment). In this very instant,not only do all components of the eightfold path culminate, but sodo the components of the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiyadhamma19.However, all components of bodhipakkhiyadhamma can also besummarized and manifested in the eightfold path. Thus, when wetalk about the eightfold path, it is understood to cover all otherrelated components of Dhamma.20

    18 The noble persons are those who have realized the successive stages of liberation.There are four categories of these nobles persons: the stream-enterer, the once-returner,the non-returner and the fully enlightened. See more detail in Chapter Five.19 The requisites of enlightenment are: four foundations of mindfulness, four greatstrivings, four means of accomplishment, ve spiritual faculties, ve bases of power,seven factors of enlightenment and the eightfold path. All together, they make thirty

    seven factors.20 Translated from Phra Ratchaworamuni,Buddhadhamma, p. 886-887.

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    ph ldi h bc

    tqiiy d Iih

    These four kinds of persons, O monks, are found existing in theworld. What four?

    1. Therein, monks, the n wh gin innl nquiliyf mind u n h high widm f inigh in hing should

    approach one who has gains the higher wisdom and inquire of him:

    How, friend, should formation be seen? How should formationsbe explored? How should constructions be discerned with insight?

    The other then answers him as he has seen and understood the

    matter thus: Formations should be seen in such a way; theyshould be explored in such a way; they should be discerned with

    insight in such a way. At a later time, this one gains both internaltranquility of mind and the higher wisdom of insight into things.

    2. Therein, monks, the n wh gin h high widmf inigh in hing u n innl nquiliy f mind shouldapproach one who has gained internal tranquility and inquire of

    him: How, friend, should the mind be steadied? How shouldthe mind be composed? How should the mind be unied? Howshould the mind be concentrated? The other then answers him

    as he has seen and understood the matter thus: The mind shouldbe steadied in such a way, composed in such a way, unied insuch a way, concentrated in such a way. At a later time, this onegains both internal tranquility of mind and the higher wisdom of

    insight into things.

    3. Therein, monks, the wh i ih ianqiliy mind n h high widm inigh in

    hi should approach one who has gained both and inquire of

    him; How, friend, should the mind be steadied?... How, friend,

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    should formations be seen? The other then answers him as he

    has seen and understood the matter thus: The mind should besteadied in such a way Formations should be seen in such a

    way At a later time, this one gains both internal tranquility ofmind and the higher wisdom of insight into things.

    4. Therein, monks, the pn wh gain bh innalanqiliy mind and h high widm inigh in

    hi should establish himself in just these wholesome states

    and make a further effort for the destruction of the taints.These are the four types of individuals to be found existing

    in world.21

    th rih ach eihm

    I thought: Whatever recluses or brahmins in the past inthe future... (or) at present have experienced painful, racking,piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is nonebeyond this. But by this racking practice of austerities, I have notattained any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge andvision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be another path toenlightenment?

    I considered: I recall that when my father the Sakyan wasoccupied, I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, quitesecluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesomestates, I entered upon and abided in the rst jhna22, which is

    21 A.N., The Chapter of the Fours (72), p. 103-4, Bhikkhu Nyanaponika and BhikkhuBodhi.22 Jhna, also referred to as absorption concentration, refers to the four meditativeabsorptions of the form realm (sometimes called ne material realms and, in Pli,

    called rpajhna) and another four higher levels of the formless realm (sometimescalled immaterial realms and, in Pli, called arpajhna). See more detail about jhnapractice in Chapter Eight.

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    Vimuttidhamma 19

    accompanied by applied and sustained thought23, with rapture and

    pleasure born of seclusion. Could that be the path to enlightenment?Then, following on that memory, came the realization: th ih h ihm.

    I thought: Why am I afraid of that pleasure that has nothingto do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states? I thought:

    I am not afraid of that pleasure since it has nothing to do withsensual pleasures and unwholesome states.

    I considered: It is not easy to attain that pleasure with a bodyso excessively emaciated. Suppose I ate some solid food someboiled rice and porridge. And I ate some solid food someboiled rice and porridge.24

    Hi t b fd / n t b fd

    And, Udyin, there are these ve strings of sensuality. Which ve?Forms cognizable via the eye agreeable, pleasing, charming,endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Sounds cognizable via theear... aromas cognizable via the nose... avors cognizable via thetongue... tactile sensations cognizable via the body agreeable,pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Theseare the ve strings of sensuality. Now, any pleasure and happiness

    that arises dependent on these ve strings of sensuality is calledsensual pleasure, a lthy pleasure, a run-of-the-mill pleasure, anignoble pleasure. And of this pleasure I say that it is not to becultivated, not to be developed, not to be pursued, that it is to befeared.

