Abhyankar Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar

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<p>1 :., L...A DICTIONARY OF SANSKRITGRAMMAR By L a t t ~Mahiimahopadhyaya KashinathVasudevAbhyankar, M.A., RetiredProfessorof Sanskrit, GujaratCollege,Ahmedabad; Hon. Professorof Sanskrit, BhandarkarOrientalResearchInstitute,Poona and J.M.Shukla, M.A.,Ph.D., Retired Reader of Sanskrit, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380009 OrientalInstitute. Baroda 1986 First Edition :1961 Second Revised Edition: 1977 Third Edition (Reprint):1986 Copies: 2000 All Rights reserved by the Publishers Price Rs.99.50 Ps. Copies can be had of:-The Manager, UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS SALES UNIT, M.S.UniversityofBarodaPress,(SadhanaPress), NearPalaceGate,PalaceRoad.Baroda-390001 T ',I / Re-printed byPhoto-offsetprocess at the "Navajivan Press. P.O. Navajivan. Ahmedabad-380014" for Shri P. N.Srivastav,Manager, The Malu!/aja Sayajirao University of Baroda Press (Sadhana Press), near Palace Gate, Palace Road. Baroda and published on behalf of the Maharaja Sayajirao University+-of BarodabyDr.S.G.Kantawala,Director,OrientalInstitute.MaharajaSayajiraoUniversityof Baroda. Baroda. March,1986." FOREWORD Thefirsteditionof"ADictionGlJ'of SanskritGrammar" byMahamahopa-dhyayaProfessorKashinathVasudevAbhyankarwaspublishedin1961as Gaekwad's Oriental Series No.134bythe Oriental Institute under the authority of the M.S.University of Baroda.In1977 its second revised edition by MM.Professor Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and Dr. Jayadevbhai Mohanlal Shukla was ed withanadditionof "aboutthreehundrednewentries"(Prefaceto the second edition .byDr.J.M.Shukla)asGaekwad'sOriental SeriesNo.134.Withinavery short span of time the edition went out of print indicating its importance and utility as areference-book. There hasbeen anincessant demand forthisbook and we are happyto bring out its third editioa.. Itendermy'mostsincerefeelingsof gratitudetoProfessorDr.M.N.Desai. Vice-Chancellor.M.S.University of Baroda for his keeo interest and for providing facilities for the reprint.I am grateful to Professor Parikh. Vice-Chancellor. GujaratVidyapeeth.Ahmedabadforhisinterestinthisworkbypersuadingthe NavajivanPresstoaccepttheprintingofthiswork."ADictionaryof Sanskrit Grammar"byphoto-offsetprocess.WearethankfultoShriJitendraT.Desai. GeneralManager,NavajivanPress.Ahmedabad.forhiscooperationandfor expediting the printing.I am alsothankful to ShriP.N.Srivastav.Manager.M.S. Universityof BarodaPressandalsoShriN.N.Shah.TechnicalAssistantandmy other colleaguesintheOrientalInstituteforcooperationandfo9'expeditingthe publication of this work.I Vadodara 24March.1986 S.G.KANTAWALA DIRECrOR ORIENTAL INSTITUTE PREFACETO' THESECONDEDITION Within afewyearsafterthe. publication.of'ADictionaryofSanskrit Grammar', the book became out of print.With continuous inquiries pouring in about itsavailability it wasthoughtnecessarythat asecondeditionshouldbe made available to the serious studentsof Sanskrit learning.Hence, a request was sent to theDirector,Oriental Institute,Baroda forthe issueof asecondedition. He readily acceptedthe request . Prof; K. V.Abhyankar:, my revered teacher asked me to revise all the entries, add afewmore referencestothe existing entriesandfurtheraddaboutthree hundred newentries.lreadily accepted hissuggestion.Thenewentriesare mostly of the nature of semantic terms. Before the printing of the book wastakenup atragiceventtookplace. Prof. Abhyankar, withMrs.Abhyankar,their two brilliant young grand children. and anagedservant,met with anunnatural andtragicdeath.Sanskrit scholars in India and the West were shockedatthisunprecedentedvagaryof Destiny. Prof.Abhyankar wasthemost authoritative of the grammariansactivein