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ABHIRNARAJ NAYAKDEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERINGVEER SURENDRA SAI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

OUTLINESINTRODUCTIONOBJECTIVES OF RESERCHDEFINITION : SAFETY CULTURESAFETY CULTURE : A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKSTEPS TO MAKE JOB SITE SAFERCONCLUSION

INTRODUCTIONThe construction industry is unique among other industries as the activities of construction often take place in the outdoor under conditions not conducive for safety and health.

Workers in the construction sites have to face constant change in the nature of work, the location of work and the mix of workers. construction industry with dangerous working environment and high risk as compared to others High accidents in construction industry are causing losses of the number of labours

If situation not reduced if possible prevented, it will hinder the country's economic growth in becoming a developed country in year 2020 (CIDB, 2000).

OBJECTIVES OF RESERCHTo identify factors involved in the development of safety culture through searching and reviewing previous research

To present the findings of the literature review as a guide to understand the issues and problems in the development of safety culture in the construction industry.

To develop safety culture conceptual framework in the construction industry

DEFINITION : SAFETY CULTURE

human behaviours (and thus at an individual level, safe or unsafe behaviours) are partly guided by personal beliefs, values, and attitudes

the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of an organization's health and safety

management characterized by communications founded on mutual trust, shared perceptions of the importance of safety and by confidence in the efficacy of preventative measures (ACSNI, 1993

SAFETY CULTURE : A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKManagement actions towards safety

Status of safety adviser and safety committee Importance of health and safety training; and

Social status of safety and promotion

SAFETY CULTURE : A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Effective communication, it leads to commonly understood goals and means to achieve them at all levels.

Good organizational learning, whereby organizations are able to identify and respond appropriately to changes.

Organizational focus upon health and safety, how much time and attention is essentially paid to health and safety.

External factors, including the financial health of the organization, the prevailing economic climate and impact of regulation and how well these are managed.

Make safety committees and safety managers a part of the jobProactive companies may establish a safety committee composed of upper management, risk managers, safety directors, and operational staff to continually discuss and review safety performance

The safety manager should be viewed as a resource to help continually review and enhance the efforts made by everyone on site

Every person on a project site is responsible for safety.

Plan safety into the projectevery project is built on paper first, safety begins with pre-planning. All exposures should be identified and addressed in preplanning, from excavation to foundation, and superstructure to fit out.

pre-planning allows the project to run un-impeded by minimizing the potential for accidents that can hamper productivity and cause schedule delayssafety plan should be developed to provide an overview of the scope of the work and the names, roles and responsibilities of key personnel

Train workers for safety . Workers need to be trained to properly use a variety of safety equipment, such as fall arrest systems, and they need to know the appropriate regulations.

-depth review of the safety requirements and expectations, evacuation plans and procedures, Orientation shouldnt be limited to new hires. The company should provide orientation specific to each project

Focus on fall management A successful fall management program provides a uniform set of procedures for all workers and is an essential part of project pre-planning.

A detailed fall management plan should be developed for each operation where the potential of falls from elevations will be encountered

The plan should also address retrieval procedures necessary to rescue workers should a fall occur.

Make safety an everyday topic Weekly toolbox safety talks are a common way to remind workers about safety procedures and to address concerns. But safety should be an everyday topic.

the hazards involved and the safety controls, and make sure that the workers have the right protective gear and that all safety concerns are addressed

Regular, planned field safety inspections can help solve a host of issues while also improving safety

Review accidents and near missesCompanies should start with the mindset that accidents are not inevitable. In the event that there is an accident, the facts and circumstances should be reviewed to identify root causes

Regular accident review meetings between field managers and executives send a clear message that safety should be paramount.

Project executives should participate in claims review meetings with insurers to get first-hand information on the claims in their projects

Work with your insurer and risk management experts Proactive companies take a collaborative approach to safety with risk management experts and their insurers at every step of the project

Risk engineers may bring a new set of eyes to a project and can help identify issues that may be overlooked. This may occur because the company is focusing on major hazards , by working with their insurers, construction companies can save lives, reduce accidents and lower the costs associated with injuries and delays.

Toward zero injuries A safer company suffers fewer losses, enjoys lower costs, becomes a more competitive bidder and makes it more attractive to potential clients and insurers

The construction industry is always adopting new methods, new equipment and new machinery. Safety has to continually adapt to the new ways that workers are performing their jobs.

. The ultimate goal should be zero injuries. By partnering with the right insurer, companies can move closer to that goal.

CONCLUSION, current definitions of safety culture remain rather vague and variable, and current knowledge does not permit precise statements about which factors are most important in which organizations the organization be willing to look at itself and make fundamental changes in the way it pursues its core activities. These limitations not withstanding, the importance and usefulness of organizational culture as it pertains to workplace safety appears to be broadly accepted by researchers

REFERENCESAdvisory Committee for Safety in Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) (1993). ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors. Third Report: Organizing for Safety. London: Health and Safety Executive. Alves Dias, L.M. and Coble, R.J. eds. (1996). Implementation of Safety and Health on Construction Sites. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. Armstrong, M. and Stephens, T. (2005). A Handbook of Management and Leadership: A Guide to Managing for Results. London: Kogan Page. . Booth, R.T. (1995). The Role of Human Factors and Safety Culture in Safety Management. Proceedings of the IME. 209(1), 393-399. Clarke, S. (1999). Perceptions of Organizational Safety: Implications for the Development of Safety Culture. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 20(2), 185-198. Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (2000). Construction Industry: Issues and Challenges. Proceedings of the CIDB Workshop on Technology Foresight. March 2122. Kuala Lumpur: CIDB. 13-19.

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