Desmids from Bandhavgarh, Madhya Pradesh, India

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  • DESMIDS FROM BANDHAVGARH, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    D. S. AGARKAR, M. S. AGARKER & RAJIV DIKSHIT

    Dept. of Botany, Govt . College, Sheopurkalan (Morena) M . P .

    Dept. of Botany, Govt . Science College, Jabalpur, M . P .

    Dept. of Botany, Govt . Science College, Rewa, M .P .

    Received August 30, 1978

    Keywords : desmids

    Abstract

    An illustrated account of 71 desmids from perennial streams of

    Bandhavgarh, one of the important national parks of the country,

    is g iven . t o forms marked with an asterix are recorded for the first

    time from India .

    Introduction

    Bandhavgarh is famous for its historical background and

    stands on a hill at an elevation of 823 meters, about 129

    kilometers from Rewa on the Rewa-Umaria road, 32

    kilometers from Umaria Railway station of South Eas-

    tern Railway. Presently it is one of the most important

    national parks in the country .

    There are many hilly streams which are more or less

    perennial in nature and also a few tanks atop of the hill .

    Algal flora of the place is very rich but has not attracted

    the attention of naturalists . The place was visited from

    time to time by two of us (MSA &RD) for making algal

    collections during the year 1972-'73 . Dikshit & Agarker

    (1974) have enumerated the algae of Bandhavgarh in-

    cluding a few desmids . In the present communication a

    detailed and illustrated account of desmids has been

    given . to desmids marked with an asterix have been re-

    corded for the first time from India .

    The following abbreviations are used in the text and

    dimensions are given in microns . All the dimensions are

    including spines and processes .

    L - length ; W - width ; T - thickness ; I - width of isthmus ;

    P - pole .

    Hydrobiologia vol . 65, 3, pag . 213-223, 1979

    Netrium(Nageli) Itzigs . & Rothe, 1856,

    Netrium digitus var . digitus (Ehrb .) Itzigs . & Rothe

    Text-Fig. 12 .

    Ruzicka, 1973, p . 196, pl . 1, fig . 2 .

    L. 161 .0-174 .0 ; W . 43 .5-48 .0; P . 17 .0-22 .0 .

    Netrium digitus var. lamellosum (Breb.) Groenb .

    Text-Fig . 9 .

    Suxena et al .,1973, P

    . 321, fig .17 .

    Cells long with rounded poles . L . 129.0-135 .0; W. 21 .6-

    24 .5 ; P . 10 .8-13 .5 .

    Penium Brebisson,1844 .

    Penium spirostriolatumBarker

    Text-Fig. i6

    Ruzicka, 1973, P . 197, P1. i, fig . 5 .

    Cell wall finely striated . L . 135.0-143 .0; W . 16 .o-i9 .o .

    ClosteriumNitzsch, 1817 .

    Closterium abruptumvar . brevius West & West

    Text-Fig . 13 .

    Croasdale, 1962, p . 18, pl . 2, fig . 29 ; Forster, 1969, p . 19,

    pl . 2, fig . 16 .

    L . 95.0-101 .0; W . 13 .5-15 .20; P . 4 .75-5 .70 .

    Closterium calosporum Wittr .

    Text-Fig . 13 .

    Forster, 1969, p . 19, pl . 2, figs . 26, 27 ; Agarkar,& Agarker,

    1973, p. 6, pl . I, fig . 7 .

    L . 75 .50- 78.50; W. 9 .0-11 .0; P . 2 .70-3 .0 . Poles of this

    form are slightly narrower .

    Closterium dianae var . brevius (Wittr.) Petkoff

    Text-Fig . 2 .

    213

  • 214

    2

    12

    10

    649,2';y,15

    14

    15

    Plate 1

    i . Closterium nematodes var. tumidum G . S

    . West;2 .

    Closterium dianae var. brevius (Wittr.) Petkoff; 3 . Closterium

    dianae var . minus (Wille) Sch . ; 4. Closterium abruptum var. brevius West & West ; 5. Closterium intermedium Ralfs ;

    6. Closterium littorale Gay; 7 . Closterium tumidum Johns . ; 8 . Closterium gracile Breb. ; 9 . Netrium digit us var

    . lamel-

    losum (Breb .) Groenb. ; 10 . Pleurotaenium trabecula (Ehrbg.) Nag. morpha ; ti . Pleurotaenium trabecula (Ehrbg .)