India.He enriched researchinVyakaraI,).asastrabyhisscholarlyworkslike Vakyapadiya,Paribhii!?asamgrahaotherswhichare indispensableto students of grammar. Iexpressmydeepandsincere senseof gratitudetoDr.A.N.lani,the presentDirector,Oriental' Institute,Baroda,forplanningthecompletionof printing of thisbook ina recordtimeof abouttenmonths.But forhiszest and vigourtheworkwouldnot have beencompletedsosoon. Iamparticularly thankfultoShriSiddharthaY.Wakankar,Research Officerof theOrientalInstitute,forscrupulouslycorrectingtheproofsof.this work. Ithank thelUthoritiesandworkersoftheM.S.UniversityPressfor expediting thepritingof thepresentwork. Ahmedabad, 21-10-77J.M.SHUKLA I II II iilijWr I qr:qe;.fii.1\II .I II" I IIII I. fclcr(iT6:II'"II I IIG, II l[fa:I II\SII fi.'1 II ! .- . INTRODUCTIONTOTHEFIRSTEDITION Objectof thisDictionary Noapologyisneededforundertakingthecompilationof thepresent 'Dictionaryof SanskritGrammar',which,althoughconcise,isexpectedtomeet theneedsofSanskritstholarsandresearchstudentsof Vyakaral)aandother Sastrasbyservingasausefulreferencebookintheirstudyof,. andresearch workin,anybranchof Sanskritlearning.Themanyindependenttreatisesin theseveralSastrasandthelearnedcommentariesuponthem,asatsothe commentariesonclassicalpoemsanddramas;are,in fact,fullof grammatical explanationsof wordsandconstructions,involvingaliberaluseof grammatical expressionsandtechnicaltermsatseveralplaces.Theelementaryknowledge . ofgrammarwhicha' scholarof Sanskrit possesses,isnotfoundsufficient forhisunderstandingfullythegrammaticalreferencesinthesebooks,especially soatpresent,whenthepracticeofsendingyoungboystotheSanskrit Piithasalastostudythestandardclassicalworkswithcommentariesalongwith somestandardelementarytreatisesongrammar,hasalreadyst,opped.The numberof SanskritPal)QitasandSastrins,whohadtoobtain asound footing in grammar before they undertook the study of the higher texts of theseveralSastras, andwho,therefore,couldbeconsultedbyyoungscholars and researchworkers intheseveralSastras,hasalsodiminishedconsiderably.The' usualSanskrit Dictionariessuchasthoseof MonierWilliams,V.S.Apteandothersarefound of no avail insupplying explanations of the grammatical technique which confronts modern scholars at every step in their critical reading of the several Sanskrittexts. Under these circumstances, it isonly the technicaldictionaries of thetypeofthe present'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar' that can render a valuable assistance to scholars and researchworkersintheirreadingof thehigherSanskrittextsinthe SeveralSastras. BeginningsofSanskrit Grammar Everysciencebasnecessarilyitsownterminologyandaspecialvocabulary. TheremarkistruewithrespecttoSanskritGrammaror Vyakaral)asastrawhich has.developedasascienceduringthelast twothousand yearsand hasgot several technicaltermsandnumerouswordswithaspecialgrammaticalsignificance. Theoriginof grammarcanwell-nighbetracedtothePeriodof the Brahmal)as i.e.about1000B.C.,whenVedicscholarsbegantodiscussthemeaningof the inspiredVedichymnsbycarefullyshowingdisconnected,thewordsof theVedic hymnsandnotingdownthedifferencesinaccentsasalsothechangescausedby theircoalescenceinthecontinuousrecitalortheSarilhitapatha.Theyalso triedtoexpla'inthesenseof the. Vedicwordsbytracingthembacktotheroots of suitablesensesandlaiddownrules for theirproper and correctpronunCiation. Thesethreepursuitsviz.