    23 Applied and sustained thought (vitakka-vicra) are constituents of the rst absorptionor jhna, but are absent in the higher levels of jhna. Vitakka is the laying hold of a

    thought or the xing of consciousness to an object and vicra is the continued activityof the mind.24 M.N., Mahyamakavagga, Mah-saccaka Sutta (36),p. 340, Bhikkhu amoliand Bhikkhu Bodhi.

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    Vimuttidhamma 21

    And a third time they fought and the asuras won and the

    devas were defeated. Defeated and fearful, they just entered thedeva city. Monks, thus gone to their city, the devas thought: Nowthat we have come to the refuge for the fearful, we will henceforthdwell by ourselves and have no dealings with the asuras. And theasuras thought also: Gone, indeed, are the devas to the refuge forthe fearful, henceforth they will dwell by themselves and haveno dealing with us!

    Monks, long ago another battle raged between the devas andasuras; but in that ght the devas won and the asuras were defeated.And the defeated asuras ed, pursued by the devas, facing south.Then thought the asuras: The devas pursue us; what if we ght asecond time! And they did so and were a second time defeated.

    And a third time they fought and the devas won and the

    asuras were defeated; and defeated and fearful, they just entered

    the asura city; and thus gone to their city, the asuras thought: Nowthat weve come to the refuge for the fearful, we will dwell byourselves and have nothing to do with the devas. And the devasthought likewise.

    In just the same way, monks, what time a monk, aloof fromsense desires, enters and abides in the rst [jhna], he thinks:Now that I have come to the refuge for the fearful, I will henceforthdwell by myself and have no dealings with Mra. And Mra, theEvil One, thinks: Now that the monk has gone to the refuge forthe fearful, he will dwell by himself and have no dealing with me.Monks, what time a monk enters and abides in the secondthird and fourth[jhna], he thinks likewise and Mra too.

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    Monks, when a monk... enters and abides in the realm of

    boundless space26, he is said to have put a darkness about Mra,and Mras vision, being blotted out, is without range, and he hasbecome invisible to the Evil One.

    Monks, when a monk... enters and abides in the realm ofboundless consciousness of nothingness of neither perception

    nor non-perception and by wisdom sees that the cankers are

    completely destroyed, he is said to have put a darkness about

    Mra, and Mras vision, being blotted out, is without range; andhe has become invisible to the Evil One and has passed through

    the worlds entanglement.27

    Mra can destroy thosewho are attached to sensual beauty,

    not controlling their behavior,

    lacking moderation in eating,

    idle and weak,

    like the strong winduprooting an old tree.

    26 The four higher levels of jhna in the formless realm (arpajhna) are as follows:the realm of boundless space, the realm of boundless consciousness, the realm ofnothingness and the realm of neither perception nor non-perception.27 A.N. vol. 4, The Book of the Nines (9,4,39), p. 290-91, Hare.

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    Vimuttidhamma 23

    The Yogi in States of Jhna

    Following are various arguments against the practice of jhna fromthose who see no benets or advantages of a mind in absorptionconcentration orjhnacitta.

    Firstly, jhna causes practitioners to attach themselves to itspleasure and become more likely to be misled. Most of those whohold this attitude have never had the experience of jhnacitta.Or even if experienced, they fail to develop prociency in it.Therefore, they do not see its invaluable benets.

    Secondly, attaining the path or fruition does not necessarilyrequire appansamdhi (absorption concentration).28Khanikasamdhi(momentary concentration) orupacrasamdhi(access concentration)should sufce. Truly speaking, attaining the path and fruitionrequires the masterful and skilled balancing of the culminating

    powers of tranquility and insight. The concentrative power mustat least reach the level of absorption concentration in the rstjhna, which is considered the factor of right concentration inthe eightfold path.

    It is possible forsekkha29 persons to attain jhna in the verymoment they attain the rst path and fruition. After that, theymight not be able to raise their mind to jhna again. However, foronce-returners wishing to attain the higher level of non-returning,they must experience and gain prociency in jhna before theycan attain the third path.

    28 Sometimes called attainment concentration or full concentration. It is the concentrationexisting during absorption in jhna. Access concentration (sometimes called sustainedattention, in Pli upacrasamdhi) only approaches the rst jhna without attaining it, andmomentary concentration (sometimes called attention stillness, in Pli khanikasamdhi)is a state prior to access concentration.

    29 Sekkha literally means a learner. It signies a person who has reached one ofthe earlier stages of magga, but not the last, so has still to undergo a higher learning.