    Nag . morpha; 12. Netrium digitus var. digit us (Ehrb.) Itzigs . & Rothe; 13 . Closterium calosporum Wittr . ; 14 . Closte-

    rium navicula (Breb .) Lutkem. ;

    15 .Pleurotaenium trabecula (Ehrbg .) Nag . ; 16 . Penium spirostriolatum Barker

    .

  • Forster, 1969, P . 20, pl . 3, Fig . 8 .

    L. 135 .0-140 .5; W. 20 .25-21 .60 ; P . 2 .70-3 .5 . This form

    can also be compared with Cl. parvulum var . cornutum

    (Playf.) Krieg .

    Closterium dianae var. minus (Wille) Sch .

    Text-Fig. 3 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 11, pl . 2, fig . 8 ; Agarkar &

    Agarker, 1973, P. 7, Pl

    . 5, fig . 56 .

    L. 129 .5-132 .50; W . 8 .5-10 .0 ; P . 4 .0-4 .75 .

    Closterium gracile Breb.

    Text-Fig . 8 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 11, pl . 2, fig .10 .

    Cells straight and slender . L . 108 .0-122 .0; W . 5 .40-6 .0 ;

    P . 2 .50. It also shows resemblance with Cl. limneticum

    var . tenue Lemm .

    Closterium intermedium Ralfs

    Text-Fig . 5 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . i l, pl . i, fig . 19 .

    L . 135 .0-143 .0; W. 10 .0-11 .5 ; P. 2 .70-3 .5 . This form

    agrees well with the type in shape and structure but differs

    in having narrower poles and wall without striations .

    Closterium littorale Gay

    Text-Fig . 6 .

    Ruzicka, 1955, P. 143, fig

    . 16 .

    L. 213 .15-222 .0; W . 26 .10-30 .5 ; P. 3 .5 -4.35 . The shape

    and structure of chloroplasts tallies well with the type but

    the size for the present desmid is slightly bigger .

    Closterium navicula (Breb.) Lutkem.

    Text-Fig . 14 .

    Agarker & Agarkar, 1977, p . 25, pl . 1, fig . 17 .

    L . 35,0-43 .5 ; W. 9 .0-11 .0 .

    Closterium nematodes var . tumidum G . S . West

    Text-Fig . i .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1968, p . 182, p1 . 2, fig. 18 .

    L . 130 .0-139 .0; W . 24.0-27 .0 . Wall striated .

    Closterium praelongum Breb .

    Text-Fig . 24 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1966, p . 43, pl . 2, fig . 10 .

    L. 490 .0-550.0; W . 12 .35-13.30 ; P . 3 .80 .

    Agarker & Agarkar, 1977, p . 25, p1 . i, fig . 3 .

    L . 350 .0-405 .0; W . 30.45-37

    .15 ; P . 6.5-8 .70.

    Closterium tumidum Johns . Text-Fig . 7 .

    Croasdale & Groenblad, 1964, p . 159, pl . 2, figs . 10-12 .

    L . 108 .0-116 .o; W . 8 .10-10 .0 ; P. 2 .70-3 .0 .

    Pleurotaenium Nageli, 1849.

    Pleurotaenium trabecula (Ehrbg .) Nag.

    Text-Fig . 15 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 18, pl . 3, fig . 4 .

    L. 348 .0-396 .5 ; W . 17 .4-26 .0; P . 9 .5-13 .5 .

    Pleurotaenium trabecula (Ehrbg.) Nag . morpha

    Text-Figs . 10, 11 .

    Ruzicka, 1973, P . 204, Pl . 4, fig . 6 .

    L . 178 .0-205 .2 ; W . 26 .5-32 .4 ; P . 16 .2-19 .0.

    Euastrum Ehrenberg, 1832 .

    Euastrum ansatum var . dideltiforme Due .

    Text-Figs . 46-48, 64 .

    Groenblad, Scott & Croasdale, 1968, p . 11, pl . 3 fig. 35 .

    L . 48 .6-51 .30 ; W. 40 .50-43 .0;1. lo.8o; T . 20 .0-27 .0 .

    Euastrum denticulatum (Kirch.) Gay

    Text-Fig . 70 .

