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Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office 1 Unit Cost of Investment in Agriculture & Allied Activities December 2015 कनाटक Karnataka ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ‡ãðŠãäÓã ‚ããõÀ ØãÆã½ããè¥ã ãäÌã‡ãŠãÔã ºãö‡ãŠ, NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Regional Office, Karnataka:- NABARD Towers, Third Floor B Wing, Post Bag No.- 9944, 46, Kempe Gowda Road,Bangalore - 560 009. Tel: 080 22076400, Fax: 2222 2148 E-mail : [email protected], [email protected]

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Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

1

Unit Cost of Investment in Agriculture & Allied Activities

December 2015

कर्नाटक

Karnataka

ÀãÓ›Èãè¾ã ‡ãðŠãäÓã ‚ããõÀ ØãÆã½ããè¥ã ãäÌã‡ãŠãÔã ºãö‡ãŠ,

NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Regional Office, Karnataka:-

NABARD Towers, Third Floor – B Wing,

Post Bag No.- 9944,

46, Kempe Gowda Road,Bangalore - 560 009.

Tel: 080 – 22076400, Fax: 2222 2148

E-mail : [email protected], [email protected]

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

2

Title Unit Cost for Farm Sector Investments

Written and Published by Department of Refinance

NABARD, Karnataka Regional Office, Bangalore

Date of Publishing December 2015

Design & Printing M/s Arunashri Printers

Place of printing Bangalore

Number of copies 300

Contact National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

Karnataka Regional Office

#46, NABARD Tower, Kempe Gowda Road,

Bengaluru – 560009.

Karnataka, India. Tel: 22223125

Email [email protected]

Website www.nabard.org, www.youtube.com/nabardonline

2015 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development unless otherwise stated in

this document, no part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by

any means without the written authorization from NABARD

Disclaimer

NABARD does not accept any financial liability to anyone using this report for any

purpose. The costs and parameters suggested are based on information available with NABARD. All Unit costs are indicative in nature and there may be variations based on field /local conditions. Banks/ government agencies may assess the credit requirement, considering the field level situations and keeping in view the technical feasibility, financial viability and also the bankability of the investments.

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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FOREWORD One of the biggest challenges experienced by the Indian economy is enhancing viability of agriculture. In this context, capital formation “in” and “for” agriculture is of critical importance for the sustainability of agricultural growth, and accordingly, NABARD flagged capital formation in rural economy as the thrust area for the year. Capital Formation is all the more important in agriculture where we are faced with the task of increasing production to keep pace with the increase in population against the odds of the vagaries of monsoon. Capital formation is positively affected by terms of trade, technology and institutional credit. It is in this context, the importance of ensuring adequate flow of investment credit into agriculture and allied sectors assumes greater emphasis.

In this context, NABARD, as the apex development financial institution engaged in promoting agriculture and rural development through various promotional/ developmental initiatives and refinance support, had been convening meetings of State Level Unit Cost Committee (SLUCC) over the years, for fixing unit costs for investments under various farm sector activities to facilitate adequate quantum of credit flow to technically feasible, economically viable and bankable projects.

The last revision of Unit Cost had taken place during March 2014. Since then, our District Development Managers and Technical Officers have received inputs on various new activities for which fixing of Unit Cost was pertinent. Also, as the package of practices of some of the crops / activities have undergone substantial changes, which necessitated revision of those Unit Costs. The unit costs are arrived at after consultative process based on information received from banks, line departments, researchers, field studies conducted by NABARD, feedback from progressive farmers, etc. The costs were finalized at a meeting of the SLUCC convened during October 2015 at NABARD Regional Office , Bengaluru in which officials from various Government Departments, Universities, research institutes, bankers and other stakeholders had participated. The Costs approved by the Committee are only indicative in nature and the Financial Institutions/ Government agencies may assess the credit requirement considering the field level situations and keeping in view the technical feasibility, financial viability and also the bankability of the investments.

This booklet is intended to serve as a ready reckoner to banks and other agencies engaged in agriculture and rural development in Karnataka. We welcome feedback from banks, line departments and developmental agencies with intention to improve the document and further refine it during the next round of exercise. Any suggestions for updating the unit costs and other improvements are welcome from all quarters. I would also like to acknowledge the support and cooperation extended by different line departments, banks, farmers, and technical officers of NABARD and all others who helped in bringing out this Hand Book. I am confident that our various partners in promotion of agriculture and rural development viz; Planners, Administrators, Bankers, Developmental Agencies and agripreneurs will be immensely benefited by this booklet. M I Ganagi Chief General Manager

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Contents

1

CHAPTER 1- WATER RESOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 5

CHAPTER 2- LAND DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................................................... 12

CHAPTER 3 - FARM MECHANISATION .................................................................................................................. 18

CHAPTER 4 – HORTICULTURE ............................................................................................................................... 22

CHAPTER 5 – SERICULTURE .................................................................................................................................. 25

CHAPTER 6 – FORESTRY ....................................................................................................................................... 27

CHAPTER 7 – ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ..................................................................................................................... 28

CHAPTER 9- STORAGE GODOWNS, POLYHOUSES & SHADE NETS ........................................................................ 45

CHAPTER 10 - RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ................................................... 52

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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CHAPTER 1- WATER RESOURCES

Common Minor Irrigation Investments (Amt. in `)

Sl. No.

Particulars Unit Cost (`) Remarks

1 Bore well (BW) a) 152 mm dia. and depth 200 m b) 152 mm dia. and depth 300 m

Details as per Annexure - A 1,34,000/- 1,86,500/-

Repayment period – 11 to 15 years with 11 months gestation period (GP) Average benefitting area - BW with SIP >>1.6 to 2 ha.

2 Dug well (DW) Details as per Annexure - B Average benefitting area - DW with pump sets >> 1 ha.

3 Drip Irrigation Details as per Annexure - C Cost of norms of Central and State sponsored schemes should be adhered to.

4 Sprinkler Systems Details as per Annexure - D

5 Pump sets Details as per Annexure - E

6 Renovation/ Deepening of Wells

30,000/- 5 year repayment period including 11 months GP

7 Pump house with A.C Roof (2m x 2m x 2.1m) 3 H.P (2.5m x 2.5m x 2.1m) 5 H.P (2.7m x 2.7m x 2.4m) 10 HP At least 2 ventilators of size 60 cm X 90 cm be provided

20,000/- 31,000/- 39,000/-

9 years repayment Period including 11 months GP

8 Storage tank (ground level) (3.5x3.5x2.5m) in brick masonry with cement plastering

40,000/-

9 Pipeline distribution systems for Eell Command (ha.)

Per ha -> 22,000/-

10 Small lift irrigation schemes (command area generally varies between 10 and 40 ha)

66,000/- per ha.

7 to 9 years repayment period including 11 months GP

11 Rain water harvesting tank 10m X 10m X 3 m 8m X 8m X 3 m

40,000/- 34,000/-

5 years repayment period including 11 months GP

12 Rain water harvesting -cum-artificial recharge structures for bore wells for Irrigation (command area of 1.5 - 2 ha.)

46,500/-

5 years repayment period and one year GP

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Annexure A

i) Unit Cost of Bore Wells -200 m

ii) Unit Cost of Bore Wells -300 m

Sl. No. Particulars Design/ Specification Rate (`) Amount

1 G.I Pipe - for well 2.5'' dia & Depth 20 feet; Rate for per pipe

of 6 m length (20') - 50 Nos.

a 1300 65000

2

Drilling Charges

upto 50 m 325 16250

51 to 100 m 400 20000

101 to 150 m 450 22500

151 to 200 m 475 23750

201 to 300 m 500 50000

b 132500

3 Casing Pipe - G.I 175 mm dia, of 6 kg/cm2 - 18 m long;

Rate for per pipe of 6 m length (20')

c 1200 3000

b + c 135500

4 Miscellaneous L.S @ 5% of (b + c) = d 7000 7000

Total a + b + c + d 2,07,500

Sl. No. Particulars Design/ Specification Rate (`) Amount (`)

1 G.I Pipe - for well 2.5'' dia & Depth 20 feet; Rate for per pipe of 6 m length (20') - 33 Nos.

a 1300 42900

2

Drilling Charges

upto 50 m 325 16250

51 to 100 m 400 20000

101 to 150 m 450 22500

151 to 200 m 500 25000

B 83750

3 Casing Pipe - G.I 175 mm dia, of 6 kg/cm2 - 15 m long; Rate for per pipe of 6 m length (20')

c 1200 3000

b + c 86750

4 Miscellaneous L.S @ 5% of (b + c) = d 4350

Total a + b + c + d 134,000

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Dugwells in feasible districts

Annexure B

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS: For dug wells/ bore wells in over-exploited, critical and semi-critical areas

permission needs to be obtained from the Hydro geologists/ Officers concerned of the Dept. of Mines & Geology

and positively with the prior approval of the Karnataka Ground Water Authority.

Sl. No.

District Type of formations

Design Unit Cost (`) Excavation cost for Addl. Depth

Remarks

Dia (m) Depth (m) 12-14 m 14-15 m

1 Bagalkote Hard Rock 6 12 65600 26600 29900

Repayment period 11

to 15 years including 23 months GP

2 Bengaluru(U) Hard Rock 6 12 67800 11800 12500

3 Bengaluru(R) Hard Rock 6 12 67800 11800 12500

4 Belagavi Hard Rock 6 12 65600 26700 30000

5 Ballari Hard Rock 6 12 79200 24000 31300

6 Bidar Hard Rock 6 13.5 84700 24000 31300

7 Vijapura Hard Rock 6 12 65600 26700 30000

8 Chamarajnagar Hard Rock 6 12 63300 18500 22300

9 Chikkamagaluru Hard Rock 6 12 72300 15100 19000

10 Chikkaballapur Hard Rock 6 12 67800 11800 12500

11 Chitradurga Hard Rock 6 12 76900 22300 27300

12 Kodagu Hard Rock 6 12 70100 10900 11400

13 Dharwad Hard Rock 6 12 64400 25000 29800

14 Davanagere Hard Rock 6 12 76900 22300 27300

15

D. Kannada

Hard Rock 6 12 71800 10900 11400

Alluvium 4 7.5 42800 5900

16 Gadag Hard Rock 6 12 64400 25100 29800

17 Kalaburgi Hard Rock 6 13.5 84735 24045 31300

18 Yadgir Hard Rock 6 13.5 84750 24000 31300

19 Hassan Hard Rock 6 12 72300 15100 19000

20 Haveri Hard Rock 6 12 64400 25000 31300

21 Koppal Hard Rock 6 12 79200 24000 31300

22 Kolar Hard Rock 6 12 67800 11800 12500

23 Mandya Hard Rock 6 12 63300 18500 22300

24 Mysuru Hard Rock 6 12 63300 18500 22300

25 Ramanagara Hard Rock 6 12 63300 18500 22300

26 Raichur Hard Rock 6 12 79200 24000 31300

27 Shivamogga Hard Rock 6 12 76900 22300 27300

28 Tumakuru Hard Rock 6 12 68500 11800 12500

29

Udupi

Hard Rock 6 12 71800 10900 11400

Alluvium 4 12 42800 5900

30

U. Kannada

Hard Rock 6 12 66000 25100 29800

Alluvium 4 7.5 42200 5900

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ANNEXURE C

Drip Irrigation system for different crops (Amt. in `)

Sl. No.

Name of Crop Spacing (m) Models (Area & Plot Size) Remarks

Per Ha (125 m x 80 m

Repayment period 11 to 15 years including 23 months GP. Cost of norms of Central and State sponsored schemes should be adhered to wherever the schemes are in operation

1

Grapes

Anab-E-Shahi 3.5 x 7 33000

Thompson Seedless 3.5 x 1.75 63000

Thompson Seedless 1.8 x 1.20 90000

2 Pomegranate 4 x 4 40000

3 Coconut 8.1 x 8.1 30000

4 Guava 6 x 6 34700

5 Citrus crops 6 x 6 34700

6 Sapota 9.25 x .25 25000

7 Banana 1.8 x 1.8 68000

8 Ber 5.4 x 5.4 35000

9 Mango 10 x 10 24000

10 Oil Palm 9 x 9 25400

11 Arecanut 2.7 x 2.7 59000

12 Jasmine 1.2 x 1.2 64000

13 Papaya 2.4 x 2.4 71400

14 Rose 0.6 x 0.6 109000

15 Sugarcane 0.9 x 0.2 73700

16 Cotton 1.2 x 0.6 76500

17

Mulberry 0.9 x 0.9 94000

Mulberry 0.61x0.23 87000

ANNEXURE D : Sprinkler Irrigation (Raingun Type) systems

SI. No. Particulars Unit Size Unit Cost (`) Remarks

1. Field Crops (Vegetables/ Pulses)

63 mm HDPE pipes I ha. 27,000 Repayment period 10-15 years and 11 months GP. Cost of norms of Central and State sponsored schemes should be adhered to wherever the schemes are in operation.

75 mm HDPE pipes I ha. 32,000

2. Coffee/ Tea

90 mm HDPE pipes I ha. 60,000

Pumpsets*

Cost as per prevailing market rates

* Energy Efficient Pump sets : Star rated pump sets may be promoted and additional cost on energy efficient pump sets may be considered as per prevailing market conditions. To be considered along with well development, replacements in exploited/over exploited groundwater resource areas and other activities.

