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Adi Shankara

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Adi ShankaraAdi Shankara

Adi Shankaracharya statue Date of Birth Place of birth Birth Date of death 788 CE Kalady, Kerala, India Shankara 820 CE[1]

Place of death Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India Guru/Teacher Govinda Bhagavatpada Philosophy Advaita Vedanta

Titles/Honors Introduced Advaita Vedanta, Hindu Revivalism, Founded Dashanami Sampradaya, Shanmata

Adi Shankara (Malayalam: , Sanskrit: , IAST: di akara, pronounced [adi akr]) (788 CE - 821 CE?[2] ), also known as akara Bhagavatpdcrya and di akarcrya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. He hailed from Kalady of present day Kerala. Shankara travelled across India and other parts of South Asia to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara is believed to be the organizer of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmata tradition of worship. His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern Shankaracharya with disciples, Painting by Raja Ravi themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita Varma. (Nondualism). He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. Shankara represented his works as elaborating on

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ideas found in the Upanishads, and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic Canon (Brahma Sutra, Principal Upanishads and Bhagavadgita) in support of his thesis. The main opponent in his work is the Mimamsa school of thought, though he also offers some arguments against the views of some other schools like Samkhya and certain schools of Buddhism that he was partly familiar with.

LifeTraditional accounts of Adi Shankara's life can be found in the Shankara Vijayams, which are poetic works that contain a mix of biographical and legendary material, written in the epic style. The most important among these biographies are the Mdhavya akara Vijaya (of Mdhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilsya akara Vijaya (of Cidvilsa, c. between 15th century and 17th century), and the Keraya akara Vijaya (of the Kerala region, extant from c. 17th century).[3] [4]

Adi Guru Shri Gauapdchrya, the grand guru of Shri Adi Shankaracharya and the first historical proponent of Advaita Vedanta, also believed to be the founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math

Birth and childhoodShankara was born to Kaippilly Sivaguru Namboodiri and Aryamba Antharjanam in or near Kaladi in central Kerala. According to lore, it was after his parents, who had been childless for many years, prayed at the Vadakkunnathan temple, Thrissur that Sankara was born under the star Thiruvathira.[5] [6] His father died while Shankara was very young. Shankara's upanayana, the initiation into student-life, was performed at the age of five. As a child, Shankara showed remarkable scholarship, mastering the four Vedas by the age of eight.[7]

The birth place of Adi Shankara at Kalady

SannyasaFrom a young age, Shankara was inclined towards sannyasa, but it was only after much persuasion that his mother finally gave her consent.[8] Shankara then left Kerala and travelled towards North India in search of a guru. On the banks of the Narmada River, he met Govinda Bhagavatpada, the disciple of Gaudapada. When Govinda Bhagavatpada asked Shankara's identity, he replied with an extempore verse that brought out the Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Govinda Bhagavatapada was impressed and took Shankara as his disciple.[9] The guru instructed Shankara to write a commentary on the Brahma Sutras and propagate the Advaita philosophy. Shankara travelled to

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Kashi, where a young man named Sanandana, hailing from Chola territory in South India, became his first disciple. According to legend, while on his way to the Vishwanath Temple, Sankara came upon an untouchable accompanied by four dogs. When asked to move aside by Shankara's disciples, the untouchable replied: "Do you wish that I move my ever lasting tman ("the Self"), or this body made of flesh?" Realizing that the untouchable was none other than god Shiva himself, and his dogs the four Vedas, Shankara prostrated himself before him, composing five shlokas known as Manisha Panchakam.[10] [11]

Adi Sankara Keerthi Sthampa Mandapam, Kalady, Kerala

At Badari he wrote his famous Bhashyas ("commentaries") and Prakarana granthas ("philosophical treatises").[12][13]

Meeting with Mandana MishraOne of the most famous debates of Adi Shankara was with the ritualist Mandana Mishra. Madana Mishra's guru was the famous Mimamsa philosopher, Kumarla Bhaa. Shankara sought a debate with Kumarla Bhaa and met him in Prayag where he had buried himself in a slow burning pyre to repent for sins committed against his guru: Kumarla Bhaa had learned Buddhist philosophy from his Buddhist guru under false pretenses, in order to be able to refute it. Learning anything without the knowledge of one's guru while still under his authority constitutes a sin according to the Vedas.[14] Kumarla Bhaa thus asked Adi Shankara to proceed to Mahimati (known today as Mahishi Bangaon, Saharsa in Bihar)[15] to meet Maana Mira and debate with him instead. After debating for over fifteen days, with Maana Mira's wife Ubhaya Bhrat acting as referee, Maana Mira accepted defeat.[16] Ubhaya Bhrat then challenged Adi Shankara to have a debate with her in order to 'complete' the victory. She asks the questions in "kamasutra" in which sankaracharya has no knowledge since he is a true celibate and sanyasi,So he uses the art of "parakaya pravesa" and his soul joins a dead body of a king.And he acquires all the knowledge of "art of love" from the queen from questionnaire.Finally Ubhaya Bhrat allowed Maana Mira to accept sannyasa with the monastic name Surevarcrya, as per the agreed rules of the debate.[17]