(a)thediscussionof thefeaturesof thePadatext, x (b) thederivationof words,and(c)directionsregardingtheproperpronuncia-tionof theVedicwords,werecarriedonwithvigourwithaviewtopreserving theVedictextsintact,andthetreatisesdealingwiththesethreebrancheswere respectivelycalledbythenamesPrtitistikhya,Niruktaand,Sik$ti,allofwhich could rightly be. called Vyakarat)a or Grammar, as they were devoted to determining thecorrectwordsasdistinguishedfromtheincorrectones.Althougha numberof.bookswerewrittenbyVedicscholarsinthesethreebranches,not .morethanfiveor six Prtitisiikhyaworks,asolitaryNirukta, work,andafew worksaretheonlyavailableworksatpresent. Developmentof SanskritGrammar Incourseof time,ontheanalogyof thederivationof words,ananalysis of the word intoitsconstituent elementssuch asthebase,the 'affix,the augments themodifications,wasundertakenbygrammarians.Thisseparationof the different elements of a word constituted Vyakarat)a or grammar,whichwa,sdeve-jopedasan art by ancient grammarians likeApisali; Sakatayana and others before Pal}ini.It wasPanini who carried it to perfection,and his work, theA$ttidhytiyi, compactyetexhaustive,andlaconicyetclear,issimplyamarvellousproduct of art byamanof amazing intelligence.Asaresult,theworksongrammar by allancientscholarswhoflourishedbeforePalJinidisappearedincourseof time leavingonlyafewquotationsbehindthem.Pal}ini 'Wasfollowedbya:ilUmber of grammarianswhowrotepopulartreatisesongrammar,based,no on PaQini'sgrammar,someof which,intheirtumcametohaveauxiliaryworks, glossesandexplanatorycommentaries.Thesedifferenttreatises,writtenby Sarvavarman, . Candragomin,Devanaudin,PalyakirtiSakatayana,Hemacan-dra,KramadiSvara,Jumaranandin,Supadmaandotherswiththeirauxiliary works and commentaries, came to be looked upon as different systems of grammar. Thesetreatisespresenttwokindsof treatment:someof themarearranged .in Siitrasinthesamemannerastheof Pal}iniwhichtreatsoneafter another theseveralgrammaticalelementssuchas technicalterms,padasof roots, case-relations,compoundwords,krt affixes,taddhitaaffixes,substitutes,accents andeuphonicchanges;whileothersgiveatopic-wisetreatmentfollowinginthat respecttheancientgrammariansbeforePa1;linisuchasIndra,Vedicandotherswhotreatedoneafteranotherthedifferenttopicsofgrammarsuch astheeuphonicchanges,declension,conjugation,compoundformation,nouns I derivedfromroots,nounsderivedfromnounsandthelike.Thespecial featureof allthesegrammarswasthat theyentirelyomittedtheVedicpeculiari-tiesandaccents. SanskritGrammarasaScience Thesubjectof Sanskritgrammarwasfirsttreatedasasciencebythetwo epoch-makinggrammarians,firstbyKatyayana,afewcenturiesafter PalJini, and thenby Patafijali,theexponentofKatyayana,wholivedinthesecond century B.C.It wascarriedtoperfectionbythestalwartgrammarian Bhartrhari of the fifthcenturyA.D.Latergrammariaus, prominentamongwhonlwere xi layiiditya,Vamana,Kaiyata,Haradatta,Bhattoji,KOI}.QabhaHaandNagesa, developedbytheirsubstantialcontributions,theworkof PaI}.iniasascienceto suchanextentthatthenumberof smallerandgreaterworks:wellnighroseto eight hundredandthat of theauthorsto fourhundred.. Thegrammarof PaI)ini, which is looked upon as the standard one 'at present gives about a hundred technical terms,morethantwohundredsufIiXes,abouttwothousandprimaryrootsand morethanfivethousandspecialwordsarrangedinmorethantwohundredand fiftyclassesaccordingtothespecialgrammaticalshown'by.each class.Thenumberofindepedentprimarywords,besidesthese:fivethousand specialwords,ifroughlyestimated,mayexceedeventwenty-fivethousdan. Besidestheseprimaryroots,primarynouns,affixesandtechnical-. termsinthe differentSastras,there isavast number of secondary root, andsecondarynouns, whichisratherimpossibleeventobeapproximatelydetermined. NatureandScopeofthisDictionary Thepreparationofacomprehensive'dictionaryofSanskritGrammar, asubjectwhichhasbeendevelopedfullybySanskritGrammariansforthelast twothousand_years,iscertainlyastupendousworkwhichcanonlybedoneby aband of grammarianswhohavegot asound footing in the subject.In the light of what hasbeensaidabove,the present dictionary isonly an honestandhumble attemptinthatdirection,madebythecompilerwhowasinspiredto- undertake thisratherarduousventurebyhisclosestudyof thesubjectformorethansixty , yearsaccordingtothetraditionalmethodof theEast,combinedwith thecritical andcomparativemethodoftheWest.Astheworkwasdonesingle-handed,' andfinishedwithinalimitedtimewithaviewtomaking itavailabletostudents and scholarsof Sanskritat asearlyadateaspossible,thenumberof bookscon-suitedwasalimitedone.Thenumberof entriesismorethanfourthousand outof whichtheimportantonesareintheformof shortarticlessupplyingvery brieflythenecessaryinformationfromthedifferent sourceswithquotationsfrom orreferencestotheoriginalworks.Allthestandardworksingrammarhave beencarefully consulted including theavailable Prtitistikhyaworks,theMaluibhii- theKiiJikii,theVtikyapadiya,theSiddhiinta-Kaumudiandothers.The Kiilantra,theSdkatdy:ma,theJaitrendra,theHaimaandothergrammars,asalso thedifferent workshavebeenconsulted, atimportantplaces.Minor worksandcommentariesarenotconsultedas, theimportantwordsandtopics occurringthereinhavebeenmos:lyincludedhereonaccountof their occurrence inthemajorworks.Atentionis,of course,paidtogrammaical importanceand. significance,andonlysuch wordsandsuchsensesof themashaveagrammatical significance,havebeenincludedinthepresentdictionaryalongwith affixes,aug-ments,substitutesandt::chnicaltermsmos'.Iygivenin Pal)ini's grammar.Names of authorsandbooks,printedaswellasfoundinamanuscript form,havebeen includedasfaraspracticableinthepresentwork.Ascrupulousattentionhas beenpaidtothePrtitistikhyaworks,theandtheKiiJikiiwhichare lookeduponassupremelyauthoritativeinthe_fieldofSanskritgrammar.It mustbeadmittedthatthescholarlyindex worksof Dr.BothlingkandDr.Renou xii werefoundvery!lsefulinprovidingreferencesto. standard, grammarworks, Theabbreviationsforthetitlesofbooksconsultedandthoseof grammatical termsaregivenseparatelyat the beginning of the present'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar '.Namesofbooksandauthorshavebeensometimesgiveninthe RomanscriptandsometimesintheDevanagarIscript. Conclusion 'Acknowledgements are duetoMr.M.N.Chapekar, .Aryasanskriti Mudni.na-\' laya,Poona,whohasgivenampleco-operationingettingthisDictionary printed intheshortestpossibletime.For faciiityof printing,accentsof Vedicpassages andwordsarenotshown,noritalics beenusedforSanskrittermswritten in the Roman script nor the breaking of aatthe end of a line isdone scrupu-louslyattheendof asyllableoraconst\tuentpart.Inspiteofallpossible care,someslipshavecreptinforwhichindulgenceof thereaderiscraved. It isexpected that Sanskrit scholars willmake'fulluse of thisworkand offer their valuablesuggestionsforfutureundertakingsof thistype. Asinceresensedf gratitudemust beconveye4toDr.BhogilalJ.Sandesara, theDirectorof theOrientalInstitute,Baroda,atwhoseinitiativetheproject of this'Dictionaryof SanskritGrammar,'undertakensomeyearsago,butpost-ponedfromtimetotime,wasnotonlypursuedwithvigour,butcompletedand turnedintoavolumeintheGaekwadOrientalSeries.' 601-2Sadashiv Peth, LaxmiRoad, Poona 2. Sake1883. 17-3-61. K.V.AnHYANKAR HINTSFORTHEUSEOFTHISDICTIONARY, 1.Wordsin thisdictionary are arranged in theserialorderof theSanskrit alphabetwhich. iseverywhere,viz.the .fourteenvowelsbeginningwith atendingwith an,and thenthethirtythreeconsonantsconsistingof thefive ,guttural, the five.palatal, the cerebral, the fivedental and the five labial and thenthefoursemi-vowelsandthe four sibilants. takenasa binationand arid asoneof;;r" and OJ.. . 2.Wordsaregivenintheirnoun-base(ItTffltrrfrBasthefirstmember,ct.P. VI.Z.193. (:)(I)vi?arga,calledvisarja-niyainancientworksandshown inwritingbytwodots,Onebelow theotl!. r,exactlyofthesame size,likethepairofbreastsofa maidenasjocularlyexpressedby Durgasirilha.ct.01':I 31'fil\;:j'iJlT(OlTil': I (S;.alsotl;it: "Iirlta- 'i'f'i'fI 1.13. aclass ofheadedby theword whichareall dvandvacompounds,andwhich havetheirfirstmemberretaining itsownaccent;e.g."Ii1-a-ifir;;jqJ- etc.d.Kas...</p>