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS - MINOR IRRIGATION SCHEMES

(DW/BW/DOW/PUMP SETS, etc.) 1. Bank shall ensure that the ground water development programmes implemented in ‘safe ' watersheds and for the programme in semi- critical watersheds, it shall obtain concurrence from the Karnataka Ground Water Authority before extending the credit facility.

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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2. Spacing: The minimum spacing to be maintained between dug wells / bore wells, other minor irrigation structures shall be as under. a. Between two Dug wells with or without pump set: 180 m

b. Between two Bore wells with pump sets: 250 m c. Between Dug wells & Bore wells: 215 m 3. Renovation/ Deepening of Wells (DoW) a. Only those wells having insufficient water column during summer and need deepening to ensure adequate yield for meeting the water requirement of the crop shall be covered under the programme. b. The spacing norms (as indicated at para 3 above) between wells (including wells for drinking purpose) may be adhered to under DOW also.

4. Power Supply Before approving loan for electric pump sets, the bank shall satisfy itself that the village is electrified and that timely power supply would be available to the beneficiary for operation of the pump set. 5. Minimum acreage and sale of water It is necessary that the beneficiary has the following minimum land to be brought under irrigation to ensure availability of investment and repayment of loans within the prescribed periods: Structure Benefiting Area (ha.)

Dug well with Pump set 1.0 Bore well with SIP 1.6

If the beneficiary’s own irrigated area is smaller than the area which can be irrigated by well/ bore well, the beneficiary can sell surplus water to the neighbouring farms. The income from sale of water, if guaranteed, may also be reckoned for the purpose of viability of investments upto a maximum of 50% of loan repayment installment. 6. Selection and Installation of Pump sets a. The bank shall ensure that the pump sets financed under the scheme are selected and installed as per BIS:10804-1994 or latest editions. b. Wherever loan is advanced for replacement of existing pump set by new pump set or for replacement of diesel pump set by electric pump set, the bank shall ensure that there is no change in the HP of the pump set and that the new pump set installed is as per BIS 10804-1994, or latest edition. c. Bank shall ensure that the spacing criteria, as stipulated at Para 3 above, are adhered to, for the loans extended for pump sets also. d. Wherever loans are advanced for standby pump set, the bank may ensure that the standby unit is also selected as per BIS 10804-1994 and that the loans, both for existing pump set and the standby unit, are recovered together within the normal recommended repayment period.

The GoK has declared 2011-20 as

“Irrigation Decade”.

State Planning Board, on its vision document, has

set a goal of achieving 90% of ultimate irrigation

potential by 2020

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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e. Where higher HP pump set is required for use other than irrigation, with common prime mover, total HP of the pump set selected for agricultural use shall not exceed 1.5 times the HP required for irrigation purpose, subject to a maximum of 10 HP. f. In case of second hand pump sets financed under the scheme, if any, the bank shall ensure that the balance serviceable life of the second hand pump set is adequate to cover the repayment period of the loan for pump set. g. Capacitors: The electric motor financed should always be provided with a starter and a capacitor matching the motor. The following KVAR rating capacitors are recommended for use; Below 3 HP - 1 KVAR 3 HP to 5 HP - 2 KVAR 5 HP to 7.5 HP - 3 KVAR 7. After Sales Services The bank shall ensure that adequate after-sales services and repair facilities are provided by the manufacturers / dealers installing the pump set on beneficiaries’ wells and that such service is provided free of charge during the first year of installation. 9. Before advancing loans for underground pipelines for distribution system, bank shall verify the invoice order in regard to the quantity and quality of pipes required by the farmer and shall also ensure that the entire length of pipeline for which loans are advanced, are actually laid down. 8. Water Lifting Permission Wherever financing pump sets for lifting water from river/ canal is involved, a letter from the competent authority of the Department/ Agency concerned of the State Govt. permitting the beneficiary to lift water from river/ canal and indicating the period up to which such permission is provided should be obtained and furnished to the financing bank before sanctioning the loan. The bank may ensure that water lifting permission is available for a period which will cover atleast three more years longer than the repayment period of such loan sanctioned. 9. MICRO IRRIGATION SYSTEMS i. Drip Irrigation a. The bank should ensure that only a technically competent and approved firm or person designs and installs the system at the field level.

World Water Day-22, March

Water must be used more efficiently

and its waste reduced if the world is to

meet rising food demand from a fast-

expanding population amid the

pressures of climate change. World

Water day marked each year on March

22, the event focusses our attention on

water’s critical role in feeding the world.

The FAO says the world will have to

produce up to 70 percent more food to

feed a global population expected to

reach 9 billion people by 2050, from the

current 7 billion. That will require better

management of water, boosting

farmers’ resilience to climate shifts, and

cutting food and water waste

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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b. The installing agency should assess the water requirement of each plant optimum crop geometry, etc. and design the efficient system accordingly. The bank should insist for a field layout map showing the b enefiting area and item-wise cost estimate. c. Availability of design discharge of suitable chemical and physical quality on a long-term basis should be ensured for smooth operation of the system. d. The installing agency should furnish

performance guarantee for the efficient operation of the system for a minimum of 3 years period as also ensure timely and adequate post sales-service for trouble-free working of the system. e. The bank should carry out periodic monitoring of the implementation and assess the performance of the system at the field level. f. Bank should ensure to safeguard the pipes (main and lateral drips), emitters, etc., against theft, robbery, fire, etc. g. The system components to be installed should conform to the BIS Specification ii. Sprinkler Irrigation a. The bank should ensure that adequate water of suitable quality to cover the envisaged area is available at the nearest location.

b. The design of sprinkler system for the proposed cropping pattern should be done by a technically competent agency /person taking into consideration the source and availability of water, wind velocity in

different seasons, soil conditions, agro-climatic situations, etc. to ensure installation of most economical system at the farm level.

c. A plan of the area showing field layout and cost estimate of the system should be prepared by the implementing agency and appraised by the bank. d. The components of the system including pipes should conform to BIS standards. e. The implementing agency/manufacturers should offer performance guarantee for the operation of the system for a reasonably longer

period against any defect either manufacturing/ working or installation. The firm should extend regular post sales service for maintenance. f. The bank should conduct periodic monitoring visits to assess the performance of the system and take corrective steps, wherever required.

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CHAPTER 2- LAND DEVELOPMENT

Sl. No.

Particulars Indicative Unit Cost (`) Remarks

1. On Farm Development Works (OFD)– Earthwork in Leveling, Bunding, Field Channels and others

20,000/ha Repayment period 9 Years with annual installment

2.

Fencing

Barbed Wire with stone posts/Cement Pillars (7ft Pillar, High Quality ISO Mark steel wire). For solar & Battery power actual cost of Solar & Battery Power units may be considered

175/m Repayment period depends on the crop for which fencing is

provided

3.

Farm Ponds with a berm of 2m State Govt. norms to be adhered to

Dugout -30x30x3m 1,75,000 9 Years including 2years GP

Soft Murrum 30X30X3m 2,10,000

4.

Composting

For Dryland upto 5 acres (2 Tanks) 11,000 7 years including one year GP

For Dryland upto 5-10 acres (4 Tanks) 19,000

For mixed farm – Dry and Irrigated land upto 5 acres (4 Tanks)

22,000

5. Activities in Watershed/Watershed Development Works

As per WDF/State Govt. Watershed Development work

activity norms

Repayment period depends on the crop and cropping pattern

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS: a. The average unit cost of land development is arrived by taking into consideration the earth work involved in land development under different slope groups. Therefore, it is essential to know the corresponding area for each slope group of the total area to be developed. The total cost of the land development works can be then arrived by aggregating slope-group-wise cost of land development for the outlet command and adding cost of other essential structures such as distribution boxes, drop pits,

lining, outlets, stone - pitching etc. As the work has to be carried out as a complete package, the cost of construction of water courses and field drainage, wherever included, is considered as community item and apportioned against cultivators equally, whereas, land development being individual item, the cost is assessed on the basis of the area coming under each individual holding. Therefore, to arrive at actual requirements while lending, the bank shall arrange for preparation of plans and estimates by the concerned technical staff of the Agriculture / Soil Conservation / Command Area Development Depts. etc. In case of land development works in individual holdings of non CADA area, such

as well commands, LI commands, the banks may obtain estimates from some qualified agriculture engineers / soil conservation officers.

b. Land leveling, shaping, bunding construction of water courses and drains etc. shall be done as a package, in compact blocks, wherever possible.

Field channels

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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c. Necessary technical guidance and supervision may be provided by bank’s staff. Alternatively the bank shall satisfy itself that the required technical guidance and supervision is made available by the concerned department of the State Government.

d. The bank may satisfy itself that the State Government takes the following action under the scheme:

i. In case of large commands, the Government shall ensure proper maintenance of irrigation and drainage infrastructural works and encourage participatory irrigation management system.

ii. It shall suitably strengthen extension services so that farmers take up the latest farm management practices including adoption of suitable cropping systems, high yielding varieties seeds, fertilizers, plant protection measures etc.

iii. It shall be ensured that sufficient earth moving machinery is available in the area to be developed for the purpose of leveling and bunding if farmers are unable to take up the work by themselves.

iv. Development work has to be encouraged on command basis

v. Input supply to be ensured at proper time and place

vi Field to field irrigation is discouraged and separate field channels are used to convey irrigation water to various parts of the holding.

e. In case of shallow soil conditions, the width of the plots/strips should be reduced in order to avoid deep cutting and exposure of sub-soil. In cases where deep cutting up to sub-soil is unavoidable, other development measures like addition of silt may be ensured to restore soil productivity.

f. Adequate arrangements for drainage of excess water are to be ensured to prevent water logging conditions with associated ill effects.

g. Farm irrigation structures may be constructed appropriately to prevent soil erosion along irrigation channels within the holding.

h. While undertaking soil conservation in the existing gardens / plantations, care must be taken by selecting such structures and design which cause the least disturbance to the root system of existing crops.

i. In case of supplementary scheme/additional scheme, the proposal should contain a report on the performance of the sanctioned original / on-going scheme.

Technical Parameters in respect of Land Development Schemes for OFD works a. Graded bunds and outlet It may be necessary to construct big sized bunds of 0.45 sqm cross section on a grade of 0.2% to 0.6%

depending upon soil type to prevent erosion in the event of erratic rains when small bunds may get eroded. For paddy fields the grade of the bund will be kept at 0.1%. The base width of the bund is 1.65 m, height 0.45 m, top width 0.30 m while the side slope will be 1.25: 1 or 1.5: 1 according to soil type.

World Soil Day – 5, December

Approved on the 71st plenary meeting on 20 December 2013, the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution A/RES/68/232 decides to designate 5 December as World Soil Day affirming that soils constitute the foundation for agricultural development, essential ecosystem functions and food security and hence are key to sustaining life on Earth

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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b. Outlets to bunds Outlets to bunds are needed to drain off water. These will be constructed from grass sods or stone

pitching. Generally 1.5 m length along the bund and 3 m width is suggested. c. Crossing on field channel and field drain These shall be masonry structures constructed for transportation of material, machinery etc., without

disturbing the field channels or on small nallas. It should be ensured that construction of such crossing will be economically viable before actual construction is to be carried out. Big crossing may be avoided

as far as possible. d. OFD works - Land shaping, grading and leveling Following factors govern the choice of design for land shaping:

Direction and steepness of prevailing slope of land

Proposed method of irrigation

Rainfall characteristics and natural drainage

Cropping pattern

Size and shape of holding

Farmer view taking into account operational convenience

e. Specification of land shaping The maximum slope to be allowed after land is developed will be as under:

Sl. No. Crop System of Irrigation Slope

1 Rice Check basin Level in both directions

2 Others Border strip 0.6% along the direction of flow on the farm

Furrow 0.6% along the furrows 0.2% across the furrows

Check basin Level in both directions (0.2% slope in one direction may be allowed as an exception)

f. Norms for design of land shaping The following guidelines may be used for designing the width of the compartment in land having different slopes

Original maximum Slope of land (%)

Width of the compartment along the original slope Direction (m)

Minimum length of run (m)

0 to 0.6 30 to 40 100

0.6 to 1.0 30 100

1.01 to 2.0 20 100

2.01 to 3.0 15 100

3.01 to 4.0 15 100

> 4 Not economical for grading 100

i. In shallow soils, the width of a compartment may be reduced to 10 m if required. If the depth of soil is

less than 20 cm. No land grading should be done. Similarly, if the slope exceeds three percent, it may not be desirable to carry out standard leveling in shallow soils.

ii. A width of 10 m is quite ample for cultivation by bullock pair or small tractor.

Farm pond

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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iii. Depth of cut should be restricted to 30 cm. g. Cut/ fill ratios for various soils The value for cut/ fill ratios are given below.

Sl. No. Soil Cut/ fill ratio

1 Clay 1.3 : 1 to 1.4 : 1

2 Clay loam 1.2 : 1 to 1.3 : 1

3 Sandy 1.1 : 1 to 1.2 : 1

h. Cropping pattern and water requirement of crops:

Based on soil, climatic and other data, cropping systems, crop rotations and cropping patterns should be worked out. This should cover existing cropping pattern, Estimation of area and production of important crops in the command for each season.