    Forster, 1969, p . 31, p1 . 8, figs . 11, 12 .

    L . 17 .1 ; W . 14 .05 ;1.5 .7 .

    Euastrum elegans (Breb.) Kutz .

    Text-Fig . 33 .

    Agarkar & Agarker, 1973, P . 9, Pl. 1, fig . 13 .

    L. 29 .70-32 .80; W . 21 .5-24 .5 ; I . 5 .40-7 .0 .

    Euastrum insulare (Wittr.) Roy

    Text-Figs . 35, 40 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1968, p . 171, figs . 13a-c .

    L . 19 .0-22 .6; W . 17 .0-19 .0 ; I . 5 .7-7 .0 .

    * Euastrum longicolle var . capitatum f. minus Scott &

    Prescott

    Text-Figs. 41 -43 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 29, pl . 8, figs . 4, 5 .

    L . 91 .0-93 .70; W . 43 .0-46 .0 ;1 . 10 .80-12 .0 ; T. 24.30-25 .0 .

    W. polar lobe 21 .60-24 .30 . The dimensions for the present

    form are slightly bigger, median scrobiculus is lacking,

    basal angles of the semicell are not rounded . In vertical

    view the lateral margin is broadly rounded .

    Euastrum subalpinum Messik .

    Text-Fig. 37 .

    Hirano, 1968, p . 41, p1 . 10, figs . 2, 3 .

    L . 17 .1-19 .0 ; W .11 . 4

    -12. 5 ; 1 . 3

    .8-4 .0 .

    Euastrum spinulosum Delp .

    Text-Fig . 61 .

    Euastrum substellatum Nordst .

    Text-Fig . 8o .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 44, pl . 11, figs . 1, 2 .

    L . 65 .0-67 .70; W . 54 .0-56 .70 ; 1 . 6 .75-8 .5 .

    Micrasterias Agardh, 1827 .

    Micrasterias apiculata (Ehrbg .) Menegh . Text-Fig. 18 .

    Ruzicka, 1973, p . 206, pl . 6, fig . 5 .

    L. 210 .0-220.0; W. 205 .0-210 .0 ; 1.34.5-43 .5 .

    Cells al-

    most round, sinus broadly open towards outer side .

    2 1 5

    * Closterium restimarginatum Scott & Prescott

    Text-Figs . 22, 23 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 40, pl . 10, figs . 3, 4 .

    L . 54 .0-56 .70; W . 48 .6-51 .30; I . 10 .80-12 .0 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 13, pl . I, figs . 27, 28 .

    L. 174 .0-179 .0; W. 17 .40-22 .0 . The dimensions for the

    present form are a little smaller .

    Closterium rostratum Ehrbg .

    Text-Figs . 20, 21 .

    * Euastrum sublobatum var . incrassatum Scott & Pres-

    cott

    Text-Fig . 66 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 41, pl . 14, fig . 13 .

    L . 18 .9-20 .25; W . 13 .5 -1 5 .0 ; 1 . 5 .4 .

  • 216

    Plate 2

    17. Cosmarium regnesii var . productum West & West ;18 . Micrasterias apiculata (Ehrbg.) Menegh . ; 19 . Cosmarium

    punctulatum var . subpunctulatum (Nordst.) Borges ; 20. Closterium rostratum Ehrbg. ; 21 .Closterium rostratum

    Ehrbg . ; 22 .Closterium rectimarginatum Scott & Prescott ; 23 . Closterium rectimarginatum Scott & Prescott

    ; 24.

    Closterium praelongum Breb . ; 25 . Cosmarium portianum var . nephroideumWittr . ; 26 . Micrasterias tropica var.

    polonica f. evolute Scott & Prescott ; 27 . Cosmarium pachyderum var . indicum Iyeng . & Vimlabai

    ; 28 . Staurastrum

    pinnatum var . subpinnatum f. robustum Krieger ; 29 . Staurastrum sinuatumBorgeforma; 30 . Staurastrum sinuatum

    Borgeforma; 31 . Cosmarium venustum Breb.forma.

    24

  • Plate 3

    32 . Micrasterias radians Turner; 33 . Euastrum elegans (Breb .) Kutz ; 34. Micrasterias torreyi var. sachlanii Scott & Pres-

    cott ; 35 . Euastrum insulare (Wittr.) Roy; 36 . Micrasterias zeylanicaFritsch ; 37 . Euastrum subalpinum Messik . ; 38 .