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Missionary tourAdi Shankara then travelled with his disciples to Maharashtra and Srisailam. In Srisailam, he composed Shivanandalahari, a devotional hymn in praise of Shiva. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam says that when Shankara was about to be sacrificed by a Kapalika, the god Narasimha appeared to save Shankara in response to Padmapada's prayer to him. As a result, Adi Shankara composed the Laksmi-Narasimha stotra.[18] He then travelled to Gokara, the temple of Hari-Shankara and the Mkambika temple at Kollur. At Kollur, he accepted as his disciple a boy believed to be dumb by his parents. He gave him the name, Hastmalakcrya ("one with the amalaka fruit on his palm", i.e., one who has clearly realised the Self). Next, he visited ngeri to establish the rada Pham and made Toakcrya his disciple.[19]

Sharada temple at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri

After this, Adi Shankara began a Dig-vijaya (tour of conquest) for the propagation of the Advaita philosophy by controverting all philosophies opposed to it. He travelled throughout India, from South India to Kashmir and Nepal, preaching to the local populace and debating philosophy with Hindu, Buddhist and other scholars and monks along the way. With the Malayali King Sudhanva as companion, Shankara passed through Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Vidarbha. He then started towards Karnataka where he encountered a band of armed Kapalikas. King Sudhanva, with his Nairs, resisted and defeated the Kapalikas. They safely reached Gokarna where Shankara defeated in debate the Shaiva scholar, Neelakanta. Proceeding to Saurashtra (the ancient Kambhoja)[20] and having visited the shrines of Girnar, Somnath and Prabhasa and explaining the superiority of Vedanta in all these places, he arrived at Dwarka. Bhaa Bhskara of Ujjayini, the proponent of Bhedbeda philosophy, was humbled. All the scholars of Ujjayini (also known as Avanti) accepted Adi Shankara's philosophy. He then defeated the Jainas in philosophical debates at a place called Bahlika. Thereafter, the Acharya established his victory over several philosophers and ascetics in Kamboja (region of North Kashmir), Darada (Dabistan) and many regions situated in the desert and crossing mighty peaks, entered Kashmir. Later, he had an encounter with a tantrik, Navagupta at Kamarupa.[21]

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Accession to SarvajnapithaAdi Shankara visited Sarvajapha (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir (now in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir).[22] The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door (representing South India) had never been opened, indicating that no scholar from South India had entered the Sarvajna Pitha. Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as Mimamsa, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.[23] Towards the end of his life, Adi Shankara travelled to the Himalayan area of Kedarnath-Badrinath and attained videha mukti ("freedom from embodiment"). There is a samadhi mandir dedicated to Adi Shankara behind the Kedarnath Statue of Adi Shankara at his Samadhi Mandir, behind Kedarnath temple. However, there are variant traditions on the location of his last days. One Temple, in Kedarnath, India tradition, expounded by Keraliya Shankaravijaya, places his place of death as Vadakkunnathan temple in Thrissur, Kerala.[24] The followers of the Kanchi kamakoti pitha claim that he ascended the Sarvajapha and attained videha mukti in Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu).

DatesAt least two different dates have been proposed for Shankara: 788820 CE: This is the mainstream scholarly opinion, placing Shankara in mid to late 8th century CE. These dates are based on records at the geri rad Pham, which is the only matha to have maintained a relatively unbroken record of its Acharyas; starting with the third Acharya, one can with reasonable confidence date the others from the 8th century to the present.[25] The Sringeri records state that Shankara was born in the 14th year of the reign of "VikramAditya", but it is unclear as to which king this name refers. Though some researchers identify the name with Chandragupta II (4th. c. CE), modern scholarship accepts the VikramAditya as being from the Chalukya dynasty of Badami, most likely Vikramaditya II (733746 CE),[26] which would place him in the middle of the 8th c.[25] The date 788820 is also among those considered acceptable by Swami Tapasyananda, though he raises a number of questions.[27] It is also acceptable to Keay.[28] 509477 BCE: This dating, more than a millennium ahead of all others, is based on records of the heads of the Shankara Mahas at Dwaraka matha and Puri matha and the fifth Peetham at Kanchi.[29] However, such an early date is not consistent with the fact that Shankara quotes the Buddhist logician Dharmakirti, who finds mention in Huen Tsang (7th c.).[25] Also, his near-contemporary Kumarila Bhatta is usually dated ca. 8th c. CE. Most scholars feel that due to invasions and other discontinuities, the records of the Dwarka and Puri mathas are not as reliable as those for Sringeri.[25] Thus, while considerable debate exists, the pre-Christian Era dates are usually discounted, and the most likely period for Shankara is during the 8th c. CE.