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    standard PracticeFor LiBeration24

    The third argument against jhna practice is that there are

    known cases of those who attained absorption concentration andhad prociency in supernormal powers, but still were not ableto attain the noble truth. The most frequently mentioned personsare Asitta yogi (Kladevin yogi), who enjoyed visiting heavens,lra yogi, who attained the seventh jhna, and Udaka yogi, whoattained the eighth jhna.

    These commentators may have forgotten that the only types

    of beings who are able to develop vipassan (insight)30 withoutrelying on other peoples wisdom are the Buddha or solitary

    buddhas.31 These three yogis did not possess the qualities thatwould enable them to be Buddha nor had the Buddha been born

    to the world during their time. How could they, then, attain maggaby themselves?

    After attaining enlightenment, the Buddha at rst hesitatedto teach the Dhamma as the knowledge attained by him was soprofound, complicated and difcult to understand. Then, afteremerging from contemplation at the end of a seven day retreat, theLord approached the Banyan tree of the goatherds. While stayingthere and meditating in seclusion, a thought arose in his mind:

    This Dhamma, [known] by me, is deep, difcult to see,difcult to understand, peaceful, excellent, beyond dialectic,subtle, intelligible to the learned. But this is a creation delightingin sensual pleasure, delighted by sensual pleasure, rejoicing insensual pleasure. So for a creation delighting in sensual pleasure,delighted by sensual pleasure, rejoicing in sensual pleasure,

    30 Insight, or wisdom, attained through direct meditative observation, is the decisive

    liberating factor of the Lord Buddhas teaching.31 A solitary buddha attains enlightenment by himself, but does not teach others.

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    this would be a matter difcult to see, that is to say causal uprising

    by way of cause. This too is a matter very difcult to see, that isto say the calming of all the habitual tendencies, the renunciationof all attachment, the destruction of craving, dispassion, stopping,nibbna. And so if I were to teach Dhamma and others were notto understand me, this would be a weariness to me, this wouldbe a vexation to me.

    And further, these verses not heard before occurred

    spontaneously to the Lord:

    This that through many toils Ive won

    Enough! Why should I make it known?

    By folk with lust and hate consumed

    This Dhamma is not understood.

    Leading on against the stream,Subtle, deep, difcult to see, delicate,

    Unseen twill be by passions slaves

    Cloaked in the murk of ignorance.32

    However, he later changed his mind. And he pondered:

    Now, to whom should I rst teach Dhamma? Who will understandthis Dhamma quickly? Then he thought: Indeed, this lra theKlma and Udaka are learned, experienced, wise, and for along time they have had only little dust in their eyes. SupposeI were to teach Dhamma rst to them? They will understand thisDhamma quickly.33

    32 The Book of Discipline vol. 4 , Mah-vagga I, p. 6, Horner.33 Ibid., p.10.

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    There is no concentration for one who lacks wisdom.

    Nor is there wisdom for one who lacks concentration.In whom there are found both concentration and wisdom,

    Are indeed in the presence of nibbna.34

    f Md p lii

    1.Dukkha patipad dandhbhi painfulprogress with sluggish direct knowledge.

    2.Dukkha patipad khippbhi painfulprogress with swift direct knowledge.

    3. Sukha patipad dandhbhi pleasantprogress with sluggish direct knowledge.

    4. Sukha patipad khippbhi pleasant

    progress with swift direct knowledge.

    pi p wih sih Dic Kwd

    And of what sort, monks, is the painful mode of progress withsluggish [direct knowledge]?

    In this case, a monk lives contemplating the loathsomenessin the body, aware of the repulsiveness of food, aware of hisdistaste for all the world, aware of impermanence in all activities.Thus awareness of death is implanted in the very self. He livesdependent on these ve powers of a pupil: the power of faith,the power of modesty, the power of self-restraint, the power

    34 K.N. Dhammapada, Verses on Bhikkhu, p. 402, trans. by Sathienpong Wannapok,The Buddhas Verses in Dhammapada, published in commemoration of the crematory

    rite of Mrs. Premsri Khemasingkhi, 4 April 1999, Phra Sri Mahadhathu Royal Temple,Bangkok.

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    Vimuttidhamma 27

    of energy, and the power of wisdom. But in him these ve controlling

    faculties are dully manifested, to wit: the controlling faculty offaith, that of energy, that of mindfulness, that of concentration, andthe controlling faculty of wisdom. Thus, owing to the dullness ofthese ve controlling faculties, sluggish is his attainment of theconcentration that follows on for the destruction of the savas(cankers or delements). This, monks, is called the mode ofprogress that is painful with sluggish [direct knowledge].

    pi p wih swi Dic Kwd

    And of what sort, monks, is the mode of progress that is painful,but with swift [direct knowledge]?