Physical Norms for Land Development Works (to be decided as per local rates, DSR/SOR of State Govt./Department) Item-wise norms

Sl. No. Community items Units

1 Survey planning

i) Material cost and fixing charges of bench marks Variable rates (to be decided as per local rates)

ii) Survey, planning and designing charges including supervision charges at all stages

- do -

iii) Survey during construction - do -

2 Field Channels 80 m/ha (36.00 cu.m)

3 Grass sodding of the field channels 188 Sq.m/ ha

4 Division boxes on field channels 1/5 No.per ha.

5 Turn out at property head 1/2 No.per ha.

6 Drop on field channel for

0.0 to 0.6% slope Nil

0.61 to 1.0% slope 1 No.per ha

1.01 to 2.0% slope 2 No.per ha

2.01 to 3.0% slope 3 No.per ha

3.01 to 4.0% slope 4 No.per ha

7 Crossings on field channels 1/2 No.per ha

8 Field drains 100 m/ha (80 cu.m)

9 Grass sodding of field drains 194 Sq.m/ ha

10 Crossings on field drains 1/2 No.per ha

11 Graded bunds for Bund length in m/ha.

0.0 to 0.6% slope 50

0.61 to 1.0% slope 65

1.01 to 2.0% slope 125

2.01 to 3.0% slope 165

3.01 to 4.0% slope 225

12 Outlets to graded bunds (grass or stone) for

0.0 to 0.6% slope 1 No.per ha

0.61 to 1.0% slope 1 No.per ha

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Sl. No. Community items Units

1.01 to 2.0% slope 1 No.per ha

2.01 to 3.0% slope 2 Nos. per ha

3.01 to 4.0% slope 2 Nos. per ha

13 Pitching to structure for

0.0 to 0.6% slope 4 m/ ha

0.61 to 1.0% slope 8 m/ha

1.01 to 2.0% slope 12 m/ha

2.01 to 3.0% slope 16 m/ha

3.01 to 4.0% slope 20 m/ha

Community items of works - Computation procedure for unit cost (Model guidelines)

Sl. No. Items of work 1 to 2% (Physical norm) Norm

A Survey planning Variable rates (to be decided as per local rates)

i) Material cost and fixing charges of bench marks Variable rates (to be decided as per local rates)

ii) Survey, planning and designing charges including supervision charges at all stages

1 ha.

iii) Survey during construction for Part I 1 ha.

B Field Channels

i) Earth work (0.45 cu.m -Field channel section) 36.00 cum./Ha

ii) Grass sodding of field channel 187.70 Sqm. - say 188 Sqm.

iii) Division boxes at bifurcation points 1/5 No./ ha

iv) Turnover at property head ½ No./ha

v) Drops of field channels (FC) 2 Nos./ ha

vi) Crossing on FC ½ No./ ha

C. Field Drains (FD)

i) Earthwork (0.80 Sq.m FD) 100 m/ha.

ii) Grass sodding of FD 194 Sqm.

iii) Grass rapids on FD 2 Nos./ha

iv) Crossing on FD ½ No./ha

D Graded bunds

i) Earthwork (0.45 Sq..m) (bund section) 125 m/ha. (50.25 Sq.m)

ii Outlets to bunds 1 No./ha

Norms for unit cost development - Individual farmer’s field I. Irrigation system with the holding - a. Slope groups (%) i. 0.60 to 1.0 ii. 1.01 to 2.0 iii. 2.01 to 3.0 iv. 3.01 to 4.0 b. Internal irrigation channel i. earthwork for excavation (`/ cum) ii. drop on channel (`/ drop)

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c. Earthworks i. earthwork for excavation (`/ drop) ii. drop on channel (`/ drop) II. Land leveling and bunding (slope group-wise) III. Structures for irrigation and drainage per slope group-wise IV. Cost of unforeseen works (removal of bushes, stones etc.) V. Cost of land clearance (removal of bushes, boulders, stones etc.) VI. Total cost of Land development a) For Drylands slope group-wise b) For wet lands slope group-wise

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CHAPTER 3 - FARM MECHANISATION

Special Terms and Conditions - Farm Mechanization

1. New Tractors:

i. The borrower shall purchase a minimum of three

implements including a trailer, unless these

implements are already owned at the time of its

purchase. The implements should be of good

quality preferably of BIS standard and matching

with HP of the tractor.

ii. The tractor financed shall have the necessary

Commercial Test Report (CTR) as per BIS Code

issued by the Central Farm Machinery Training

and Testing Institute (CFMTTI), Budni, Madhya

Pradesh. Compliance with Minimum

Performance Standards (MPS) has already been

made compulsory by the GoI, MoA and the guidelines of GoI have been circulated to all the banks by NABARD. iii. Minimum acreage / Minimum hours of use :

Sl. No.

Types of the machinery

Minimum acreage Minimum hours of use

1 New tractor A minimum land holding of 8 acres of perennially irrigated land or acreage corresponding as prescribed for different categories of land under the concerned State Ceiling Land Act (SLCA). However, banks may evolve, on their own, area specific norms for financing tractors in regard to minimum land holding (irrigated/un irrigated) subject to the concerned SLCA.

Financing bank may stipulate its own norm, subject to financial viability and satisfying itself about recovery aspects on the basis of income from the asset created, out of the bank loan.

2 Second hand tractor Same as applicable to new tractor.

3 Power tiller A minimum land holding of 6 acres of perennially irrigated land or acreage corresponding as prescribed for different categories of land under the concerned State Ceiling Land Act (SLCA). However, banks may evolve, on their own, area specific norms for financing power tillers in regard minimum land holding (irrigated/un-irrigated) subject to the concerned SLCA.

A minimum of 600 hours of productive work in agriculture per year on own-farm or both own- farm and custom services.

4 Combine Harvester A minimum cropped area of 500 ha. Of wheat and 300 ha. of Paddy in wheat-paddy crop rotation region and 300 ha. Paddy per harvesting season in Paddy-paddy crop rotation region per combine harvester should be available for custom hire service.

5 Power Thresher/sprayer

Minimum land holding required for making the investment viable may be ensured.

A minimum of 315 and 250 hours of use per annum for power thresher and sprayer respectively.

Sl.

No.

Particulars of

investment

Details of unit cost Remarks

1 Tractor with

accessories/

attachments

(3

implements

including a

trailer to be

purchased)

As per the

make/HP as

indicated in the

invoice by

approved

dealers subject

to viability of

investments

Repayment

period 7 years

including 1year

GP

2 Power tillers -do- Repayment

period 7 years

3 Combine

Harvesters

-do- Repayment

period 5 years

4 Power

Threshers &

Sprayers

-do- Repayment

period 5 years

5 Paddy

Transplanter

-do- Repayment

period 3 to 5

years

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iv. Registration with the RTA

Tractors shall be registered with the Regional Transport Authority (RTA) concerned and the hypothecation charge of the bank be recorded with the RTA. Banks may further note that in terms of Govt. of India, Ministry of Transport and Highways letter No.RT - 11017/31/2000-MVL dated 12 December 2000 on the illegal use of tractors, addressed to the transport secretaries / commissioners of State/UTs, "No tractor carrying passengers / goods (other than agricultural produce) should be allowed on road unless it possesses a valid permit and other related documents".

2. Second Tractors: All special terms and conditions, as applicable to new tractors, will also be applicable for financing purchase of second tractors. In addition, it may also be noted that the refinance will be available provided that a minimum period of three years has elapsed since financing the borrower for purchase of a tractor earlier and the previous loan has been fully repaid.

3. Second Hand Tractors: All special terms and conditions as applicable to new tractors will also be applicable for financing purchase of second hand tractors. In addition, the following will also be ensured.

i. Financing should be provided, only in respect of first /second - resale of tractors, for which the borrower should arrange for production of suitable evidence.

ii. Tractors which are not more than 7 years old would only be eligible for financing by banks. Banks are,

however, advised to exercise due care and satisfy themselves about the good condition of such tractors. iii. The cost of the second hand tractor should be assessed by an authorized dealer of the 'make' of the tractor or in case it is approved by a surveyor, duly certified by the authorized dealer or calculated by applying 10% depreciation, whichever is less. iv. Minimum hours of productive use of the tractor for agriculture purposes may be determined by banks taking into account the financial viability and recovery aspects. v. The repayment period for the financing of second hand tractor

should be fixed keeping in view the balance economic life of the tractor.

4. Trailer / two trailers in Sugarcane growing areas:

All general terms and conditions applicable to financing of farm machinery as in table above will be applicable.

i) Renovation / repairs / replacement of spare parts of Tractors:

a All farmers irrespective of the fact whether they had availed of bank loan or not for purchase of the tractor

would be eligible for obtaining loans for repairs /renovation/replacement of spare parts of their tractors.

b Bank loans for repairs / renovation / replacement of spare parts of the tractor may be allowed as a supplementary loan during the currency of original loan availed of for the purchase of the tractor, provided there is no default in repayment of earlier loan. The repayment of loans released for repairs will be made concurrently with repayment of original loan of tractor.

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c Bank loan may be allowed in respect of damages caused to the tractors, due to accident, as a special case. The banker has to take adequate care in assessing the damage. It is reiterated that the tractor must be insured comprehensively during the currency of loans in the interest of the farmer as well as financing bank.

ii) Quantum of loan

a. The new engine to be replaced is of standard make of the same company and the quantum of loan towards the cost of the engine is to be determined by the financing banks based on the approved price of the company.

b. The banks should satisfy about the reasonableness of the quantum of loan for

repair/renovation/replacement of spare parts and engine of tractors and it should be in conformity with the price/cost of parts of standard make and should be verified with reference to invoice / quotations.

c. The quantum of loans for the repairs due to damages caused to the tractor on account of accidents is to be

restricted to the difference between the total expenditure to be incurred towards repairs/renovation or replacement of spare parts and the insurance claim received/ receivable

iii. Authorized service agency only to undertake repairs :

a. The tractors should be got repaired in a service centre of the authorized dealer appointed by the

manufacturer of the particular make or from Agro-Service Centres of the State Agro-industries Corporations or from any other government workshop.

b. Payment should be made by the bank directly to the service station towards the cost of the repairs and the

cost of the spare parts.

5. Power threshers and power sprayers

Minimum hours of use: As per Sl. No. 5 on the first table of Chapter 3.

OTHER TERMS AND CONDITIONS a. Only BIS marked good quality new threshers/diesel engines/ electric motors should be financed. Threshers

that have built in safety device as per BIS mark only should be financed. In this connection, the Government of India Ordinance dated 16 October 1981 regarding Power Threshers (Quality Control) Order 1981 stipulating the following schedule may be adhered to :

i. IS : 9019-1979 code of practice for installation operation and preventive maintenance of Power Threshers ii. IS : 9020-1979 general and safety requirements for Power Threshers iii. IS : 9129-1979 technical requirements for Super Electric System for Power Threshers.

b. Whenever thresher alone is financed it should be ensured that the borrower has the prime mover i.e. diesel engine/electric motor or tractor (in case of tractor operated threshers).

c. Banks shall ensure that the borrowers buy a post-warranty service for the period of loan and that the arrangements for supply of spare parts, after sales service and

repair facilities are available in the scheme area.

d. Whenever electric motors/diesel engines are financed, it should be ensured that the same are utilised for other purposes also during the off season.

Power sprayer

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e. While apprising the loan application, care should be taken that density of the machine/implement in a particular area does not increase beyond optimum level so that the scope for custom hire is not affected.

6. Combine Harvesters:

a. The Models of combine harvesters tested by CFMTTI, Budni, MP and NRFMTTI Hissar, Harayana and Dept. of Industries, Punjab will be eligible for bank finance. The test code is IS:8122 (Part I) - 1994 and 8122 (Part II) - 1981.

b. The banks should satisfy themselves about the technical feasibility and financial viability. Since the use of

combine harvesters is restricted only to the harvesting seasons, the density of population of such harvesters, scope for custom hiring, impact of density on custom rates etc., will have to be kept in view by the banks.

c. The loan component may include necessary accessories, if any.

d. Minimum hours of use : As per Table 1(iii) above

e. The loans shall ordinarily be sanctioned only to those borrowers who enjoy high credit- worthiness and would be in a position to operate combine harvesters successfully during the currency of the loan.

7. Power Tillers :

a All special terms and conditions as applicable to new tractors will also be applicable for financing purchase

of power tillers.

b Commercial Test Reports (CTRs) / Minimum Performance Standards (MPS).

Banks have to ensure that the Power Tillers financed by them have necessary commercial test report as per BIS Code issued by the Central Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute (CFMTTI), Budni, Madhya Pradesh.

For increasing the flow of credit for purchasing power tillers following initiatives may also be taken by banks:

i. Advise the field level functionaries to encourage small and marginal farmers to go for power tiller, it being a cost effective machinery.

ii. Identify the areas having potential for financing power tillers taking into

consideration the cropping pattern, average size of land holding and demand in a particular area.

iii. Prepare a banking plan for power tillers in compact areas like blocks over a period of say, three years.

iv. Earmark a reasonable portion of refinance allocation made to the bank under Farm Mechanisation for

financing power tillers.

v. Coordinate with concerned Govt. Departments and others to ensure that required linkages are

established for successful implementation of the banking plan.

Power tiller

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CHAPTER 4 – HORTICULTURE (Amt. in `)

Sl. No.