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MathasAdi Shankara founded four Mahas (Sanskrit: ) to guide the Hindu religion. These are at Sringeri in Karnataka in the south, Dwaraka in Gujarat in the west, Puri in Orissa in the east, and Jyotirmath (Joshimath) in Uttarakhand in the north. Hindu tradition states that he put in charge of these mathas his four main disciples: Sureshwaracharya, Hastamalakacharya, Padmapadacharya, and Totakacharya respectively. The heads of the mathas trace their authority back to these figures. Each of the heads of these four mathas takes the title of Shankaracharya ("the learned Shankara") after the first Shankaracharya. The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara and their details.[30]

(Vidyashankara temple) at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri

ishya

Maha

Mahvkya

Veda

Sampradaya Bhogavala

Hastmalakcrya Govardhana Pha Surevarcrya Padmapdcrya Toakcrya rada Pha Dvraka Pha

Prajnam brahma (Brahman is Knowledge) Rig Veda

Aham brahmsmi (I am Brahman) Tattvamasi (That thou art)

Yajur Veda Sama Veda

Bhrivala Kitavala Nandavala

Jyotirmaha Pha Ayamtm brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda

Philosophy and religious thoughtAdvaita ("non-dualism") is often called a monistic system of thought. The word "Advaita" essentially refers to the identity of the Self (Atman) and the Whole (Brahman[31] ). Advaita Vedanta says the one unchanging entity (Brahman) alone exists, and that changing entities do not have absolute existence, much as the ocean's waves have no existence in separation from the ocean. The key source texts for all schools of Vednta are the Prasthanatrayithe canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras. Adi Shankara was the first in the tradition to consolidate the siddhnta ("doctrine") of Advaita Vedanta. He wrote commentaries on the Prasthana Trayi. A famous quote from Vivekacmai, one of his prakarana granthas that succinctly summarises his philosophy is: Brahma satya jagat mithy, jvo brahmaiva nparah Brahman is the only truth, the spatio-temporal world is an illusion, and there is ultimately no difference between Brahman and individual self.The Hamsa (Sanskrit: "swan") is an important motif in Advaita Vedanta. Its symbolic meanings are as follows: firstly, upon verbally repeating hamsa, it becomes soham (Sanskrit, "I am That"). Secondly, even as a hamsa lives in water its feathers are not sullied by it, a liberated Advaitin lives in this world full of Maya but is untouched by its illusion. Thirdly, a monk of the Dashanami order is called a Paramahamsa ("supreme hamsa")

Advaita Vedanta is based on stra ("scriptures"), yukti ("reason") and anubhava ("experience"), and aided by karmas ("spiritual practices").[32] This philosophy provides a clear-cut way of life to be followed. Starting from childhood, when learning has to start, the philosophy has to be realised in practice throughout one's life, even up to death. This is the reason why this philosophy is called an experiential philosophy-the underlying tenet being "That

Adi Shankara thou art", meaning that ultimately there is no difference between the experiencer and the experienced (the world) as well as the universal spirit (Brahman). Among the followers of Advaita, as well those of other doctrines, there are believed to have appeared Jivanmuktas, ones liberated while alive. These individuals (commonly called Mahatmas, great souls, among Hindus) are those who realised the oneness of their self and the universal spirit called Brahman. Adi Shankara's Bhashyas (commentaries) on the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras are his principal works. Although he mostly adhered to traditional means of commenting on the Brahma Sutra, there are a number of original ideas and arguments to establish that the essence of Upanishads is Advaita. He taught that it was only through direct knowledge that one could realize Brahman. "A perception of the fact that the object seen is a rope will remove the fear and sorrow which result from the illusory idea that it is a serpent". Cited from Shankara's "Vivekachuudaamani"/ verse #12/translated by Mohini M Chatterji. This metaphor was borrowed from Yogacara Buddhist thinkers, who used it in a different context.[33] Adi Shankara's opponents accused him of teaching Buddhism in the garb of Hinduism, because his non-dualistic ideals seemed rather radical to contemporary Hindu philosophy. However, although Advaita proposes the theory of Maya, explaining the universe as a "trick of a magician", Adi Shankara and his followers see this as a consequence of their basic premise that Brahman alone is real. Their idea of Maya emerges from their belief in the reality of Brahman, as opposed to Buddhist doctrines of emptiness, which emerge from the empirical Buddhist approach of observing the nature of reality.