    Micrasterias radiata Hass ; 39. Micrasterias radiata Hass ; 40 . Euastrum insulare(Wittr .) Roy .

    2 17

    I9. OK

    43 .5k$I OK

    35 .37, 4038,39

    31,

  • Micrasterias mahabuleshwarensis var . europaea Nordst .

    Text-Fig . 71 .

    Prescott, 1966, P . 29, pl . 10, fig . 7 .

    L. 94 .50-108 .0; W . 67 .5-81 .0 ; I . 13 .50-18.90 . This is a re-

    duced form having one or two secondary lobules at the

    apex and a ring of granules in the center of semicell .

    Micrasterias radians Turner

    Text-Fig. 32 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 51, pl . 32, fig . I ; Agarkar &

    Agarker,1 973, P

    . 11, pl . 2, fig . 24 .

    L . 135 .0-138 .0; W . 110.0-113 .4; I . 13 .5-15 .0 .

    Micrasterias radiata Hass

    Text-Figs. 38 .39.

    Groenblad, Scott & Croasdale, 1968, p. 14, pl . 5, figs.

    63, 65 .

    L . 174.0-195 .75 ; W. 169 .5-174 .0 ; I . 17 .40-21 .0 .

    * Micrasterias torreyivar . sachlanii Scott & Prescott

    Text-Fig. 34.

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, P . 52, pl . 21, fig . 4 .

    L . 405 .0-421 .2 ; W. 283 .5-291 .0 ; I . 38 .0-44 .0 .

    * Micrasterias tropica var . polonica f. evoluta Scott &

    Prescott

    Text-Fig . 26 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 53, pl. 16, fig . 7 .

    L. 174 .0-182 .5; W. 125 .0-135 .0 ; I . 19 .0-21.75. Facial

    spines without bifid verrucae, central circular swelling is

    lacking .

    Micrasterias zeylanica Fritsch Text-Figs. 36, 49 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1966, P. 44, Pl . 2, figs .15,

    16 .

    L . 48 .0-51 .30 ; W . 48 .6-56 .70; I . 8 .io-10 .0 .

    * Micrasterias zeylanica var . rectangularis Scott & Pres-

    cott

    Text-Fig. 44 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 53, pl . 21, figs . 5-7 .

    L . 48 .8-51 .0; W. 55 .7-60 .0 ; I . 10 .80-12 .5 .

    Cosmarium Corda, 1834.

    Cosmarium connatum var . minus Wolle

    Text-Fig . 50 .

    Ruzicka, 1973, P . 208, pl . 9, fig . 2 .

    L . 62 .0-67 .5; W. 40.5 - 43

    .2; 1

    . 32 .4-35 .0 .

    Cosmarium contractum var . contractum Kirchn.

    Text-Fig . 52 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 56, pl . 27, fig . 4 .

    L . 34 .20-38 .0; W. 22 .80-25 .0 ; I . 3 .80-5 .70 .

    Cosmarium hammeri var . schmidlei Groenblad & Scott

    Text-Fig . 54 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1966, p . 48, pl . 3, fig . 31 .

    L. 25 .5-27 .0; W . 19 .0-21 .0 ; I . 9 .5-10.8 .

    Cosmarium obsoletum var . sitvense (Gutw.) Krieger

    Text-Fig. 45 .

    Prescott, 1961, p. 19, pl . 3, fig . i6 .

    L. 40 .5-43 .2 ; W . 54.0-56 .7 ;1 . 24 .3-25 .0 . This form has a

    2 1 8

    broader isthmus .

    Cosmarium pachydermum var. indicum Iyengar &

    Vimlabai

    Text-Fig . 27 .

    Groenblad & Croasdale, 1971, p . 16, fig . 59 .

    L. 43 .7 -45.5 ; W. 41 .8- 43.7

    1 . 11 .4-13 .3 . The present des-

    mid is much smaller in dimensions and shows a great

    resemblance with Co. phaseolus and Co. subtumidum .

    Cosmarium portianum var . nephroideum Wittr .

    Text-Fig. 25 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 66, pl . 28, fig . 10.