Crop Spacing Population Varieties Year Total Remarks (Repayment period) I II III IV V VI

1 Citrus 16’ X 16’ 170 Acid Lime / Sweet Lime

24,500 6,000 9,000 10,500 12,500 62,500 10 years repayment including 6 years GP

2 Coffee (Arabica) 2 mX 2m 2500 S 795 , other Arabica selections

69,000 29,600 38,600 37,800 1,75,000 12 years repayment including 5 years GP

3 Coffee (Robusta) 3 m X 2.5 m

1250 S 7& other Robusta selections

55,900 26,800 16,900 25,400 1,25,000 11 years repayment including 5 years GP

4 Grape-Seedless varieties

10’ X 6’ 720 Thompson seedless, Tas-e-Ganesh, Sonaka, Sharad Seedless

2.75,000 1,65,000

4,40,000 7 years repayment including 2 years GP

5 Grape- Bangalore Blue

11’ X11’ 360 Bangalore Blue 2,00,000 1,20,000 3,20,000 7 years repayment including 2 years GP

6 Mango 30’ X 30’ 50 Baneshan, Bangalora, Badami, Raspuri

21,000 8,000 9,000 10,500 10,500 11,500 60,000 10 years repayment including 5 years GP

7 Pepper (intercrop with Arecanut)

10’ X 10’ 400 Panniyur Series, Subhakara, Sreekara

20,000 8,500 9,000 10,500 48,000 8 years repayment including 4 years GP

8 Pepper (Intercrop with Coffee)

20’ X 20’ 200 Panniyur Series, Subhakara, Sreekara

12,000 4,000 4,000 5,000 25,000 8 years repayment including 4 years GP

9 Pomegranate 12’ X 12’ 300 Bhagwa, Kesar, Ganesh

70,000 40,000 1,10,000 6 years repayment including 3 years GP

10 Sapota 30’ X 30’ 50 Cricket Ball, Calcutta Round, Oval

19,000 7,000 9,000 10,000 10,000 55,000 10 years repayment including 5 years GP

11 Guava 20’ X 20’ 110 Allahabad Safeda, Lucknow-49

20,000 6,500 8,500 10,000 45,000 8 years repayment including 4 years GP

12 Cardamom 1.8m X 1.8m

3000 Selections of cultivars Malabar &Mysore

84,000 44,000 65,000 1,93,000 8 years including 3 years GP

13 Cashew 22’ X 22’ 90 NRCC Series, Ullal Series

22,000 9,000 10,000 13,000 16,000 70,000 10 years including 6 years GP

14 Coconut 27’ X 27’ 60 Tall varieties 21,000 6,000 7,000 9,000 11,000 12,000 66,000 12 years repayment including 7 years GP

15 Oil Palm 30’ X 30’ 50 Tenera 19,000 16,000 22,000 22,000 79,000 12 years repayment including 5 years GP

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SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. The financing bank may consult the State Department of Horticulture or the concerned Commodity Board to ensure technical feasibility of the crop investment.

2. While selecting villages/areas for financing orchards and small plantations, the bank shall ensure compactness of the area to facilitate supervision.

3. Loans shall be given to those borrowers who have assured source of irrigation. Necessary term loan assistance may be provided to create such facilities wherever feasible.

4. Under “Dryland Horticulture Development” the banks may ensure that necessary soil and water conservation measures are undertaken before taking up crop development.

5. The bank shall satisfy itself that planting material of required quantity and quality, procured by the borrowers are from reliable sources such as nurseries of Agricultural Universities or State Government or any other recognised private nursery.

6. Loan shall be issued in respect of investments for raising plants during the first year and also for subsequent maintenance, till the plant attains economic bearing stage, or as indicated in the unit cost. However, where loans are proposed to be availed of only

for the first year planting, it should be ensured that the borrowers have their own resources to meet subsequent expenditure.

7. Bank shall ensure that the borrowers observe the following technical norms:

a. The pits dug will be of standard size specified for the crop selected.

b. The pits dug will be filled with top soil and well decomposed farmyard manure and soil disinfectants if necessary.

c. Planting of approved high yielding varieties to suit the situations should be insisted upon.

d. The young plants should be staked immediately after planting and shade/cover/hutting etc., provided wherever necessary and irrigated.

e. Suitable training system should be adopted in the case of crops like grapes.

f. Adequate fencing arrangement should be made as per local practices, preferably with live material to guard against cattle and trespassers.

g. Pot watering of young plants may be done during the dry months of initial 2-3 seasons under rain fed/dry land condition and for the purpose, if necessary, pitcher irrigation may be considered.

h. When the crop development is proposed under irrigated conditions, modern water saving irrigation systems like drip, sprinkler, etc., may be recommended with necessary financial assistance.

i. Suitable inter crops may be taken up during the gestation period of the main crop wherever feasible.

j. Mixed cropping shall be encouraged wherever possible as in the case of coffee, arecanut, coconut etc.

k. The recommended fertilizer and plant protection schedule shall be followed strictly. The components like fertilizers, chemicals, weedicides etc., shall be disbursed on the basis of actuals.

l. Integrated Pest Management may be emphasised with special thrust on biological control methods, especially under multi-tier/mixed cropping systems.

Guava

Grapes-

Bangalore blue-

Cashew

w

Grapes-

Bangalore blue-

Grapes-

Bangalore blue-

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m. Adequate shade may be developed for crops like coffee/tea/cardamom etc., and the required minimum number of shade trees will have to be retained per unit area. Quick growing shade trees like Erythrena (Dadap), Silver Oak, Mesopsis etc., may also be planted wherever necessary.

n. Necessary soil and water conservation and land development measures shall be ensured in plantation areas.

o. For civil engineering works installation of processing equipment’s shall be carried out according to approved plans and designs, along with plantation crop development, as per the approved phasing.

8. Necessary technical guidance / supervision may be provided by the technical staff of the financing bank. If this is not possible, the bank shall satisfy itself that necessary extension services are provided by concerned Development Department of the State Government / Commodity Board etc.

9. A suitable tie-up arrangement can be tried with the marketing agency concerned for recovering the loan installments with the concurrence of the borrowers.

10. The bank may grant loans to the individual beneficiary based on the case to case appraisal and assessment of the repayment capacity of the borrower.

Oil Palm

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CHAPTER 5 – SERICULTURE

(Amt. in `) Activity Mulberry Garden

Establishment -2 acres Rearing Equipment

(300DFLs/batch) Rearing House

Rearing Cost for first batch –

300DFLs/batch

Total

Sericulture-Shoot

Rearing System

48,000 70,000 4,00,000 10,000 5,28,000

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

The terms and conditions indicated below are for area based sericulture development programme:

1. Ensure compact area development

2. The borrowers may be identified in consultation with the State Department of Sericulture/Central Silk Board especially in non-traditional zones/districts.

3. While financing for seed cocoon production, ensure that the scheme area is a notified seed area.

4. Ensure that the borrowers selected have adequate source of irrigation while financing for mulberry cultivation under irrigated conditions. If necessary, water saving irrigation system like Drip, Sprinkler may be suggested, wherever feasible, and the required credit assistance rendered.

5. Improved High Yielding varieties of mulberry and silk worm races may be insisted upon under irrigated conditions.

6. Supply of planting material of specified mulberry variety may be ensured through Government Seed Farm or reputed private Sources.

7. The financing bank may ensure that there is adequate

supply of quality disease free silkworm eggs (DFLs).

8. The equipments financed under the scheme for rearing of silk worms should comply with the specifications of State Department of Sericulture and match with the rearing programme contemplated by the beneficiary.

9. The acreage norms specified should be strictly adhered to while financing for development of infrastructure like rearing house. The rearing house should be constructed as per the design and specifications of Department of Sericulture.

10. The financing bank may strictly ensure that the area specifications are adopted by the borrowers while constructing the rearing house and the same should be an exclusive rearing house and not a rearing cum- dwelling house.

11. The cultivation and management practices, as recommended by the Sericulture Directorate/Central Silk Board, should be strictly adopted.

12. Ensure that the extension support is made available to the borrowers in the scheme area, especially in the area of scientific/hygienic silk worm rearing, disease management etc.

Cocoon rearing

Silkworm feeding - mulberry

leaves

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13. The borrowers should be included under the ongoing tripartite system to ensure proper recovery of loan.

14. The financing bank may ensure that a sound/competitive marketing infrastructure is available in the scheme area and the farmers are not required to carry their cocoons to a far-off market.

15. The credit programme can be dovetailed with the ongoing development programmes of State Department of

Sericulture/Central Silk Board in the scheme area and the benefits available there under.

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CHAPTER 6 – FORESTRY

(Amt. in `) Sl. No.

Crop Spacing Population Year Total Remarks

I II III IV V

1 Neem 5 m. X 5m 440 No./ha 16,700 5,000 4,200 4,200 4,200 34,300 10 years repayment period including 5 years GP

2 Casurina in Wasteland

3mX 1.5 m 1778No./ha 40,000 7,200 7,000 1,500 1,500 57,200 5 years repayment period including 4 years GP

Unit cost of other tree borne oilseeds like pongamea, seemarupa are similar to that of neem. The same can be adopted based on suitability.

World Forest Day – 21, March

World Forestry Day is celebrated around the world to ring a bell among the society about the

importance of forests and the scores of benefits which are gained from them. The concept of

celebrating a day every year as World Forestry Day originated at the 23rd General Assembly of the European Confederation of Agriculture in 1971.

According to rules of Forest Department, 10 trees should be planted in exchange of cutting

down one tree. Though, in last two decades only 1% trees have been planted.

Chopping down forests in hilly areas results in loosening of soil, thus the

upper layer of fertile earth is eroding which is leading to uncontrolled rain and flood. It becomes even more important for us to protect our forests and prevent

them from any ill practices.

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CHAPTER 7 – ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

1. Dairy Development

Particulars Cost/Animal (`) Remarks

A. Cross bred Cows

Jersey or HF Crosses - 10 to 12 LPD 60,000 5 years repayment period including 6

months GP

B. She buffaloes

Graded Murrah/ Surti/ Dharwad/ Pandapuri/ Mehsani yielding - 9 to 10 LPD

58,000

a. Two Animal Dairy Unit Sl.No. Particulars 2 CB Cow unit (`) 2 Buffalo unit (`)

1 Cost of animals- cross bred Jersey/HF 1,20,000 1,16,000

2 Transportation of animals@ Rs.2000/- animal 4,000 4,000

Recurring Cost- for 1st batch

1 Insurance @5% on cost of animals 3,000 2,900

2 Feed for 30 days @ Rs.22/- for 120 kg per animal 2,640 2640

3 Fodder cultivation for 1 animal @ Rs 5000/- per animal 5,000 5,000

4 Miscellaneous cost @ Rs.20/- per day/animal 600 600

Total 1,35,240 1,31,140

Total (rounded off)

b. Ten Animal Dairy Unit Sl.No

. Particulars 10 CB Cow Unit (`) 10 Buffalo Unit (`)

1 Cost of 10 animals – Cross bred Jersery/HF 6,00,000 5,20,000

2 Cost of Shed for 10 animals @65 sqft/animal@ Rs. 110/-sqft. 71,500 71,500

3 Equipment including chaff cutter, milk cans etc. 25,000 25,000

4 Transportation of animals@ Rs.2000/- animal 20,000 20,000

Recurring Cost- for 1st batch

1 Insurance @ 5% on cost of 5 animals 13,500 13,000

2 Fodder cultivation for 5 animals @ Rs.5000/- per animal 25,000 25,000

3 Feed for 30 days @Rs.22/- 120 kg per animal for 5 animals 13,200 13,200

Total ( rounded-off) 7,08,200 6,87,700

c. Other Expenditure and techno-economic parameters Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

a. Cattle/buffalo shed (110 to 140 per sq.ft) 1.Thatched shed @ Rs.140 per sq.ft

18,200 Cattle shed , store room should be an integral part of Dairy scheme and should not be financed separately

2. AC roof shed @ Rs.250 per sq.ft 32,500

b. Construction of store room Rs.250/sq.ft. Requirement of storage space Upto 5 animals- 50 sq.ft 6-10 animals -100 sq.ft 11-15 animals- 150 sq.ft 16-20 animals- 200 sq.ft

12,500 25,000 37,500 50,000

c. Feed &Fodder Cost 22 Loans to be recovered

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Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

c. Feed: 30 days feed @ Rs.22.00 per kg Feed requirement will vary depending on yield and breed of animal Fodder: Rs.5000 per animal towards cost of fodder cultivation.

5,000

along with the loan disbursement for purchase of animal.

d. Transportation cost of animals 2,000

e. Cost of milking machine (for 5 to 10 animal unit) 40,000-60,000 Milking machine may be integral part of Dairy scheme and also may be financed separately to enable automation on the farm.

f. Cost of cross bred milch cows 6000 per litre of milk yield

d. Calf-rearing- rearing of female calf (CB Cow) Sl.No

. Particulars 5 heifer calves

Unit (`) Remarks

1 Cost of 5 heifer calves - Cross bred Jersey/HF for 5 heifer calves @ Rs 4000 per animal

20,000

Loan to be repaid immediately, if

sold as breeding animal, otherwise GP of 3.25 years

2 Cost of equipment - lumsum 3,000

3 Cost of shed (40 sft per calf )

22,000

4 Transportation including transit insurance @ Rs 500 per animal

2,500

5 Concentrate feed for 28 months – 1600 kg per calf @ Rs 22 per kg 1,76,000

2 Fodder cultivation cost for 28 months

37,440

3 Cost of breeding, medicines, vaccines and Misc. charges

5,000

Total ( rounded-off) 2,65,940

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

1. The bank shall select villages keeping in view the compactness of the area to facilitate supervision and nearness of villages to veterinary dispensaries, animal breeding centres and milk marketing facilities.