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Historical and cultural impactPart of a series on

Hindu philosophy

Schools Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Purva Mimamsa Vedanta(Advaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda) Persons Ancient Gautama Jaimini Kanada Kapila Markandeya Patajali Valmiki Vyasa Medieval Adi Shankara Basava Dnyaneshwar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Madhusudana Madhva Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Vedanta Desika Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Modern Aurobindo Coomaraswamy Dayananda Saraswati Gandhi Krishnananda Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sivananda Vivekananda Yogananda

Shankara developed a monastic order on the Buddhist model, and also borrowed concepts from Buddhist philosophy.[34] Pande (1994: p.255) identifies the entwined relationship of Buddhism and the view of Shankara: The relationship of akara to Buddhism has been the subject of considerable debate since ancient times. He has been hailed as the arch critic of Buddhism and the principal architect of its downfall in India. At the same time he has been described as a Buddhist in disguise. Both these opinions have been expressed by ancient as well as modern authors--scholars, philosophers, historians and sectaries.[35]

Adi Shankara While Shankara is given credit for the defeat of Buddhism in Hindu literature, he was in fact active after Buddhism had almost entirely faded from prominence. In particular, he was not a contemporary of the last great Indian Buddhist philosopher, Dharmakirti. When Shankara came north to the intellectual centers there, he borrowed many of the ideas that had been formulated by Buddhist philosophers of the past.[36] In his exposition that the world is an illusion, Shankara borrowed arguments from Madhyamaka and Yogacara, though he disagreed with them on some matters.[37] Despite this, Shankara described the Buddha as an enemy of the people.[34] At the time of Adi Shankara's life, Hinduism was increasing in influence in India at the expense of Buddhism and Jainism. Hinduism was divided into innumerable sects, each quarreling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy were atheists, insomuch that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Besides these atheists, there were numerous theistic sects. There were also those who rejected the Vedas, like the Charvakas. Adi Shankara held discourses and debates with the leading scholars of all these sects and schools of philosophy to controvert their doctrines. He unified the theistic sects into a common framework of Shanmata system. In his works, Adi Shankara stressed the importance of the Vedas, and his efforts helped Hinduism regain strength and popularity. Many trace the present worldwide domination of Vedanta to his works. He travelled on foot to various parts of India to restore the study of the Vedas. Even though he lived for only thirty-two years, his impact on India and on Hinduism was striking. He reintroduced a purer form of Vedic thought. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[38] He is the main figure in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He was the founder of the Daanmi Sampradya of Hindu monasticism and amata of Smarta tradition. He introduced the Pacyatana form of worship. Adi Shankara, along with Madhva and Ramanuja, was instrumental in the revival of Hinduism. These three teachers formed the doctrines that are followed by their respective sects even today. They have been the most important figures in the recent history of Hindu philosophy. In their writings and debates, they provided polemics against the non-Vedantic schools of Sankhya, Vaisheshika etc. Thus they paved the way for Vedanta to be the dominant and most widely followed tradition among the schools of Hindu philosophy. The Vedanta school stresses most on the Upanishads (which are themselves called Vedanta, End or culmination of the Vedas), unlike the other schools that gave importance to the ritualistic Brahmanas, or to texts authored by their founders. The Vedanta schools hold that the Vedas, which include the Upanishads, are unauthored, forming a continuous tradition of wisdom transmitted orally. Thus the concept of apaurusheyatva ("being unauthored") came to be the guiding force behind the Vedanta schools. However, along with stressing the importance of Vedic tradition, Adi Shankara gave equal importance to the personal experience of the student. Logic, grammar, Mimamsa and allied subjects form main areas of study in all the Vedanta schools. Regarding meditation, Shankara refuted the system of Yoga and its disciplines as a direct means to attain moksha, rebutting the argument that it can be obtained through concentration of the mind. His position is that the mental states discovered through the practices of Yoga can be indirect aids to the gain of knowledge, but cannot themselves give rise to it. According to his philosophy, knowledge of brahman springs from inquiry into the words of the Upanishads, and the knowledge of brahman that shruti provides cannot be obtained in any other way.[39] Moreover, Shankara was committed to the caste system.[40] He also believed that the most important access to highest truth was Vedic texts, and that access to these liberating texts should be socially restricted to upper-caste males.[40] It has to be noted that it is generally considered that for Shankara the Absolute Reality is attributeless and impersonal, while for Madhava and Ramanuja, the Absolute Truth is Vishnu. This has been a subject of debate, interpretation, and controversy since Shankara himself is attributed to composing the popular 8th century Hindu devotional composition Bhaja Govindam (literal meaning, "Worship Govinda"). This work of Adi Shankara is considered as a good summary of Advaita Vedanta and underscores the view that devotion to God, Govinda, is not only an important part of general spirituality, but the concluding verse drives through the message of Shankara:

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Adi Shankara "Worship Govinda, worship Govinda, worship Govinda, Oh fool! Other than chanting the Lord's names, there is no other way to cross the life's ocean". Bhaja Govindam invokes the almighty in the aspect of Vishnu; it is therefore very popular not only with Sri Adi Shankaracharya's immediate followers, the Smarthas, but also with Vaishnavas and others. A well known verse, recited in the Smarta tradition, in praise of Adi Shankara is: | || ruti smti purnlaya karulaya| Nammi Bhagavatpdaakara lokaakara|| I salute the compassionate abode of the Vedas, Smritis and Puranas known as Shankara Bhagavatpada, who makes the world auspicious. Adi Shankara begins his Gurustotram or Verses to the Guru with the following Sanskrit Sloka, that has become a widely sung Bhajan: Guru Brahma, Guru Vishnu, Guru Deva Maheshwara. Guru Sakshath Parambrahma, Tasmai Shri Gurave Namaha. (tr: Guru is the creator Brahma, Guru is the preserver Vishnu, Guru is the destroyer Shiva. Guru is directly the supreme spirit I offer my salutations to this Guru.)

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WorksAdi Shankara's works deal with logically establishing the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta as he saw it in the Upanishads. He formulates the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta by validating his arguments on the basis of quotations from the Vedas and other Hindu scriptures. He gives a high priority to svnubhava ("personal experience") of the student. His works are largely polemical in nature. He directs his polemics mostly against the Sankhya, Buddha, Jaina, Vaisheshika and other non-vedantic Hindu philosophies. Traditionally, his works are classified under Bhya ("commentary"), Prakaraa grantha ("philosophical treatise") and Stotra ("devotional hymn"). The commentaries serve to provide a consistent interpretation of the scriptural texts from the perspective of Advaita Vedanta. The philosophical treatises provide various methodologies to the student to understand the doctrine. The devotional hymns are rich in poetry and piety, serving to highlight the relationship between the devotee and the deity. Adi Shankara wrote Bhashyas on the ten major Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. In his works, he quotes from Shveshvatara, Kaushitakai, Mahanarayana and Jabala Upanishads, among others. Bhashyas on Kaushitaki, Nrisimhatapani and Shveshvatara Upanishads are extant but the authenticity is doubtful.[41] Adi Shankara's is the earliest extant commentary on the Brahma Sutras. However, he mentions older commentaries like those of Dravida, Bhartrprapancha and others.[42] In his Brahma Sutra Bhashya, Adi Shankara cites the examples of Dharmavyadha, Vidura and others, who were born with the knowledge of Brahman acquired in previous births. He mentions that the effects cannot be prevented from working on account of their present birth. He states that the knowledge that arises out of the study of the Vedas could be had through the Puranas and the Itihasas. In the Taittiriya Upanishad Bhashya 2.2, he says:[43] Sarve cdhikro vidyy ca reyah: kevalay vidyy veti siddha It has been established that everyone has the right to the knowledge (of Brahman) and that the supreme goal is attained by that knowledge alone. Among the independent philosophical treatises, only Upadeashasr is accepted as authentic by modern academic scholars. Many other such texts exist, among which there is a difference of opinion among scholars on the authorship of Viveka Chudamani. The former pontiff of Sringeri Math, Shri Shri Chandrashekhara Bharati III has written a voluminous commentary on the Viveka Chudamani.

Adi Shankara Adi Shankara also wrote commentaries on other scriptural works, such as the Vishnu sahasranma and the Snatsujtiya.[44] Like the Bhagavad Gita, both of these are contained in the Mahabhrata.

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FilmIn 1983 a film directed by G. V. Iyer named Adi Shankaracharya was premiered, the first film ever made entirely in Sanskrit language in which all of Adi Shankaracharya's works were compiled.[45] [46]

See also List of Advaita Vedanta-related topics Shri Gaudapadacharya Mutt Adi Shri Gauapdchrya Shri Govinda Bhagavatpadacharya Mandukya Upanishad Advaita

References Isayeva, Natalia (1993). Shankara and Indian Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press (SUNY). Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN0-8021-3797-0. Mudgal, S.G. (1975). Advaita of Shankara: A Reappraisal. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. Swami, Tapasyananda (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya: The Traditional Life of Sri Sankaracharya by Madhava-Vidyaranya. India: Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN81-7120-434-1. Greaves, Ron (March 2002). From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara). 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.