    In this case a monk lives contemplating the unloveliness

    in the body same (as above). But in him these ve controlling

    faculties are manifested in abundance, to wit: the controllingfaculty of faith.... Thus, owing to the preponderance of these vecontrolling faculties, swift is his attainment of the concentrationthat follows on for the destruction of the savas. This, monks, iscalled the mode of progress that is painful but with swift [directknowledge].

    p p wih sih Dic Kwd

    And of what sort, monks, is the mode of progress that is pleasantbut with sluggish [direct knowledge]?

    In this case a monk, aloof from sense-desires, aloof from evilconditions enters upon the rst [jhna] the second [jhna]the third [jhna]the fourth [jhna], a state of neither ease nor

    discomfort, an equanimity of utter purity, and having attained it,

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    abides therein. He lives dependent on these ve powers of a pupil:

    the power of faith.... But in him these ve controlling facultiesare dully manifested, to wit... Thus, owing to the dullness ofthese ve controlling faculties, sluggish is his attainment of theconcentration that follows on for the destruction of the savas.This, monks, is called the mode of progress that is pleasant, butwith sluggish [direct knowledge].

    p p wih swi Dic Kwd

    And of what sort, monks, is the mode of progress that is bothpleasant and accompanied by swift [direct knowledge]?

    In this case a monk, aloof from sense-desire (same asabove) But in him these ve controlling faculties are manifestedin abundance... Thus, owing to the preponderance of these ve

    controlling faculties, swift is his attainment of the concentration thatfollows on for the destruction of the savas.This, monks, is calledthe mode of progress that is both pleasant and is accompanied byswift [direct knowledge].

    So these are the four modes of progress.35

    35 A.N. vol. 2, The Book of the Fours (9, 17, 163) p. 156, Woodward.

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    Ci s

    Pray, Master Gotama, of what sort is that high, broad couchcelestial which the worthy Gotama gets here and now as he pleases

    without toil and trouble?

    In this case, Brahmin, when I am living dependent on a certainvillage or suburb, I get myself robed in the forenoon, and takingbowl and outer robe I enter that village or suburb to beg. When Ireturn from my alms-round and have eaten my meal, I make forthe edge of a forest. There I gather together whatever grasses orleaves there are into one place and sit down cross-legged, holdingmy body straight and setting mindfulness in front of me. Thusaloof from sense-desires, aloof from unprotable states of mind, Ienter on the rst [jhna] second [jhna]... third [jhna] fourth[jhna], free of pain and free of pleasure, a state of perfect purityof balance and equanimity.

    Now, Brahmin, when I have reached such a state, if I walk upand down, at such time my walking is to me celestial. If I stand,at such time my standing is to me celestial. If I sit, my sitting is tome celestial. If I lie down, ci i h hih, d cch I in. That, Brahmin, is what I mean when I speak of the high, broadcouch celestial which I get as I please without toil and trouble.36

    36 A.N. vol. 1, The Book of the Threes (3,7,63), p. 165-66, Woodward.

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    pw h Mid

    Monks, endowed with seven things, a monk makes the mind turnaccording to his wish and turns not by the minds wish.What seven?

    Herein, monks, a monk is skilled in concentration, skilledin attaining it, skilled in maintaining it, skilled in emerging fromit, skilled in the well-being of it, skilled in the range of it, skilledin applying it.

    Verily, monks, endowed with these seven things a monkmakes the mind turn according to his wish and turns not by the

    minds wish.37

    Widm gd m Cci

    Wise and mindful, you should develop immeasurableconcentration.38 When, wise and mindful, one has developedimmeasurable concentration, ve realizations arise right withinones self. Which ve?

    The realization arises right within oneself that This concentrationis blissful in the present and will result in bliss in the future.

    The realization arises right within oneself that This concentrationis noble and not connected with the baits of the esh.

    The realization arises right within oneself that Thisconcentration is not obtained by base people.

    The realization arises right within oneself that This concentrationis peaceful, exquisite, the acquiring of serenity, the attainment ofunity, not kept in place by the fabrications of forceful restraint.

    37 A.N. vol. 4, The Book of the Sevens (3,4,39), p. 20, Hare.

    38 Concentration based on the four boundless states (also called the sublime states orattitudes) of loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity.

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    The realization arises right within oneself that I i

    hi cncnin mindfully, nd mindfully I mg fm i.