2. The bank shall ensure that a unit of 2/3 milch animals is financed and that animals are purchased with an interval of about 4-6 months to ensure continuity in milk production.

3. The bank shall finance under the scheme only good quality animals viz. Graded Murrah buffaloes / Cross bred cows, preferably freshly calved animals in second or third lactation.

4. (a) Immediately after purchase, suitable arrangements for identification of animals by tattooing or ear tagging shall be made with the help of State Animal Husbandry Department. In addition to this, the record of particulars of the animal identification (colour, birth marks, etc.) shall be maintained.

(b) Certificate regarding age, milk production and health of animals financed shall be obtained from qualified veterinary assistant surgeon.

5. Animals should be vaccinated with the help of the veterinary department, against diseases such as Rinderpest, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia and Foot and Mouth disease, depending upon prevalence of particular diseases in the area and as per the advice of the State Animal Husbandry Department.

6. Adequate insurance cover is to be obtained for all animals purchased under the scheme.

Heifer calf rearing

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7. The bank shall satisfy itself that beneficiaries have adequate arrangements for supply of green/dry fodder and concentrate feed. The bank shall, wherever possible, encourage the beneficiary to take up green fodder cultivation on his own.

8. The bank shall satisfy itself that adequate facilities for veterinary aid and breeding are available from the Government department / Milk union concerned to the beneficiary in the vicinity of the scheme area.

9. In cases, where cross bred / indigenous cows are financed, the bank shall satisfy itself that breeding service, with high quality semen of exotic / cross bred pedigree bulls, is available at the artificial insemination centers in the scheme area.

10. Wherever loans for construction of cattle shed are not given, the bank shall ensure, before sanction of loan for purchase of milch animals, that the beneficiary either has a cattle shed or facilities to provide shelter or will be able to provide a cattle shed out of his own sources.

11. The bank shall satisfy itself that suitable and satisfactory arrangements exist for marketing of milk. Such arrangements could either be in the nature of organised marketing through milk collection centres or outlet for direct sale of milk at a remunerative price.

12. Wherever an arrangement is made to market milk through organised system, the bank may make arrangements with the milk collection agencies for loan recoveries out of sale proceeds.

13. The bank shall ensure that no animal is disposed off or sold by the beneficiary, without their prior permission in writing, till the loan is fully repaid.

14. In case the bank provides financial assistance for purchase of ‘Single Animal Dairy Unit’, the bank shall ensure that the following terms are complied with-

a. It is undertaken as supplementary activity by the borrower

b. While fixing the repayment schedule, the incremental income from the investment and repaying capacity of the borrower are taken into account.

c. Working capital for maintenance of animal during dry period, if necessary, may be provided by the financing bank.

Note : In suburban areas, loan for purchase of dry pregnant buffaloes from city dairies, rearing them till calving for sale or milk production may be provided by banks as short term loan or long term loan.

Fodder cultivation

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2. Poultry

a. Commercial Layer unit-5000 layers ( 1+1+4 under Cage system ) Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`) Remarks A Civil structures

5 years repayment period including 1

year GP

1 Brooder shed-880.20 sq ft @ ` 110 per sq. ft. 96822

2 Grower shed – 880.20 sq ft @ ` 110 per sq. ft. 96822

3 4 layer sheds-4499 sq ft @` 150 per sq. ft. 674880

4 One Labor quarter of 400 sq ft @ ` 175 per sq ft 70000

5 Construction of egg store room – 0.08 sq ft per layer bird@ ` 120 per sq ft

17500

6 Construction of Feed Godown- 400 sq ft @` 120 per sq ft 48000

7 Construction of Generator room -100 sq ft @ ` 120 per sq ft 12000

8 Construction of Disposal pit lumsum 10000

Sub total 10,26,024

B Electrical installations @ 4% of civil costs 36,768

C MI structures

1 Overhead tank of 5000 litre 35,000

2 Purchase of water storage tanks 6 numbers ` 5000 per tank 30,000

Sub total 65,000

D Equipment

1 Installation of grower cages-1250 growers @ ` 50 per bird 62500

2 Installation of layer cages-1250 layers @ ` 60 per bird 3,00,000

3 Purchase of egg trays for 2 days storage for storing 9000 eggs @ ` 25/- per tray

7500

4 Purchase of generator 2,50,000

Sub total 6,20,000

E Working Capital

1 Cost of Day Old Chicks (DoCs)-4 batches of 1250 DoCs -total 5,000 chicks @ ` 31.50 per chick

1,57,500

2 Cost of feed up to point of lay

a Brooder mash for 5000 birds+5% free chicks @ 2 kg per bird @ ` 23/- per kg

2,30,000

b Grower mash for 5000 birds less 3% chick mortality @ 5.5 kg per bird @ ` 18 per kg

4,95,000

3 Overheads upto point of lay

a Brooder period for 5000 birds+5% free chicks @ ` 5/- per bird 25,000

b Grower stage for 5000 birds less 3% chick mortality @ ` 4/- per bird 20,000

Sub total 9,27,500

Grand total (rounded off) 26,75,292

b. Commercial Broiler unit -500 birds ( Deep litter system ) Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

1 'Land Own

5 years repayment

period including 1

year GP

2 Civil Structures -

a Shed for Broilers(1sq.ft/broiler;500 broilers; ` 130/sq.ft) 65000

3 Electrical installations

a 4% of civil costs 2600

4 Equipment -

a Broiler equipment (500 chicks; ` 35/bird) 17500

5 Working capital -

(capitalised for 1 batch)

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

a Day old chicks (500 chicks; ` 20/chick) 10000

b Feed (500 birds; 3.80 kg/bird; ` 25/kg) 47500

c Miscellaneous cost - medicine, vaccine, litter, electric bulbs and labor (500 birds; ` 8/bird)

2000

d Insurance cost (5000 birds; ` 5/bird) 2500

Total Cost 147100

c. Commercial Broiler unit -500 birds per week ( Deep litter system ) Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

1 Land Own

5 years repayment

period including 1

year GP

2 Land Development-

a Land levelling (` 49420/ ha; for 0.51 ha) 25204

b Fencing (` 45/rm for 300 rm approx.) 13500

3 Civil Structures -

a Shed for Broilers(1sq.ft/broiler;4000 broilers; ` 110/sq.ft) 440000

b store room (200 sq.ft; ` 175/sq.ft) 35000

4 Electrical installations

4% of civil costs 19000

5 Minor Irrigation structures -

a Borewells ( 1no. @ ` 60000/borewell) 60000

b Submersible pumpsets (1no.; 3 HP; @ ` 35000/SPS) 35000

c Pipeline and other accessories 5000

d Over head tank (5000 L capacity; ` 5/L) 25000

6 Equipment -

a Broiler equipment (4000 chicks; ` 35/bird) 140000

7 Working capital -

(capitalised for 5 batches)

a Day old chicks (2525 chicks; ` 20/chick) 50500

b Feed (2500 birds; 3.80 kg/bird; ` 25/kg) 237500

c Miscellaneous cost - medicine, vaccine, litter, electric bulbs and labor (5000 birds; ` 8/bird)

10000

d Insurance cost (2500 birds; ` 5/bird) 12500

Total 1108204

d. Giriraja unit size-50 females+ 10 males Sl. No Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

1 1. Land owned by the promoter 0.00

5 years repayment

period including 1

year GP

2 2. Night shelter – 6 numbers (6'X6'X2.5' with locally available material) @ ` 600 per unit

3600

3 3. Capitalised expenditure

a Cost of 8 week old birds- 50 females and 10 males @ ` 65 per bird 3900

b Cost of feed upto point of lay

c Grower mash for 60 birds -25 gm per bird i.e 3.36 kg per bird @ ` 20 per kg 4032

Total Cost 11532

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e. Commercial Broiler unit under integration -2000 birds ( Deep litter system ) Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`.) Remarks

1 Land Own

5 years repayment

period including 1

year GP

2 Civil Structures - a.Shed for Broilers(1sq.ft/broiler;2000 broiler; `130/sq.ft) 260000

3 Minor Irrigation structures -Overhead tank (2000 L capacity; `.5/L) 10000

4 Equipment - Broiler equipment (2000 chicks; `35/bird) 70000

5 Working capital - *

a Rice husk (20 bags for one shed @ ` 50 per bag)) 1000

b Electricity charges (Rs 1000 for one batch) 1000

c Miscellaneous (disinfection of shed, lime for litter, etc) 5000

* Other items like chicks, feed, etc. are provided by the integrators and hence not required to be financed.

Total 347000

f. Duck rearing unit -200 ducks Sl. No

Particulars Cost (`) Remarks

1 Cost of duckling (DoCs) @ ` 30/- per duckling 6,000

5 years repayment period including 1 year GP

2 Cost of enclosure/shed with open space -500 sq ft @ ` 75/- per sq ft 3,500

3 Cost of feed upto 8 weeks – 150 gm per day - 6.5 kg/bird @ `23/- per kg

29,900

4 Cost of equipment-feeding, watering 2,500

5 Veterinary Aid @ ` 10/duck 2,000

6 Misc.Expenses including insurance- lumpsum 1,000

Total ( Rounding off)

44,900

SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

A. Poultry Farming ( Commercial Layers)

1. The new poultry farms may be one kilometre away from the existingfarms/ complexes.

2. Farms having more than 50000 layers should have preferably separate facilities for brooding and growing.

3. The bank shall satisfy that the company observes among other the following specifications in designing the poultry sheds.

I) Layout of the shed i.e. layer house, grower house, brooder house should conform to the standard specifications. A distance of about 50 ft. should be kept between the sheds of same age group about 150 ft. between sheds with birds of different age group.

Ii) The end walls of the shed should face east-west direction.

iii) The floor level should be at least one foot above the ground level in case of deep litter system and 5-6 ft. above the high from ground level in case of cage system of housing.

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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iv) A minimum overhang of 3.5 feet should be given to the roof to avoid entry of rain water inside the shed.

v) The maximum width of sheds should not exceed 30 ft. and 33.5 ft. in case of deep litter and cage systems respectively.

vi) The sheds shall be made rat proof using wire nets / passages.

vii) Individual farms should be provided fencing with wheel dip at main gate and foot dips at every door step.

viii) Disposal pit / incinerator is to be provided at minimum 500 ft. away from the active operational area.

4. The bank shall ensure that the beneficiaries make firm arrangements for getting supply of high quality chicks from a reputed hatchery.

5. The bank shall ensure tha t there are firm arrangements for marketing of eggs/ culled birds.

6. The bank shall ensure that periodical check up of poultry flock by a competent veterinarian, preferably at least once a month, is carried out.

7. A regular vaccination schedule, prescribed by hatchery/competent person, should be followed immediately after purchase of the chicks.

8. Periodical debeaking and deworming of birds should be done.

9. Utmost cleanliness and hygienic conditions should be maintained in the poultry sheds, farm and in the management of the poultry flock. The houses should be properly disinfected / sprayed with insecticide sprays such as Gamaxin or Malathion before housing the new flock.

10. Fresh and clean and dry litter material should be placed on the floor of poultry house in case of deep litter house before the birds are introduced in the shed.

11. Fresh and clean water should always be available and waterers are to be cleaned regularly.

12. The bank should ensure that firm arrangements are made for getting balanced concentrate feed and its availability to the birds. In case of commercial projects (more

than 10000 birds), bank may advice the borrower to have a feed mixing plant (mixer and grinder) in the project for mixing feed for captive consumption.

13. Beneficiary should keep records of feed consumption, mortality, vaccination, egg production, number of birds culled, etc.

14. The bank should ensure that the sheds and equipments are insured during the period of loan.

15. In lieu of poultry insurance for birds, the banks may consider creation of risk/ mortality fund.

Giriraja birds

Layer shed Broiler rearing

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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B. Poultry Farming (Commercial Broilers)

1. The new poultry farms may be one kilometre away from the existingfarms/ complexes.

2. The bank shall satisfy itself that the company observes among other the following specifications in designing the poultry sheds.

i) Layout of the broiler sheds should conform to the standard specifications. A distance of about 50 ft. should be kept between the sheds.

ii) The end walls of the shed should face east-west direction.

iii) The floor level should be at least one foot above ground level in case of deep litter system.

iv) A minimum overhang of 3.5 feet be given to the roof to avoid entry of rain water inside the shed.

v) The maximum width of sheds should not exceed 30 ft. in case of deep litter.

vi) The sheds shall be made rat proof using wire nets/passages.

vii) Individual farms should be provided fencing with wheel dip at main gate and foot dips at every door step.

viii) Disposal pit / incinerator is to be provided at minimum 500 ft. away from the active operational area.

3. The bank shall ensure that the beneficiaries make firm arrangements for getting supply of high quality chicks form a reputed hatchery.

4. The bank shall ensure that there are firm arrangements for marketing of birds.

5. The bank shall ensure that periodical check up of poultry flock by a competent veterinarian preferably at least once a month is carried out. 6. A regular vaccination schedule prescribed by hatchery/competent person should be followed immediately after

purchase of the chicks.