Further reading Ingalls, Daniel H. H. (1954). "Sakara's Arguments Against the Buddhists" [47]. Philosophy East and West (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press) 3 (4): 291306. doi:10.2307/1397287.

External linksWorks Complete Works of Adi Shankara [48] Advaita Vedanta Anusandhana Kendra [49] Complete works of Adi Shankara [50] Advaita Vedanta Library [51] (Archived [52] 2009-10-24) Some major works of Adi Shankaracharya [53] Adi Sankara's Books [54] Shastra Nethralaya, Rishikesh [55]

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Historical "Guru Parampara of Sringeri Sharada Peetham" [56]. Archived from the original [57] on 2006-06-19. Sankara's date supporting the 788820 CE date [58] Material supporting the 509477 BCE dates [59] (PDF)

Life and teachings Brief life history of Adi Shankara with informative additional links [60] Adi akara [61]short introduction to his life & philosophy (by Peter J. King) Biography of Shankara [62] by Swami Sivananda

Mathas Shringeri Sharada Peetham [63]

References[1] Sharma, Chandradhar (1962). "Chronological Summary of History of Indian Philosophy". Indian Philosophy: A Critical Survey. New York: Barnes & Noble. p.vi. [2] http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ Shankara+ Charya?o=100084& qsrc=2871& l=dir [3] Vidyasankar, S.. "The Sankaravijaya literature" (http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ avhp/ sankara-vijayam. html). . Retrieved 2006-08-23. [4] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. viii. [5] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.14. [6] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.17. [7] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.2829. [8] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.4050. [9] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.5156. [10] Adi Shankara. "Manisha Panchakam" (http:/ / www. celextel. org/ adisankara/ manishapanchakam. html). . Retrieved 2006-08-04. [11] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.5762. [12] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.6263. [13] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.7073. [14] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.7780. [15] "Pilgrimages- Maheshwar" (http:/ / www. 1upindia. com/ pilgrimages/ maheshwar. html). . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [16] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.81104. [17] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.117129. [18] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.130135. [19] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.136150. [20] See Link: (http:/ / www. geocities. com/ advaitavedant/ shankarabio. htm). Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kmBtzjii) 2009-10-24. [21] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.160185. [22] "Photos of Sharada Temple (Sarvajna Pitha), Sharda, PoK" (http:/ / closing. photos. yahoo. com/ uk/ photos_closed. php). . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [23] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.186195. [24] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Sankara-Dig-Vijaya. xxv-xxxv. [25] Vidyasankar, S.. "Determining Shankara's Date An overview of ancient sources and modern literature" (http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ avhp/ dating-Sankara. html). . Retrieved 2006-06-26. [26] K. A. Nilakantha Sastry, A History of South India, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, Madras, 1976. [27] Tapasyananda, Swami (2002). Shankara-Dig-Vijaya. pp.xv-xxiv. [28] The dating of 788820 is accepted in Keay, p. 194. [29] "(53) Chronological chart of the history of Bharatvarsh since its origination" (http:/ / encyclopediaofauthentichinduism. org/ articles/ 53. 3. htm). encyclopedia of authentic hinduism. . This site claims to integrate characters from the epics into a continuous chronology. They present the list of Dwarka and Kanchi Acharya's, along with their putative dates.

However, the succession of Acharya's at these two mathas were often disrupted by geopolitical realities, and these records are not considered as reliable as the Sringeri chronology. Also, such an early date would be in conflict with much else in Indian chronology. According to these revisionist models, these are the actual dates, and it is other collateral dates, such as the date of Buddha (which serves as an anchor for modern academic history of India), that