    Wise and mindful, one should develop immeasurable concentration.When, wise and mindful, one has developed immeasurableconcentration, these ve realizations arise right within oneself.39

    Mid Did Hidc40

    Just as a man who had k to develop his business,and whose business had prospered, might pay off his old debts,and with what was left over could support a wife, might think:Before this I developed my business by borrowing but now ithas prospered and he would rejoice and be glad about that.

    Just as a man who was i, suffering, terribly sick, with noappetite, and weak in body, might after a time recover and regainhis appetite and bodily strength, and he might think: Before thisI was ill but now I have recovered and he would rejoice and

    be glad about that.

    Just as a man might be bound i i, and after a time hemight be freed from his bonds without any loss, with no deductionfrom his possessions. He might think: Before this I was in prison

    but now I am free and he would rejoice and be glad about that.Just as a man might be a lv, not his own master, dependent

    on another, unable to go where he liked, and after some time hemight be freed from slavery, able to go where he liked, mightthink: Before this I was a slave but now I am my own masterand he would rejoice and be glad about that.

    39 A.N., The Book of the Fives (5.27), Bhikkhu Thanissaro , ATI.

    40 The ve hindrances (nvarana) are sensous desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessnessand anxiety, and doubt.

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    Just as a man, laden with goods and wealth, might go on a

    lng juny through the desert where food was scarce and dangerabounded, and after a time he would get through the desert andarrive safe and sound at the edge of a village, might think: Beforethis I was in danger, now I am safe at the edge of a village... andhe would rejoice and be glad about that.

    As long, Sir, as a monk does not perceive the disappearanceof the ve hindrances in himself, he feels as if in debt, in sickness,

    in bonds, in slavery, on a desert journey. But when he perceivesthe disappearance of ve hindrances in himself, it is as if he werefreed from debt, from sickness, from bonds, from slavery, fromthe perils of the desert.41

    th f

    In the same way, monks, when a disciple of the noble ones isendowed with seven true qualities (saddhamma) and can obtainat will without difculty, without trouble the four jhnas,heightened mental states that provide a pleasant abiding in the

    here-and-now, he is said to be a disciple of the noble ones whocant be undone by Mra, cant be undone by the Evil One.

    Now, with which seven true qualities is he endowed?

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has a foundation post

    deeply rooted, well embedded, immovable, and unshakable forthe protection of those within and to ward off those without; in the

    same way a disciple of the noble ones has [faith], is convinced ofthe Tathgatas awakening: Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy andrightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge and conduct,well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those

    41 D.N., Smaaphala Sutta, p. 101-102, Walshe.

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    persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human and divine beings,

    awakened, blessed. Wih [ih] hi di , thedisciple of the noble ones abandons what is unskillful, developswhat is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops whatis blameless, and looks after himself with purity. With this rsttrue quality is he endowed.

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has a moat, both deep andwide, for the protection of those within...; in the same way, the

    disciple of the noble ones has a sense of shame. He feels shame at[the thought of engaging in] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct,mental misconduct. He feels shame at falling into evil, unskillfulactions. Wih hm hi m, the disciple of the noble onesabandons what is unskillful,.... With this second true quality ishe endowed.

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has an encircling road, both

    high and wide, for the protection of those within...; in the sameway, the disciple of the noble ones has a sense of concern. He feelsconcern for [the suffering that results from] bodily misconduct,verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. He feels concern at fallinginto evil, unskillful actions. Wih cncn hi ncicling d,the disciple of the noble ones abandons what is unskillful.... Withthis third true quality is he endowed.

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has many weapons stored,both arrows and things to be hurled, for the protection of thosewithin...; in the same way, the disciple of the noble ones hasheard much, has retained what he has heard, has stored what hehas heard. Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning,admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that, in their meaningand expression, proclaim the holy life that is entirely complete

    and pure: those he has listened to often, retained, discussed,

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    accumulated, examined with his mind, and well-penetrated in

    terms of his views. Wih i hi w, the discipleof the noble ones abandons what is unskillful.... With this fourthtrue quality is he endowed.

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has a large army stationed

    within elephant soldiers, cavalry, charioteers, bowmen,standard-bearers, billeting ofcers, soldiers of the supply corps,noted princes, commando heroes, infantry, and slaves for the

    protection of those within...; in the same way, a disciple of thenoble ones keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful

    mental qualities and taking on skillful mental qualities, is steadfast,solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillfulmental qualities. Wih ic hi my, the disciple ofthe noble ones abandons what is unskillful.... With this fth truequality is he endowed.