7. Periodical debeaking and deworming of birds should be done.

8. Utmost cleanliness and hygienic conditions should be maintained in the poultry sheds, farm and in the management of poultry flock. The houses should be properly disinfected / sprayed with insecticide sprays such as Gamaxin or Malathion before housing the new flock.

9. Fresh, clean and dry litter material should be placed on the floor of the poultry house in case of deep litter house before the birds are introduced in the shed.

10. Fresh and clean water should always be available and waterers are cleaned regularly.

11. The bank should ensure that firm arrangements are made for getting balanced concentrate feed and its availability to the birds. In case of integrated or large projects, bank may advice the borrower to have a feed mixing plant (mixer and grinder) in the project for captive consumption.

12. Beneficiary should keep records of feed consumption, mortality, vaccination, number of birds sold etc.

Integration in broilers

Layer shed

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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13. The bank should ensure that the sheds and equipment are insured during the period of loan.

14. In lieu of poultry insurance for birds, the banks may consider creation of risk/ mortality fund.

3. Sheep Farming

3a. Sheep Breeding : 500+25

(Amt. in `)

Sl. No. Particulars Bannur Deccani Remarks

1 Cost of animals:

6 years repayment

period including 1 year GP

a Rams 175000 200000

b Ewes 3000000 3500000

2 Transportation charges for animals 42000 42000

3 Cement shed with asbestos sheets (20sq ft per animal @` 100 per sq ft)

1050000 1050000

Sub Total 4267000 4792000

4 Recurring cost for one year

a Grazing charges @ ` 120 per animal per year 63000 63000

b Feeding for one cycle- rams 10125 10125

c Feeding for one cycle- ewes 182250 182250

d Feeding for one cycle- lambs 12720 12720

e Veterinary aid (@` 30/animal/year) 15750 15750

f Insurance cost for the adults (@4% cost of adults) 127000 148000

g Shearing cost (@` 2 per animal per year) 13125 13125

h Miscellaneous expenditure 1030 5000

i Labor cost 16000 16000

Sub Total 441000 465970

Total Cost 4708000 5257970

3b.Sheep Rearing

(Amt. in `)

Sl. No.

Particulars Bannur (10+1)

Deccani (10+1)

Bannur (20+1)

Deccani (20+1)

Remarks

1 Cost of animals:

a Rams 7000 8000 7000 8000

6 years repayment period including 6

months GP

b Ewes 60000 70000 120000 140000

2 Transportation charges for animals

2000 2000 3000 3000

3 Thatched shed / pen 5000 5000 5000 5000

Sub Total 74000 85000 135000 156000

4 Recurring cost for one year

a Grazing charges @ ` 150 per animal per year

1650 1650 3150 3150

b Feeding for one cycle 0 4347 0 8478

c Veterinary aid (@` 30/animal/year)

330 330 630 630

d Insurance cost for the adults (@ 4% cost of adults)

2680 3120 5080 5920

e Shearing cost (@` 25 per animal per year)

275 275 525 525

Sub Total 4935 9722 9385 18703

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Sl. No.

Particulars Bannur (10+1)

Deccani (10+1)

Bannur (20+1)

Deccani (20+1)

Remarks

Total 78935 94722 144385 174703

3a. Goat Breeding : 500+25 (Amt. in `)

Sl. No. Particulars Local breed Jamunapari Remarks

1 Cost of animals: 6 years repayment period including 1

year GP

a Buck 162500 200000

b Does 2750000

3500000

2 Transportation charges for animals 42000

42000

3 Cement shed with asbestos sheets (20sq ft per animal @ ` 100 per sq ft)

1050000 1050000

Sub Total 4004500

4792000

4 Recurring cost for one year

a Grazing charges @ ` 120 per animal per year 63000 63000

b Feeding for one cycle- bucks 10125 10125

c Feeding for one cycle- does 182250 182250

d Feeding for one cycle- kids 12720 12720

e Veterinary aid (@` 30/animal/year) 15750 15750

f Insurance cost for the adults (@4% cost of adults)

116500 148000

g Miscellaneous expenditure 1030 5000

h Labor cost 16000 16000

Sub Total 417375 452845

Total Cost 4421875 5244845

3b.Goat Rearing

(Amt. in `)

Sl. No. Particulars Local breed (10+1)

Jamunapari (10+1)

Local breed (20+1)

Jamunapari (20+1)

Remarks

1 Cost of animals:

6 years repayment

period including 6 months GP

a Bucks 6500 8000 6500 8000

b Does 60000 70000 120000 140000

2 Transportation charges for animals 2000 2000 3000 3000

3 Thatched shed / pen 5000 5000 5000 5000

Sub Total 73500 85000 134500 156000

4 Recurring cost for one year

a Grazing charges @ ` 150 per animal per year

1650 1650 3150 3150

b Feeding for one cycle 0 4347 0 8478

c Veterinary aid (@` 30/animal/year) 330 330 630 630

d Insurance cost for the adults (@ 4% cost of adults)

2660 3120 5060 5920

Sub Total 4640 9447 8840 18178

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Sl. No. Particulars Local breed (10+1)

Jamunapari (10+1)

Local breed (20+1)

Jamunapari (20+1)

Remarks

Total 78140 94447 143340 174178

4. SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

1. The bank shall select villages keeping in view the compactness of the area to facilitate supervision, nearness of villages (within 5 to 10 km. distance) to veterinary dispensaries, grazing facility and adequate marketing facilities of wool/meat.

2. While selecting beneficiaries, preference may be given to persons belonging to traditional shepherds community having better experience of management of sheep/goat.

3. A Purchase Committee consisting of a veterinary official of the Department of Animal husbandry, a representative of the bank and the beneficiary may be constituted and all purchases of sheep/goat may be made through the committee.

4. Only sheep/goat of 12 to 18 months old, certified as healthy by a qualified Veterinary Assistant Surgeon of Department of Animal husbandry, preferably Nellore/ Deccani/ Bellary breeds of sheep and Osmanabadi / local breeds of goat shall be financed under the scheme.

5. All animals financed shall be tattooed or ear tagged for proper identification.

6. Arrangements may be made to vaccinate animals purchased against all infectious diseases, including Enterotoxamia, as per the advice of Department of Animal husbandry. Sheep/Goat shall be dewormed at least once in three months with the help of State Animal Husbandry Department.

7. The bank shall ensure that animals are adequately insured.

8. The bank shall ensure that no animal is disposed off or sold by the beneficiary, without its prior permission in writing, till the loan is fully repaid.

Transportation costs extra, on need basis

Techno-economic aspect of feeding for Pigs

Feed required for adult @ 3kg/day, out of which 30% concentrated feed @ Unit cost of ₹ 22/-kg, 70% waste @ Unit Cost of ` 1/-kg

Fattener @ 1.75kg/fattener. Out of which 30% concentrate feed @ unit cost of `22/kg. 70 % waste @ unit cost of `1/kg

4. Pig Farming

4.a. Pig breeding Unit -20 sows + 2 boars unit Sl. No. Particulars Cost (`)

1 Buildings --

A Pig styes

i Sow @20 sq ft per sow at ` 140 per sq ft for 20 sows 56000

ii Boar @ 70 sq ft per boar for 2 boars at ` 160 per sq ft. 22400

Sheep breeding

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iii Farrowing pen at 80 sq ft per sow for 8 sows at ` 140 per sq ft (considering always 40% of pigs in farrowing)

89600

iv Piglets @10 sq ft per piglet for 200 piglets at ` 100 per sq ft. 200000

v Store room 200 sq ft at ` 150 per sq ft. 30000

Sub Total 398000.00

2 Piglets for breeding

i Cost of 20 four month old gilt weighing about 40 kg @ ` 80 per kg live weight 90000

ii Cost of 2 six month old boar weighing about 50 kg @ ` 90 per kg 10000

Sub Total 100000.00

3 Feed

i Feed - concentrate feed per adult upto breeding stage - 900 gm concentrate per adult per day for 6 months @ ` 14 per kg

49896

ii Feed - kitchen waste feed per adult upto breeding stage @ ` 1 per kg 5670

iii Feed - concentrate feed per piglet upto marketable stage - 2100 gm kitchen waste per adult per day for 6 months - 525 gm concentrate per piglet per day for 6 months

352800

iv Feed - kitchen waste feed per piglet upto marketable stage- 1225 gm kitchen waste per piglet per day for 6 months

58800

Sub Total 467166.00

4 Equipment

i Equipment @ ` 200 per adult animal 4400

ii Equipment @ ` 20 per 300 piglets 6000

Sub Total 10400.00

5 Medicine and vaccines @ ` 100 per animal 2200

6 Insurance charges @ 5% of cost of breeding stock 5000

7 One labor @ ` 5000 per month 60000

8 Cost of 3 wheeler for garbage collection 150000

1192766

4. b. Pig rearing cum fattening unit ( 3 sows +1 boar) Sl. No. Particulars Total Cost (`) Remarks

1 Fixed Cost 5 Years repayment period including gp of 1 year

a. Cost of 3 Sows @ ` 5000/- per sow and 1 boar @ ` 6000/-( 4 to 5 months old) 21,000

b. Cost of shed -280 sq ft @ ` 150/- per sq ft 44,800

c. Water supply ( Borewell, electric motor pumpset 1 HP) & equipment- Lumpsum 10,000

Sub-Total 59,000

2 Recurring Cost

a Insurance @ 6% of cost of animals 1,020

b Cost of feed for 9 months 49,119

c Veterinary aid @ ` 200/- per animal 800

d Miscellaneous @ ` 500/- per animal 2,000

Sub-Total 52,539

Grand Total ( Rounded-off) 1,28,739

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CHAPTER 8 – FISHERIES

1. Fresh water fish culture in new ponds (ha)

A Capital Cost – Unit size : 1 ha Sl.No Particulars Units Quantum Rate (`) Total

1 Site clearance L/S 10,000

2 Construction of pond including digging, bund construction and compaction and consolidation (using earth moving equipments)

Hrs 40 2200 88,000

3 Tube well & Diesel Pump Set 3 HP 1 35000 60,000

4 Inlet/outlet sluices L/S 12,000

5 Store Room/rest room Sq ft 80 375 30,000

6 Nets and other implements L/S 10,000

Subtotal "A" 2,10,000

B Operational cost for one crop 1 Lime Kgs 300 7 2,100

2 Single Super Phosphate Kgs 250 9 2,250

3 Urea Kg 125 9 1,125

4 Raw Cow Dung Tons 10 500 5,000

5 Fish Seed Catla (2000), Rohu(1500) and Mrigal (1500) – advanced fingerlings

Nos 5,000 5 25,000

6 Fish Feed Kg 4,000 15 60,000

7 Charges for pumping & Harvesting etc. LS 20,000

8 Miscellaneous LS LS 5,525

Subtotal "B" 1,21,000

Total A +B 3,31,000

Sl. No.

Activity Unit Cost (Amount in ` )

1 Fresh water fish culture in new ponds (1 ha) – Indian Major Carps namely Catla, Rohu, Mrigal and other carps like Silver, Grass & Common carps

3,31,000

2 Fresh water prawn culture (1 ha)- Macrobrachium rosenbergii 4,11,500

3 Culture of Freshwater cat fish - Pangasius sutchi 5,68,000

4 Breeding and rearing of Ornamental fishes ( small unit) 1,50,000

5 Brackish water Shrimp farming- White leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei 22,63,000

6 Non mechanized fishing Boat- Traditional boats 3,00,000

7 Motorization - Traditional boat with Outboard Motor 1,00,000

8 Off shore fishing boat with steel hull- 20 meter OAL 67,81,000

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2. Fresh water prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Sl.

No. Particulars Unit Quantity Rate (`) Total

A. Capital Cost 1 Construction of pond (digging & bund construction) by

Machine using Proclainer cum 40 2200 88,000

2 Sectioning, consolidation and compaction of bunds manually

Man days

100 200 20,000

3 Diesel pump set of 5 HP no. 1 35000 60,000

4 Pump house cum Store room cum Watchman room - AC sheet roofing

Sq. feet

120 250 30,000

5 Inlet and outlet (sluices) LS 12,000

6 Sampling Nets, water testing kit, plastic buckets, secchi disk and other implements

LS 10,000

7 Misc. expenses including pipe lines etc. LS 5,000

Sub Total 2,25,000

B. Operational cost for 1 crop (8 months) incl. nursery rearing of 45 to 60 days

1 Lime kg 800 7 5,600

2 Inorganic fertilizer ( SSP ) kg 50 9 450

3 Inorganic fertilizer (DAP) kg 50 10 500

4 Seed ( post larvae) from hatchery nos. 50000 0.75 37,500

5 Feed (pelleted feed ) for nursery phase kg 20 60 1200

6 Feed (pelleted feed ) for grow out phase kg 1500 50 75,000

7 Charges for pumping of water LS 15,000

8 Watch and ward including feeding charges Man days

240 150 36,000

9 Harvesting including labor charges for cleaning, grading and packing

LS 10,000

10 Miscellaneous expenditure LS 5,250

Sub Total 1,86,500

Total Cost 4,11,500

C Production and techno-economic parameters

Sl.No Particulars Unit Values

1 Capital Cost ` lakh 2.10

2 Recurring Cost ` lakh 1.21

Total Cost ` lakh 3.31

C. Production and Income

1 Survival % 85%

2 Average size at harvest Kg 1.00

3 Total Production Kg 4250

4 Farm gate sale price `/Kg 50

5 Gross Income ` lakh 2.13 Capture fisheries

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C Production and techno-economic parameters

Sl. No. Particulars Values

1 Survival nursery rearing (%) 65

2 Survival grow out pond (%) 80

3 Average weight at harvest (g) 50

4 Total Production (kg) 1300

5 Farm gate price (`) 220

6 No. of crops per annum one

7 Income during 1st year ( 85 % of total production) in `

2,43,100

8 Income from 2nd year onwards (in `) 2,86,000

3. Brackish Water Shrimp Culture (Litopenaeus vannamei) in 1 Ha

Sl. No.

