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Competence v/s Competencies
Competence means a skill and the standard of performance reached, while competency refers to the behaviour by which it is achieved.
Competences refers to the range of skills which are satisfactorily performed, while competencies refers to behaviour adopted in competent performance.
What is competency
Competencies are the characteristics of a manager that lead to the demonstration of skills and abilities, which result in effective performance within an occupational area. Competencies also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one area to another. Hogg (1993)
5 Types of competency characteristics
Motives:- things a person consistently thinks about or wants and that which causes action.
Traits:- physical characteristics and consistent responses to situation and information.
Self-concept:- a persons attitude values or self image
Knowledge:- information a person has in specific content areas.
Skill:- the ability to perform certain physical or mental task
Competencies can be divided into two categories:
Threshold competencies: these are the essential characteristics that everyone in the job needs to be minimally effective, but this does not distinguish superior from average performers.
Differentiating competencies: these factors distinguish superior from average performers.
MEANING OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING
In the middle ages it was a way of passing knowledge of individuals working in skilled trades and crafts.
Today, it aims at providing trainees the skills needed to meet continually changing job requirements.
It represents a partnership between employers, labor unions , schools and government agencies.
According to Apprenticeship Act, 1961, section-2(aaa), it means a course of training in any industry or established undergone in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship and under prescribed terms and conditions which may be different for different categories of employees.
BENEFITS OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING
Attract adequate number of highly qualified applicants.
Reduce cost of training.
Facilitate compliance with federal and state Equal Employment Opportunity requirements.
Ensure availability of related technical instruction.
Enhance problem-solving ability of craft workers.
Ensure versatility of craft workers.
Address need of training and development programs of an organization.
PROBLEMS OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING
Learning based on time requirements, rather than competency.
Programs isolated from other programs.
Concentrated in blue-collar occupations.
Little concern for post-apprenticeship period.
Apprenticeship in India
National Apprenticeship Scheme launched in 1959, initially on voluntary basis.
The Apprentices Act, 1961 comes into force on March 1, 1962, envisaging the training of apprentices.
Training of Graduates and Diploma holders in Engineering and Technology as Graduate and Technical Apprentices was brought under the purview of the Act through amendment in 1973.
Training of students passing out of (10+2) vocational stream as Technician (Vocational) apprentices was also brought under the purview of the Act through an amendment in 1986.
Responsibility of implementing the Apprentices Act, 1961 in Central Government establishments rests with the Central Apprenticeship Adviser/Director of Apprenticeship Training in the Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGE&T), Ministry of Labour and Employment, along with six Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship Training (RDATs).
Responsibility of implementation of the Apprentices Act, 1961 with respect to State Government Undertakings/Departments and Private establishments rests with the State Apprenticeship Advisers.
Central Apprenticeship Council is the apex statutory body to advise Government on laying down policies and prescribing standards in respect of Apprenticeship Training Scheme.
Central Apprenticeship Council is tripartite with members from Central/State Government, Employers and Trade Unions.
All India Trade Tests (AITT) for trade apprentices are conducted twice a year by National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) to award National Apprenticeship Certificates (NACs), recognized for employment under Governmental Organizations.
Digital Revolution has caused shift from traditional industries formed since the Industrial Revolution to economy based on manipulating information.
Employees are now required to work with computer applications to carry out routine tasks in organizations. Hence computer training has gains strong importance.
Types of Computer Training:
Training to introduce trainees to computer hardware and software.
May be offered to whole organization.
Training on unique software packages relevant to the organization.
Offered only on as-needed basis.
Technical skills/knowledge training
When organizations introduce new technology they provide technical training to update the skills of workers.
Most are specific to job, process, or equipment
Different Levels of Skills Training
Basic skills and procedures
Update employee skills
Specific skills improvement
New equipment/procedure training
Minimizing chance of accidents.
Ensure risk free execution of tasks.
Familiarization with equipment and processes.
Making aware of risks and hazards associated with the processes.
Developing sense of safety among employees.
6 Elements of effective safety programs
Developing safety policy.
Organizing for safety measures.
Analysis of causes of accidents.
Implementation of programs.
Evaluation of effectiveness through inspection and audit.
Methods of Safety Training
Focus on introduction to safe handling of machinery, regulations, reporting procedures etc.
Computer based training (CBT) programs
Job Site Training
Focus on actual safety behavior and practices.
Onsite Safety observation
Requirements for successful implementation
Identification of all potential hazards.
Top management support and reinforcement.
Regular and recurrent safety training.
Effective safety monitoring and accountability.
Linking with performance evaluation and rewards.
What is Quality?
Quality can be defined from many perspectives ,including product quality ,service quality ,and customer quality .
Product quality is defined as the degree to which products achieve or exceed production standards .
Service quality is how well the organization responds to the customers need after the product or service is delivered.
2 fundamental skills required for TQM
The ability to work effectively with others in team
The Collection, analysis, and evaluation of quantitative data in decision making
2 Phases of Quality Training
Quality Awareness training
In-depth Quality Process
Statistical Process Control
One of the important tool in quality is Statistical process control (SPC) has been most widely applied in various organizational settings. SPC focuses on training employees to be able to discern abnormal variations, so that adjustment can be made to the process to improve quality
It would be surprise to know that more managers are probably fired because of poor interpersonal skills than for a lack of technical ability.
A survey of top executives at Fortune 500 companies found that interpersonal skills were the most important consideration in hiring senior level employees.
Because managers ultimately get things done through others, competencies in leadership communication and other interpersonal skills are prerequisites to managerial effectiveness.
One way of describing interpersonal skills is to say-
If that is something that you are not good at then how do work with others in any role.
'I will work with you if you work with me'.
Interpersonal skills are essential ingredients of good communication but they do not come naturally.
They are strongly related to the way we were brought up (whether we were expected to be seen and not heard), our inner feelings about ourselves, our level of confidence and degree of interest in others.
When such skills are missing in the home, group or office, it can lead to loneliness, frustration, non-cooperation and substandard service.
What Does Interpersonal Skills Mean?
The skills used by a personto properly interactwith others. In the business domain, the term generally refers to an employee's ability to get along with others while getting the job done.
Interpersonal skills include everything from communication and listening skills to attitude and deportment. Good interpersonal skills are a prerequisite for many positions in an organization.