    Just as the royal frontier fortress has a gate-keeper wise,experienced, intelligent to keep out those he doesnt knowand to let in those he does, for the protection of those within...;in the same way, a disciple of the noble ones is mindful, highlymeticulous, remembering and able to call to mind even thingsthat were done and said long ago. Wih mid hi -k, the disciple of the ones abandons what is unskillful....

    With this sixth true quality is he endowed.Just as the royal frontier fortress has ramparts high and

    thick and completely covered with plaster for the protection

    of those within...; in the same way, a disciple of the noble onesis discerning, endowed with discernment leading to the arisingof the goal noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of[suffering]. Wih dicm hi ci , the

    disciple of the noble ones abandons what is unskillful.... With thisseventh true quality is he endowed.

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    These are the vn u qulii with which he is endowed.

    And which are the four jhnas heightened mental statesthat provide a pleasant abiding in the here-and-now that he

    can obtain at will, without difculty, without trouble?

    Just as a royal frontier fortress has large stores of grass,timber and water for the delight, convenience, and comfort ofthose within, and to ward off those without; in the same way, thedisciple of the noble ones, quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures,withdrawn from unskillful qualities, enters and remains in therst jhna rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal,accompanied by directed thought and evaluation for his owndelight, convenience, and comfort, and to alight on unbinding.

    Just as a royal frontier fortress has large stores of rice and

    barley for the delight,... in the same way, the disciple of the noble

    ones, with the stilling of directed thoughts and evaluations, entersand remains in the second jhna rapture and pleasure bornof composure, unication of awareness free from directed

    thought and evaluation internal assurance for his owndelight....

    Just as a royal frontier fortress has large stores of sesame,green [beans], and other beans for the delight,... in the same

    way, the disciple of the noble ones, with the fading of rapture,he remains equanimous, mindful, and alert, and senses pleasurewith the body. He enters and remains in the third jhna, of whichh dc, eqim d mid, h h

    idi, for his own delight....

    Just as a royal frontier fortress has large stores of tonics ghee,fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses, and salt for the delight,... in

    the same way the disciple of the noble ones, with the abandoning

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    of pleasure and stress, as with the earlier disappearance of elation

    and distress, enters and remains in the fourth jhna purity ofequanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain forhis own delight....

    These are the four jhnas heightened mental states thatprovide a pleasant abiding in the here-and-now that he can

    obtain at will, without difculty, without trouble.

    When a disciple of the noble ones is endowed with

    these seven true qualities and can obtain at will without

    difculty, without trouble these four jhnas, heightenedmental states that provide a pleasant abiding in the here-and-

    now, he is said to be a disciple of the noble ones who cannotbe undone by Mra, cannot be undone by the Evil One.42

    exici s p wih achmMonks, there are these ve strings of sensuality. Which ve?Forms cognizable via the eye agreeable, pleasing, charming,endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Sounds cognizable via theear agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire,enticing. Aromas cognizable via the nose agreeable, pleasing,charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Tastes cognizable

    via the tongue agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing,fostering desire, enticing. Tactile sensations cognizable via thebody agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire,enticing. These are the ve strings of sensuality.

    And any priests or contemplatives tied to these ve strings ofsensuality infatuated with them, having totally fallen for them,consuming them without seeing their drawbacks or discerning

    the escape from them should be known as having met with

    42 A.N., The Book of Sevens (7.63), Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    misfortune, having met with ruin; Mra can do with them as he

    will. Just as if a wild deer were to lie bound on a heap of snares:it should be known as having met with misfortune, having metwith ruin; the hunter can do with it as he will. When the huntercomes, it wont get away as it would like. In the same way, anypriests or contemplatives tied to these ve strings of sensuality....

    But any priests or contemplatives not tied to these ve stringsof sensuality uninfatuated with them, having not totally fallen

    for them, consuming them while seeing their drawbacks anddiscerning the escape from them should be known as not having

    met with misfortune, not having met with ruin; Mra cannot dowith them as he will. Just as if a wild deer were to lie unboundon a heap of snares: it should be known as not having met with

    misfortune, not having met with ruin; the hunter cannot do withit as he will. When the hunter comes, it will get away as it would

    like. In the same way, any priests or contemplatives not tied tothese ve strings of sensuality....

    Suppose that a wild deer is living in a wilderness glen. Carefreeit walks, carefree it stands, carefree it sits, carefree it lies down.Why is that? Because it has gone beyond the hunters range. Inthe same way, a monk quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures,withdrawn from unskillful qualities enters and remains in the

    rst jhna: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompaniedby directed thought and evaluation. This monk is said to haveblinded Mra. Trackless, he has destroyed Mras vision and hasbecome invisible to the Evil One.