Particulars

Unit

Quantity Rate

(`)

Total

A Capital Cost

1 Construction of pond (digging & bund construction) by machine

Hr. 40 2200 88,000

2 Inlet and outlet structures for pond Nos. 2 15000 30,000

3 Main outlet sluice Nos. 1 30000 30,000

4 Pump House Sq. ft. 100 300 30,000

5 Office, Laboratory and Store Sq. ft. 350 300 1,05,000

6 Watchman Shed Sq. ft 100 300 30,000

7 Pump set with accessories 1 60000 60,000

8 Aerators(long arm) 1HP 4 23000 92,000

9 Electrical installations/Power Supply including transformer 60000 60,000

10 Reservoir construction Ha 40 2000 80,000

11 Crab Fencing RMT 400 100 40,000

12 Bird scare/ Birdnet Sq. m 2000 30 60,000

13 Laboratory and Farm equipment including chemicals Lumpsum 75000 75,000

14 Miscellaneous expenditure 25000 25,000

Sub Total 8,05,000

B Operational cost for one crop (4 months)

1 Cost of shrimp seed ( PL20) No. 500000 0.75 3,75,000

2 Formulated Pelleted Feed (FCR 1:2) kg 13000 70 9,10,000

3 Lime kg 500 7 3500

4 Urea kg 125 9 1125

5 SSP kg 280 9 2520

6 Cattle dung tonne 5 500 2500

7 Electricity/diesel charges for water filling/exchange Lumpsum 50000 50,000

Prawn culture

Unit Cost 2015-16 Karnataka Regional Office

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Sl. No.

Particulars

Unit

Quantity Rate

(`)

Total

8 Repairs and maintenance Lumpsum 10000 10000

9 Harvesting charges kg 10000 1 10000

10 Farm Supervisor wages month 4 10000 40000

11 Mechanic month 4 5000 20000

12 Watchman (2 nos.) salary month 2 4000 8000

13 Office expenses and Misc. Expenses, bleaching powder Lumpsum 25000 25355

Sub Total 14,58,000

Total Cost 22,63,000

C Production and techno-economic parameters

1 Survival grow out pond (%) 80

2 Average weight at harvest (g) 25

3 Total Production (kg) from 2 crops 20,000

4 Farm gate price (`) 200

5 No. of crops per annum 2

6 Income in Rupees during 1st year (75%) of income 15,00,000

7 Income in Rupees from 2nd year onwards ( 85%) 34,00,000

4. Mechanized fishing Boat for Off Shore Fishing

A Capital Cost

Sl. No.

Particulars

Units

Quantum Rate (`)

Total

1 Cost of Mechanized boat with steel Hull 20M length 6M breath 3 M depth Diesel tank cap 8000 Ltrs Fish hold 20000 Kgs

1 As per Quotation

42,00,000

2 Marine Diesel Engine 350 HP with Gear box and accessories

Nos 1 As per Quotation

18,90,000

3 300 Kgs Net / Trawl net and accessories Kgs 1 2,50,000

4 Fish Finder Nos 65,000

5 GPS Nos 120 250 32,000

6 VHF Nos L/S 30,000

7 Misc Equipments 8,000

Sub Total 64,75,000

B Operational cost for one fishing Trip (10 days )

1 Diesel and Oil Ltrs 1000 50 50000

2 Crew wages / food charges Fresh water etc 2000 15 crew 30000

3 Cost of Ice Kg 10000 6 60000

4 Maintenance charges of assets 10% 30833

6 Crew Share and marketing expenses Kg LS 30% 120000

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A Capital Cost

Sl. No.

Particulars

Units

Quantum Rate (`)

Total

8 Miscellaneous LS LS 15167

Sub Total 306,000

Total Cost (A +B) 6,781,000

C. Production and Income Unit Qty Sale price Total income

First grade fish Kgs 5000 70 350000

2 Second grade fish Kg 2500 30 75000

3 Total income per trip of 10 days Rs 425000

5 Gross Income for one year ` lakh 21 trips 89.25

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CHAPTER 9- STORAGE GODOWNS, POLYHOUSES & SHADE NETS

1. GRAIN GODOWN Sl.

No. Particulars Unit Cost (per MT) Amt.(`) Remarks

a. Grain Godowns upto capacity of 1000 MT 3,500-4,000 9 years with 2 years GP

b. Grain Godowns of capacity of more than 1000 MT 3,000-3,500 7 years with 2 years gp

A. REQUIREMENTS OF AN IDEAL GRAIN STORAGE STRUCTURE

The object of an ideal grain storage structure is to control and reduce the storage losses from rodents, insects and micro-organisms, birds, moisture and heat to a minimum. In designing and constructing storage structure, the following points shall be borne in mind:

1.All holes, pipes and ducts and other openings shall be guarded by suitable means, such as gratings, etc., in order to prevent the entry of rats and other vermin.

2.The structure shall have smooth, crack free internal surfaces and shall have no unnecessary cavities and projections to prevent the lodgment from insects and vermin. The structure shall be designed so as to facilitate its sealing for fumigation or have facility to seal a portion where fumigation has to be carried out, or it may be made completely airtight if required.

3.Godowns should have good ventilation arrangement to prevent moisture accumulation in pockets.

4.The structure shall be so oriented that it will receive the minimum solar radiation. Reflective external surfaces, insulating materials, sun shades, a minimum of glass surfaces, controlled ventilation and aeration, to reduce the internal temperature may be used.

B. LOCATION

The structure shall be located on a raised well-drained site, not liable to flooding or inundation and it shall be away from a place likely to be affected by seepage water and maintain safe distance from polluting factories, dairy/ poultry farms, etc.

In selecting the location, maximum attention should be paid to the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the area and the minimum distances should be maintained.

C. FOUNDATION

Suitable foundation of adequate depth (minimum one meter), depending upon the site conditions and nature of the subsoil, shall be provided. The foundation, in general, shall consist of lean cement concrete (1:5:10) for the walls and reinforced cement concrete (1:2:4) footings for reinforced cement concrete columns according to design. A levelling course of lean cement concrete (1:5:10), at least 75mm thick, shall be provided under the reinforced cement concrete footings. The foundation on both the sides shall be refilled with good earth, if available, free from salts, organic or other foreign matter or with sand and shall be compacted and made flush with the ground level.

D. PLINTH

The plinth shall be generally kept about 80 cm above the finished ground level. Platforms should be provided along the length of the godown in order to facilitate loading and unloading. The minimum width of the platform should be kept at 3.05 m for rail-fed godowns and 2.45 m for road-fed godowns. The platform should be provided with an outward slope of 1 in 40 in order to prevent the rain water from getting inside the godowns through the doors. The platforms shall be preferably covered. Movable steps are to be provided so that they can be pulled away from the godown entrances when not required.

Grain godown

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E. FLOORING

The flooring in the godown should be damp proof, rigid, durable and free from any cracks and crevices.

The cement concrete flooring shall be laid in panels not exceeding 3.5 m2 in area and a length of 2.5 m in any one of the directions. Such panels shall be suitably adjusted so as to avoid transfer of any uneven load at the joints under the stacking bays and alleyways.

Where stone slabs are available at a cheaper rate, the flooring may be of this material.

F. WALLS

The design of the walls shall be in accordance with the general constructional practices (IS: 1905-1969) and care shall be taken that the tensile stresses do not exceed the cracking limit.

The longitudinal walls shall be of brick or stone masonry in cement mortar (1:6) and shall be atleast 5.60 m high for road-fed and 6.35 m for rail-fed godowns from the floor level. The walls shall be atleast 34 cm thick with RCC columns at a spacing of 4.65 m centre to centre in order to provided support for trusses.

G. ROOF

Roof shall be of single span structural steel or tubular trusses. The design of the trusses shall be in accordance with the general constructional practices and relevant Indian Standards. The roofing material may be corrugated asbestos sheets or galvanized corrugated sheets, steel sheets or corrugated aluminium sheets. The sheets shall project atleast 46 cm from the outer surface of the longitudinal walls.

H. DOORS

A door shall be provided preferably opposite each alleyway. The doors shall normally be steel rolling shutters. The doors shall be not less than 2.45 m X 1.83 m.

I. VENTILATORS

In longitudinal walls two steel ventilators of opening not less than 1.494 m X 0.594 m shall be provided in each bay between RCC columns spaced 4.50 m centre to centre. The ventilators shall be fixed 15 cm below the top edge of the wall measured from inside the godown. They shall be provided with glazed centre-hung with fixed wire mesh (3.28 cm X 6.56 cm) shutters. In between these ventilators, air inlets of 0.62 m X 0.62 m glazed openable outside double hung in each bay shall also be provided at 60 cm from the floor level of the godown except in those bays in which a rolling shutter is provided.

J. FINISHING

The internal surfaces of the walls of godown shall be cement plastered and external faces up to floor level shall be smooth plastered. The internal faces may be white washed and external faces provided with colourwash.

K. DRAINAGE

Proper arrangement such as cast iron or asbestos cement pipes of diameter not less than 10 cm shall be provided to drain off the rain water from the roofs of main godown and platform.

World Food Day – 16, October

World Food Day (WFD) was

established by FAO's Member

Countries at the Organization's 20th

General Conference in November

1979

The theme for world food day for

2015 was ‘Social Protection and

Agriculture: Breaking the Cycle of

Rural Poverty’

Either we build a future for all, or

there will be no acceptable future

for anyone. Let’s be the zero hunger

generation.

Either we build a future for all, or there will be no acceptable future for anyone: Let’s be the Zero Hunger Generation!

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2. COLD STORAGE Particulars Unit Cost (per MT)

Amt. (`) Remarks

Cold Storage unit of 5000 MT capacity 6,000-8,000

- 9 years (without subsidy) with GP of 2 years - 7 years (with subsidy) with GP of 2 years Variation is on account of suitability for multi products storage.

A. Economic size of unit and land requirements:

Cold storage units can be used to store either a single commodity or multiple commodities. Financial viability of a unit depends upon the intended pattern of use and rental rate prevalent in an area. However, units entirely to be used by the owners are also considered for sanction. Considering 70:30 utilization of the capacity for rentals and own use, a 5000 MT capacity unit is considered as viable. To set up a 5000 MT capacity cold storage unit (with 17,000 cu. m. storage space requirement) although one acre of land may be adequate, it is always better to have two acres of land to take care of future expansions and waste management. While selecting the site care should be taken to select a site at an elevation free from inundation and well connected by road and other communication facilities to both production and consumption centers. The land should be of non-agricultural type and the soil at the site should be firm enough to carry the weight of the building and storage racks.

B. Technology

A cold storage unit incorporates a refrigeration system to maintain the desired room environment for the commodities to be stored. A refrigeration system works on two principles:

a) Vapor absorption system (VAS), and

b) Vapor compression system (VCS)

VAS, although comparatively costlier, is quite economical in operation and adequately compensates the higher initial investment. Wherever possible such a system should be selected to conserve on energy and operational cost. However, it has its own limitations when temperature requirement is below 100 degree Celsius and many of the fruits and vegetables except seeds, mango, etc. require lower than 100 degree Celsius for long storage. VCS is comparatively cheaper than VAS. There are three types of VCS systems available depending upon the cooling arrangements in the storage rooms i.e., diffuser type, bunker type and fin coil type. Diffuser type is comparatively costlier and is selected only when the storage room heights are low. The operational cost of such units is also higher. Bunker type is the cheapest and is preferred when storage room heights normally exceeds 11.5 m. Its operational cost is also low. Fin coil type, although about 5% costlier than the bunker type, is very energy efficient with low operational cost and higher space availability for storage of produce. Such system is used for units with room heights of 5.4m onwards. In a refrigeration system, refrigerants are used to pick up heat by evaporation at a lower temperature and pressure from the storage space and give up the heat by condensation at a higher temperature and pressure in a condenser. Freon used to be a common refrigerant but it causes environmental degradation. Therefore, Ammonia is being increasingly used and preferred for horticultural and plantation produce cold storage units. Although several types of compressors and condensers are available, medium speed reciprocating compressors and atmospheric condensers are preferred because of the relatively lower cost, energy efficiency and ease in maintenance. While selecting size of the equipment, care should be taken to assess all loads and proper provision should be made to take care of the peak demand during summer loading and aging of the equipment. Heat load factors normally considered in a cold storage design are:

i) Wall, floor and ceiling heat gains due to conduction

ii) Wall and ceiling heat gains from solar radiation

iii) Load due to ingression of air by frequent door openings and during fresh air charge.