Adi Shankara need to be moved back.[30] "Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060626233820/ http:/ / www. sringerisharadapeetham. org/ html/ History/ amnaya. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. sringerisharadapeetham. org/ html/ History/ amnaya. html) on 2006-06-26. . Retrieved 2006-08-20. [31] Brahman is not to be confused with Brahma, the Creator and one-third of the Trimurti along with Shiva, the Destroyer and Vishnu, the Preserver. [32] See "Study the Vedas daily. Perform diligently the duties ("karmas") ordained by them" from Sadhana Panchakam (http:/ / www. sankaracharya. org/ sadhana_panchakam. php) of Adi Shankara [33] Karel Werner, in Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge, 1995, page 67. [34] Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 140. [35] Govind Chandra Pande (1994). Life and thought of akarcrya. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 8120811046, 9788120811041. Source: (http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=xKJCLHc1mAQC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_v2_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q=sramana& f=false) (accessed: Friday March 19, 2010), p.255 [36] Randall Collins, The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Harvard University Press, 2000, pages 239-240. [37] Randall Collins, The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Harvard University Press, 2000, page 248. [38] Ron Geaves (March 2002). From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara). 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford. [39] Anantanand Rambachan, The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press, 1994, pages 124, 125: (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=b9EJBQG3zqUC& pg=PA124& dq=brahma+ as+ opposed+ to+ brahman& lr=#PPA124,M1). [40] Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy: Irigaray to Lushi chunqiu, Volume 5. Taylor & Francis 1998, page 460. [41] Vidyasankar, S. "Sankaracarya" (http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ avhp/ sankara. html). . Retrieved 2006-07-24. [42] Mishra, Godavarisha. "A Journey through Vedantic History -Advaita in the Pre-Sankara, Sankara and Post- Sankara Periods" (http:/ / www. ochs. org. uk/ downloads/ classes/ gmishra02mmas04. pdf) (pdf). . Retrieved 2006-07-24. [43] Subbarayan, K. "Sankara, the Jagadguru" (http:/ / www. svbf. org/ sringeri/ journal/ vol1no3/ sankara. html). . Retrieved 2006-07-24. [44] Johannes Buitenen (1978). The Mahbhrata (vol. 3) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=wFtXBGNn0aUC& pg=PA182& dq=sanatsujatiya& cd=19#v=onepage& q=sanatsujatiya& f=false). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226846652 [45] Adi Shankaracharya (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0085138/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [46] Complete Movie on Youtube (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=3ePzneq-Wnk& feature=PlayList& p=41A0CAF8DFA3924F& playnext=1& playnext_from=PL& index=42), YouTube [47] http:/ / ccbs. ntu. edu. tw/ FULLTEXT/ JR-PHIL/ ew27155. htm [48] http:/ / www. sankara. iitk. ac. in/ [49] http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ [50] http:/ / www. shankaracharya. org/ [51] http:/ / www. geocities. com/ advaitavedant/ index. htm [52] http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kmBtb1bg [53] http:/ / sanskritdocuments. org/ doc_z_misc_shankara/ doc_z_misc_shankara. html [54] http:/ / www. celextel. org/ adisankara/ [55] http:/ / www. Shastranethralaya. org/ [56] http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060619031752/ http:/ / www. sringerisharadapeetham. org/ html/ History/ guruparampara. html [57] http:/ / www. sringerisharadapeetham. org/ html/ History/ guruparampara. html [58] http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ avhp/ dating-Sankara. html [59] http:/ / www. easterntradition. org/ original%20sankaracarya. pdf [60] http:/ / www. advaita-vedanta. org/ avhp/ sankara-life. html [61] http:/ / users. ox. ac. uk/ ~worc0337/ authors/ shankara. html [62] http:/ / www. dlshq. org/ saints/ sankara. htm [63] http:/ / www. sringerisharadapeetham. org/