    Then again the monk,... enters and remains in the secondjhna,... enters and remains in the third jhna,... enters and remainsin the fourth jhna,... enters and remains in the dimension of the

    boundless space,... enters and remains in the dimension of theboundless of consciousness,... enters and remains in the dimension

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    of nothingness,... enters and remains in the dimension of neither

    perception nor non-perception,... enters and remains in thecessation of perception and feeling. And, having seen [that] withdiscernment, his mental fermentations are completely ended. Thismonk is said to have blinded Mra. Trackless, he has destroyedMras vision and has become invisible to the Evil One. Hicd , h i chd i h wd. Carefree he walks,carefree he stands, carefree he sits, carefree he lies down. Why is

    that? Because he has gone beyond the Evil Ones range.43

    He must notice bliss, serenity and bright light,

    and he must merely note them pass with insight.

    43 M.N., Ariyapariyesan Sutta (26), Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    fi 1: fy tchiq Cci exci44

    44 Buddhadhamma, p. 855*Kasia is the name for a purely external device to produce and develop concentrationof mind and attain the four jhnas. The ten objects of kasia concentration are earth,water, re, air, color of blue, yellow, red, and white, space and light. See Chapter Eightfor more detail.

    Cci chiq

    Diiit for eachchiq

    l achim

    Lustfultemperament

    Hatefultemperament

    Deludedtemperament

    Faithfultemperament

    Intelligenttemperament

    Distractedtemperament

    Conceptualizedimage

    Accessconcentration

    Firstjhna

    Secondjhna

    Thirdjhna

    Fourthjhna

    Thefourarpajhnas

    tKasia*dic

    - 4 color devices x o o o o o o

    - Other kasia devices x x x x x x o o o o o o

    10 wy c cmi x o o o

    10 Mid cci

    - First six types of mindfulness x o

    - Recollection of peace x o- Mindfulness of death x o

    - Mindfulness of body x o o o

    - Mindfulness of breathing x x o o o o o o

    sim s (Appama)

    - First three of sublime states(loving kindness, compassion andsympathetic joy)

    x o o o o

    - Equanimity x o o

    Concentration on loathsomeness

    of food

    x o

    Analysis of four elements (earth,water, re, air)

    x o

    Arpa

    - ksnacyatana x x x x x x o o 1

    - Vinacyatana x x x x x x o o 2

    - kicayyatana x x x x x x o o 3

    - Nevasansayatana x x x x x x o o 4

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    rih Cci

    And what is right concentration? There is the case where a monk

    quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful[mental] qualities enters and remains in the rst jhna: raptureand pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directedthought and evaluation.

    With the stilling of directed thoughts and evaluations, heenters and remains in the second jhna: rapture and pleasureborn of composure, unication of awareness free from directedthought and evaluation internal assurance.

    With the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful,and alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters and remainsin the third jhna, of which the noble ones declare, Equanimousand mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.

    With the abandoning of pleasure and pain as with the earlierdisappearance of elation and distress he enters and remains in

    the fourth jhna: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neitherpleasure nor pain. This is called right concentration.45

    f Kid Cci

    Monks, these are the four developments of concentration. Whichfour?

    There is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the hereand now. There is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge

    45 D.N., (22) Mah-Satipahna Sutta, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.

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    and vision. There is the development of concentration that, when

    developed and pursued, leads to mindfulness and alertness. Thereis the development of concentration that, when developed andpursued, leads to the ending of the [savas].

    And what is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the hereand now?

    There is the case where a monk quite withdrawn from

    sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities enters and remainsin the rst jhna..., enters and remains in the second jhna..., heenters and remains in the third jhna..., he enters and remains inthe fourth jhna.... thi i h dm ccih, whn dvld nd uud, ld ln iding

    i h h d w.

    And what is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledgeand vision?

    There is the case where a monk attends to the perception of

    light and is resolved on the perception of daytime [at any hour ofthe day]. Day [for him] is the same as night, night is the same asday. By means of an awareness open and unhampered, he develops

    a brightened mind. thi i h dm ccih, wh dd d d, d h im kwd d ii.

    And what is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to mindfulness and alertness?

    There is the case where feelings are known to the monk as they

    arise, known as they persist, known as they subside. Perceptionsare known to him as they arise, known as they persist, known as

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    they subside. Thoughts are known to him as they arise, known

    as they persist, known as they subside. thi i h dm cci h, wh dd d d, d

    mid d .

    And what is the development of concentration that, whendeveloped and pursued, leads to the ending of the efuents?