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iv) Product load from incoming goods

v) Heat of respiration from stored product

vi) Heat from workers working in the room

vii) Cooler fan load

viii) Light load

ix) Ageing of equipment

x) Miscellaneous loads, if any

C. Structural requirement

Although the storage space provision will vary according to the room height and technology being selected. Normally, a provision of 3.4 m3 per MT of potato is considered for finalizing the room size with the bunker type of VCS technology. For other commodities, space adjustment should be made with relation to their bulk density as compared to potato. Proper soil testing and rack design need to be ensured. The rack system and its foundation should be strong enough to support weight of commodities. Normally, raft foundation is preferred for racks.

D. Insulation

All the sides of the cold storage room need to be insulated in order to maintain the required temperature inside. Various types of insulating materials are used for insulation of side walls, partition walls, floor and roof. However, the most commonly used insulation material is thermo-coal and sometimes Poly Urethane Fibre (PUF) panels are also used for insulation depending upon the economics of the project. Proper thickness of insulating material should be used for insulation of walls. Normally, two layers of insulating material are used for insulation. A minimum 100 mm thickness of low density thermo-coal need to be used for sun facing walls and roof, whereas 80 mm thickness of low density thermo-coal may be used for other two walls. Partition walls need to be insulated with 40 mm low density thermo-coal and a thickness of 80 mm high density thermo-coal is necessary for floors.

E. Utilities

Availability of soft water and dependable power supply at the site needs to be ensured. In case the power available is not dependable, provision of a Diesel Generator set should be incorporated in the project. Similarly if water at site is not soft and its hardness is within the limit for treatment, a softening plant has to be incorporated to match the capacity.

F. Physical and Financial Outlay

The following physical provisions with their costs are considered for a cold storage unit:

a) Site development including leveling, fencing, road, drainage, etc.

b) Civil structures including main cold storage building rack provisions, drying shed, machinery room, store for consumables, generator room, office, security cabin, etc.

c) Insulation of main cold store building

d) Machinery for cooling, air movement, loading, grading and weighing

e) Electric supply arrangement with 125 KW total electrical load including installation of transformer and deposits for requisite connection

f) Standby electric supply arrangement/ DG set

g) Water supply arrangement and treatment plant, if required

h) Pollution control and waste disposal equipment

i) Miscellaneous fixed assets including office equipment and furniture

j) Preliminary and preoperative expenses

k) Contingency

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l) Margin money for working capital

Wherever market is there for ice, an ice plant of the suitable size may be incorporated for better utilization of the facilities and higher income. If an ice plant is included with the cold storage, the additional investment for ice plant may also be included in the financial outlay.

3. ONION STORAGE STRUCTURE Particulars Unit Cost (per MT)

Amt. (`)

Remarks

Construction of Onion Storage Structure of 25 MT capacity

4,000 - 9 years (without subsidy) with gp of 2 years - 7 years (with subsidy with gp of 2 years Proper aeration and ventilation may be provided

Every agricultural commodity is required to be stored properly to prolong the availability with minimum qualitative and quantitative losses. The onion bulb is a natural food store for the plant, but it is a living system undergoing a process of development towards sprouting, and is subject to decay by various disease causing organisms. The objective of storage technology is to maintain the bulbs for as long as possible in an unchanged sound condition with longer shelf life, and allow them to transport and market after removal from store without much losses. For this, two basic strategies i.e. high temperature dormancy of onion bulbs and maintaining storage temperature at around 300 C need to be exploited. The physiological and pathological processes that proceed within a store of onion bulbs interact with the physical process of heat and water vapour exchange so as to mutually influence the environment within the store.

i) Onion Storage Structure Requirements

For effective long storage of onion the parameters essential to be looked after are the bulb size, choice of cultivars, cultivation practices, time of harvest, field curing, removal of tops, drying, grading, packing, storage conditions (optimum storage range of relative humidity 65% to 70% with the temperature ranging between 250 to 300 degree Celsius).

Salient Features of Improved Storage Structures are:

a) Construction of structure on a raised platform to prevent moisture and dampness due to direct contact of bulbs with the soil.

b) Use of Mangalore tile type roof or other suitable materials to prevent built up of high inside temperature.

c) Increased centre height and more slope for better air circulation and preventing humid micro climate inside godown.

d) Providing bottom and side ventilations for free and faster air circulation and to avoid formation of hot and humid pockets between the onion layers.

e) Avoid direct sunlight or rain water falling on onion bulbs to reduce sun scald, fading of colour and quality deterioration.

f) Maintenance of stacking height to avoid pressure bruising.

g) Periodical disinfection of structures and premises to check rottage.

h) Cost effectiveness of structures is based on utilization of locally available material for the construction.

For onion storage, technology may be either with natural ventilation or with forced ventilation. Although cold storage systems are used in certain countries for onion, this is normally not adopted in India due to poor economics and lack of cold chain facilities required to maintain the quality in the high ambient temperature prevalent in our country. Onion storage in ventilation condition is quite satisfactory when the temperature is maintained between 25oC to 30oC with a relative humidity range of 65% to 70%. This environment reduces the storage losses, which are in the form of physiological loss in weight, rotting and sprouting. The onion storage structure should be oriented in the North - South direction i.e., length facing the East-West direction. The storage of onion will be on raised perforated platform of 0.60 m height with bottom and side ventilations. The ground clearance may be 60 cm with

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side opening of up to 80%. Height of storage under ventilation storage should be in the range of 90 cm to 150 cm. For a 25 MT storage, the size of onion storage area will be 4.5m X 6.0m. The width of storage may be reduced depending upon the availability of local construction material and ambient condition. The length of storage structure may be increased to suit the requirements of the individual farmers. The minimum overhang of 1.5 m on the windward side and 0.5 m on all other sides should be provided to protect the produce from sunlight and rain. At leeward side, the opening below the platform should be closed to direct the air upward for better ventilation. Where storms/ cyclones are expected, leeward side should not be closed when the windward side is open. During storm there should be a provision to close the windward side. Emphasis should be laid for better area utilization efficiency. The overall dimensions of a 25 MT structure may be 6.5 m X 7.0 m. The dimensions can be adjusted depending upon the capacity and site conditions. The roof of the structures may be either Mangalore tile type or ACC sheets for a single tire arrangement or RCC for two tier systems. In case of Mangalore tiles, proper fixation should be done at the ends to prevent damage by air. If cheaper materials are available which can prevent heat built up at the top of the structure, they can also be used. The foundations should only support the pillars to bear the load of the structure and wind. Continuous half brick thick wall may be provided on the leeward side below the storage platform to serve as a wind barrier. MS angles may be used for the truss and pillars. Half split bamboo sticks supported by MS angle frames may be used for storage of onion. Side walls can also be of chain link (GI wire) type.

ii) Physical and Financial Outlay

The following physical provisions with their costs are considered for an onion storage godown.

1. Site development including levelling, fencing, drainage, etc.,

2. Construction of onion storage shed as per the principles indicated above,

3. Provision of wooden beams for the floor and bamboo sticks for sides and floors,

4. Provision of poly ethylene sheets/ gunny bags for preventing sunlight or rain falling on onion.

5. Contingency.

iii) Techno - financial parameters adopted for working out the economics of a 25 MT onion storage structure

Sl. No.

Particulars Details

i) Land requirement 6.5 m X 7.0 m

ii) Storage space requirement 4.5 m X 6.0 m

iii) Technology preferred Natural or forced ventilation maintaining a temperature between 25 Degree Celsius and 30 degree Celsius with a relative humidity range of 65 to 70%

iv) Clearance of storage platform from the ground 60 cm

v) Height of the storage platform 90 to 150 cm

vi) Cost of construction ` 1,00,000/- ( unit cost of ` 4000 per MT)

vii) Capacity 25 MT

viii) Capacity utilization 100%

ix) Weight loss in onion upto 3 months 12.50%

x) Onion sold upto 3 months 50%

xi) Weight loss in onion from 3rd to 6th month 12.50%

xii) Onion sold between 3rd and 6th months 50%

xiii) Life of the storage structure 15 years

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4. POLYHOUSE STRUCTURE Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse (Tubular structure) is most suitable for Karnataka State. Wooden structure is not

recommended due to safety factors and high maintenance cost

Sl. No.

Particulars Unit Cost (Amount in

`/sq m)

Remarks

1 Naturally Ventilated Poly House – Tubular Structure

Repayment varies depending on the type of crop

a Upto 500 sq.m – `. 1060 / sq.m 1060

b More than 500 sq.m upto 1008 sq.m – `. 935 / sq.m 935

c More than 1008 sq.m upto 2080 sq.m – `. 890 / sq. m 890

d More than 2080 sq.m upto 4000 sq.m – `. 844 / sq.m 844

2 Shade Net House – Tubular Structure - `. 710 / sq.m 710

3 Cost of Planting Material / Cultivation Expenses

a Vegetables – ` 140 / sq.m 140

b Orchid / Anthurium – `. 700 / sq.m 700

c Carnation / Gerbera – ` 610 / sq.m 610

d Rose / Lilium – ` 426 / sq.m 426

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CHAPTER 10 - RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

Average cost of investment in various types of renewable energy installations is as under.

Sl. No. Type of Source Cost/MW (` crore)

1 Wind Energy 4.50 to 6.85

2 Solar PV Plant 9.40 to 10

3 Solar Thermal Plant 12.75 to 14

4 Biomass Gasification 5.00/ 6.00

5 Small Hydro 6 .00-7.00

Solar roof top PV power plant costs Rs. 80,000 to 90,000 per KW capacity.

Unit cost of Off grid Solar systems are as per the MNRE GoI operational guidelines. Details are as under.

Sl. No.

Devices Central Financial assistance Benchmark Cost

1 Solar Water Heaters (ETC) 1) ` 2,550/- per sq. m. or 30% of cost whichever is less 2) ` 2,400/- per Sq. m. or 30% of cost whichever is less

1) ` 8,500/- per Sq. m for Domestic 2) ` 8,000/- per Sq. m for Commercial

2 Solar Water Heaters (FPC) 1) ` 3,300/- per Sq. m. or 30% of cost whichever is less 2) ` 3,000/- per Sq. m. or 30% of cost whichever is less

1) ` 11,000/- per Sq. m. for Domestic 2) ` 10,000/- per Sq. m for Commercial

3 Solar Concentrator (Manual tracking)

` 2,100/- per Sq. m. or 30% of cost whichever is less

` 7,000/- per Sq. m.

4 Solar Concentrator (Single axis tracking)

` 5,400/- per Sq. mt. or 30% of cost whichever is less

` 18,000/- per Sq. m.

5 Solar P.V. Systems (with Battery bank) Applicable to Solar Street light)

30% of cost 1) 300 Wp to 1 kWp 2)>1 kWp to 10 kWp 3) > 10 kWp to 100 kWp

1) ` 210/- per watt 2) ` 190/- per watt 3) ` 170/- per watt

6 Solar P.V. Systems (With out Battery bank) Applicable to Solar Street light)

30% of cost 1) Upto 100 kWp 2)>100 kWp to 500 kWp

1) ` 100/- per watt 2) ` 90/- per watt

7 Solar Water pumps Upto 5 kWp ` 190/- per watt

8 Aerogenerators / Wind –solar Hybrid Systems

a) ` 1.50 lakh per kW for Govt./Public/Charitable, R&D, academic and other non-profit making institution. b) ` 1.00 lakh per kW for other beneficiaries not covered under a) i.e Individuals and private/ corporate sector will come under this category.

` 2.5 lakh per kW

9 Box type Solar Cooker Capable of cooking 1 kg of food . No Government Subsidy for this type of Solar Cookers.. But interest free loan is available for the users and individuals through IREDA and some of the banks.

` 5000/- (with electrical backup) and ` 4000/- (without electrical backup)

10 Dish Solar Cookers Can cook food for 10 to 15 persons. MNRE subsidy of 30% cost subject to a maximum of Rs 1500/- per cooker is available for rural areas.

` 7,000/-

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11 Community Solar Cooker For 35 to 40 persons. MNRE subsidy of 30% cost subject to a maximum of Rs 15,000/- per cooker is available for rural areas

` 50,000/-

12 Solar Steam Cooker It can cook twice a day for 10,000 persons. MNRE provides subsidy of 50% of ex-works cost of system.

` 55.00 lakh

13 Alternate fuel surface transportation – Two wheeler (low speed)

` 4,000/- or 20% ex-works cost of vehicles whichever is less.

` 35,000/-

14 Alternate fuel surface transportation – Two wheeler (High speed)

` 5,000/- or 20% ex-works cost of vehicles whichever is less.

` 45,000/-

15 Alternate fuel surface transportation – Three wheeler (7 seater)

` 60,000/- or 20% ex-works cost of vehicles whichever is less.

16 Alternate fuel surface transportation – Passenger car (4 seater)

` 1,00,000/- or 20% ex-works cost of vehicles whichever is less.

` 3,75,000/- to 4,50,000/-

17 Alternate fuel surface transportation – Bus/Mini Bus (Four wheelers buses minimum 10 seater and above)

` 4,00,000/- or 20% ex-works cost of vehicles whichever is less.

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC (SPV) WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS FOR IRRIGATION The unit cost is on the basis of nature of the location on which the pump is proposed to be used along with the capacity of the unit and type of connection (AC/DC). The details are covered in NABARD Circular No. B l /DoR-GSS- 4 | 2O14 dated 23 July 7014. Applicable subsidy is @40% of the indicative unit cost limiting to norms stated in the circular.