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Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and ContributorsAdi Shankara Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=372175329 Contributors: 478jjjz, Abecedare, Ahoerstemeier, Akarkera, Aksi great, Alan Au, Alexfiles, Algont, Alpheus, Alren, Amalas, Amartyabag, Ameinias, Amithchandhran, Amitsoni81, Anand v21, Anandg408, Andries, Animesh78, Apnavana, Appaiah, AppleJuggler, Arjun024, Arl123wiki, ArunShanbhag, Aruton, Arvind Iyengar, Arvindn, Ashok Prabhu, Athmaiyer, Auntof6, Auric, B9 hummingbird hovering, Babub, BalajiRamasubramanian, Bang write, Baqu11, Bark4nai, Barticus88, Benne, Bhadani, Bhairava11, Bharatadesam, Bharatveer, Bijee, Blucr0n, BostonMA, Brhaspati, Brianhe, Brighterorange, Bsskchaitanya, Buddhipriya, Butsuri, C21K, CFynn, CNRNair, Casmurthy, Chancemill, Cibu, Colsinghdr, CommonsDelinker, Cribananda, Cyberoger, DaGizza, Dangerous-Boy, Daniel2000, DanielCD, Davidcannon, Daviddariusbijan, Dbachmann, Deeptrivia, Discospinster, Dolive21, Donleavy1, Drmulgund, Dupz, Dwaipayanc, Dysprosia, Editor2020, Editorofthewiki, Ekabhishek, Epabhith, Epolk, Fauncet, Fconaway, FeloniousMonk, Filosofico, Frankly speaking, Fratrep, Fredrik, Gaius Cornelius, Ganeshk, Gaura79, Gdo01, Gimmetrow, Gnanapiti, Goethean, Goposky, Gregbard, Gregory Shantz, Gurubrahma, HPN, Hadal, Haham hanuka, Hanuman Das, Harishaluru, Harryboyles, Haruo, Health Researcher, Hemanshu, IW.HG, Imc, Imursnikhil, India Gate, IndianCow, Indologistjha, J04n, Jammedfly, Jimbo Quails, Jkelly, JohnOwens, Jossi, Jpxt2000, Kannan91, Karimpuli, Karl-Henner, Kaysov, Kbdank71, Keraunos, Kevin B12, Keynes.john.maynard, Kh7, Kjrajesh, Kkrystian, Knowledge Seeker, Krishgaay, Kwamikagami, Leolaursen, Lestrade, Lightmouse, LordSimonofShropshire, Lostintherush, LyleHoward, Madhava 1947, Magicalsaumy, Maitasti, Makks2010, Mankar Camoran, Mayasutra, MeInsha, Mel Etitis, Mitsube, Mkarja, Mouchoir le Souris, Mporter, Msikma, Mukerjee, Nad, Nataraja, Natarajan Dhandapany, Naveen Sankar, Nharipra, Nichalp, Nicke Lilltroll, Nirmalanarayanan, Nkarty, Omicronpersei8, OneGuy, Oo64eva, OpelC, Open2universe, Optimate, Pannir, Paxse, Piano non troppo, PoccilScript, Poda, Pramukh Arkalgud Ganeshamurthy, Pranathi, Praveenp, Priyanath, Promykg, Raamah, Raj2004, Rama's Arrow, RandomP, Raul654, Ravikiran r, RedHillian, Redtigerxyz, Riana, Rjwilmsi, Robert1947, RobertG, Roland zh, Roland2, Rursus, STGM, Sam Spade, Samir, SandyGeorgia, Sap.prabhu, Satyadev, Schutz, Sethie, Shahab, Sharnak, Shivohum, Shrivathsa, Shyamsunder, Siva1979, Skbhat, Solidentry, SpacemanSpiff, Sri1968, Sridhar Babu, Sriram sh, Srkris, Ssri1983, Sulfis, Swami Vimokshananda, Sweetprashanth, Sydney Ambrose, Syiem, THF, Tarakananda, Template namespace initialisation script, The7thmagus, TheMandarin, TheNeon, TheSNB, Thunderboltz, Tom Radulovich, Tommy2010, Tony Sidaway, Tpbradbury, Treisijs, Tripping Nambiar, Tseno Maximov, Ttpaam, Tuxide, Twas Now, Venkkatesh, Vensub 2002, Venu62, Vidyasankar, Vijayanandga, Viswanathbhai, Vivin, Whoami, Wiki5d, Wikijos, Worldwidescout, Writtenright, Wsiegmund, Xaven, Xcentaur, Yogacharya, Zachlipton, Zanimum, Zzuuzz, , 475 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and ContributorsFile:Adi Shankara Statue.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adi_Shankara_Statue.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Babub, Gregbard File:Raja Ravi Varma - Sankaracharya.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Raja_Ravi_Varma_-_Sankaracharya.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Raja Ravi Varma File:Shri Gaudapadacharya Statue.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shri_Gaudapadacharya_Statue.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Ashok Prabhu. Original uploader was Ashok Prabhu at en.wikipedia Image:Kaladi shankarabirthplace.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kaladi_shankarabirthplace.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Thunderboltz at en.wikipedia Image:SankaraSthampaMandapam small.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SankaraSthampaMandapam_small.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Kaladian Image:Sringeri Sharadha temple.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sringeri_Sharadha_temple.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Babub File:Adi shankara.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adi_shankara.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Original uploader was Priyanath at en.wikipedia Image:Vidyasankara.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vidyasankara.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Calvinkrishy, Roland zh, 1 anonymous edits Image:SwansCygnus olor.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SwansCygnus_olor.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: BenAveling, Ejdzej, GunnerPoulsen, MPF, 1 anonymous edits Image:om.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Om.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AnonMoos, BRUTE, Bdk, Davin7, Editor at Large, Exact, Gregory Orme, Herbythyme, Marshie, Mystical Sadhu, Nilfanion, Nishkid64, Rugby471, The Evil IP address, Toyboy84, Wutsje, Xhienne, 47 anonymous edits

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