    There is the case where a monk remains focused on arising

    and falling away with reference to the ve clinging-aggregates46:Such is form, such its origination, such its passing away. Suchis feeling, such its origination, such its passing away. Such isperception, such its origination, such its passing away. Such arefabrications, such their origination, such their passing away. Suchis consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.thii h dvlmn f cncnin h, whn dvld nd

    pursued, leads to the ending of the savas.

    These are the four developments of concentration.47

    Mind Inclined to Nibbna

    Monks, just as the river Ganges slants, slopes, and inclinestowards the east, so too a monkwh d d ci

    the four jhnas slants, slopes, and inclines towards nibbna48

    .

    46 These are the ve aspects of all the physical and mental phenomena of existencewhich appear to the ignorant man as his ego. They are corporeality (form), feeling,perception, mental formations (also called fabrications) and consciousness.47 A.N., The Book of the Fours (4.41), Bhikkhu Thanissaro, ATI.48 The highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist practices; the absolute extinction of

    that life-afrming will manifested as greed, hate, ignorance and clinging to existence;absolute and ultimate deliverance from suffering and rebirth.

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    And how, monks, does a monk who develops and cultivates

    the four jhnas slant, slope, and incline towards nibbna?Here, monks, secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded fromunwholesome states, a monk enters and dwells in the rst jhna... the second jhna... the third jhna... the fourth jhna.

    It is in this way, monks, that a mnk wh dvlpand cultivates the four jhnas slants, slopes, and inclines

    towards nibbna.

    Monks, there are these ve higher fetters. What ve?

    Lust for form, lust for the formless, conceit, restlessness,ignorance. These are the ve higher fetters.49th jhare to be developed for direct knowledge of these ve higher, h ll ndanding hm, hi

    dci, hi di.

    What four? Here, monks, secluded from sensual pleasures,secluded from unwholesome states, a monk enters and dwells in therst jhna... the second jhna... the third jhna... the fourth jhna.

    These four jhnas are to be developed for direct knowledgeof these ve higher fetters, for the full understanding of them, fortheir utter destruction, for their abandoning.50

    49 The higher fetters of the non-returner or angm are attachment to the form realms,

    attachment to the formless realms, conceit, restlessness and ignorance.50 S.N., Mah-vagga, Jhna-sayutta (1), p. 1762-64, Bhikkhu Bodhi.

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    Sriputta, Son of the Lord Buddha

    I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying in

    Svatth at Jetas Grove, Anthapindikas monastery. There headdressed the monks, saying, Monks.

    Yes, Lord, the monks responded to him.

    The Blessed One said, Monks, Sriputta is wise, of greatdiscernment, deep discernment, wide... joyous... rapid... quick...

    penetrating discernment. For half a month, Sriputta clearly sawinsight into mental qualities one after another. This is what occurredto Sriputta through insight into mental qualities one after another:

    Dhamma in the First Jhna

    There was the case where Sriputta quite secluded from

    sensuality, secluded from unskillful qualities entered andremained in the rst jhna: rapture and pleasure born of seclusion,accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.

    Whatever qualities there are in the rst jhna directedthought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, [one-pointedness] of mind,contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire,decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, and attention

    he ferreted them out one after another. Known to him they arose,known to him they remained, known to him they subsided. Hediscerned, So this is how these qualities, not having been, comeinto play. Having been, they vanish. He remained unattracted andunrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached,released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. Hediscerned that There is a further escape, and pursuing it, there

    really was for him.

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    Dhamma in the Second Jhna

    Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts and evaluations,Sriputta entered and remained in the second jhna: rapture andpleasure born of composure, unication of awareness free fromdirected thought and evaluation internal assurance.

    Whatever qualities there are in the second jhna internalassurance, rapture,... he ferreted them out one after another.Known to him they arose....

    Dhamma in the Third Jhna

    Furthermore, with the fading of rapture, Sriputta remainingin equanimity, mindful and alert, and physically sensitive topleasure entered and remained in the third jhna, of which thenoble ones declare, Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasant

    abiding.

    Whatever qualities there are in the third jhna equanimity,pleasure,... he ferreted them out one after another. Known tohim they arose....

    Dhamma in the Fourth Jhna

    Furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress aswith the earlier disappearance of elation and distress Sriputtaentered and remained in the fourth jhna: purity of equanimityand mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain.

    Whatever qualities there are in the fourth jhna a feelingof equanimity, neither pleasure nor pain; an unconcern due toserenity of awareness,... he ferreted them out one after another.Known to him they arose....

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    Dhmm i h rm bd sc

    Furthermore, with the complete transcending of perceptionsof [physic