    L . 29 .5-32 .5; W . 21 .6-25 .3 ; I . 1o .8-11 .0 .

    Cosmarium punctulatum var . subpunctulatum

    (Nordst.) Borges

    Text-Fig . 19 .

    Agarker & Agarkar, 1977, P . 29, pl . 2, figs . 41, 42.

    L . 27 .0-30.0; W . 25 .0-27 .0 ; I . 5 .4-8 .0 .

    Cosmarium pyramidatum Breb .

    Text-Fig . 65 .

    Agarker & Agarkar, 1977, P . 29, pl . 2, fig . 25 .

    L . 67 .5-70 .0; W. 40.5-43.5I. 21.6-23.0 .

    Cosmarium regnesii var . productum West & West

    Text-Fig . 17 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 68, p1 . 32, fig . 24 .

    L, 11 .40-13.5 W. 13 .3 -

    15 .20 ; 1 . 3 .80-4 .0 . Processes of

    the polar lobes are not produced .

    Cosmarium undulatum var. minutum Wittr .

    Text-Fig. 53 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1968, p . 182, figs . 45a-b .

    L. 28 .5-30 .5; W . 19 .0-23 .0; I . 5 .6-7 .0 . In shape it agrees

    well but it is slightly bigger .

    Cosmarium venustum Breb .forma Text-Fig . 31 .

    Suxena & Venkateswarlu, 1966b, p . 51, pl . 4, figs . 39a-c .

    L. 21 .0-23 .5; W . 13 .5-15 .5 ; I . 3 .8 -4 .75 .

    Actinotaenium Teiling, 1954.

    Actinotaenium subglobosum (Nordst.) Teil .

    Text-Fig. 51 .

    Groenblad, Scott & Croasdale, 1968, p . 15, figs . 66-68 .

    L . 32 .4-35 .0; W . 16 .2-19 .0 ; I . 13 .5-16 .2 .

    Arthrodesmus Ehrenberg, 1838 .

    Arthrodesmus convergens Ehrb .

    Text-Fig . 58 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p. 74, Pl . 34, figs . 7-10

    .

    L. 40 .0-42 .7 ; W . 75 .0-77.0; I . 4 .5-5 .5 .

    Arthrodesmus convergens var . curt us Turner

    Text-Figs. 55, 56 .

    Scott & Prescott, 1961, p . 74, Pl . 34, figs . 5, 6 .

    L. 43 .2 -54 .0; W. 45 .9-

    86 .5 ; I . 108-13 .5 . In some forms

    processes are very much reduced .

  • Plate 4

    41. Euastrum longicolle

    var . capitatum f. minus Scott & Prescott ; 42. Euastrum longicolle var . capitatum f. minus

    Scott & Prescott ; 43 . Euastrum longicolle var . capitatum f . minus Scott & Prescott ; 44 . Micrasterias zeylanica var.

    rectangularis Scott & Prescott ; 45 . Cosmarium obsolatum var . sitvense (Gutw .) Krieger ; 46 . Euastrum ansatum var .

    dideltiforme Duc . ; 47 . Euastrum ansatum var . dideltiforme Duc . ; 48 . Euastrum ansatum var . dideltiforme Duc .; 49.

    Micrasterias zeylanica Fritsch; 50 . Cosmarium connatum var . minus Wolle; 51 . Actinotaenium subglobosum219

    (Nordst .) Teil . ; 52 . Cosmarium contractum var. contractum Kirchn . ; 53 . Cosmarium undulatum var . minutum

    Wittr . ; 54 . Cosmarium hammeri var . schmidlei Groenb . & Scott; 55 . Arthrodesmus convergens var . curtus Turner;

    56 . Arthrodesmus convergens var . curtus Turner; 57. Arthrodesmus curvatus Turner; 58 . Arthrodesmus convergens

    Ehrb . ; 59 . Arthrodesmus curvatus var. latusScott & Prescott

    .

  • 220

    70

    27. 0K19 .01C

    60,61,63,65,71,72,73

    62,64,66-70.

    r ,

    14L

    is

    4%

    72

    Plate 5

    6o . Xanthidium urniforme (West & West) Scott & Croas . ; 61 . Euastrum spinulosum Delp . ; 62 . Staurastrum sinuatum

    Borgeforma ;63 .

    Spondylosium mitensvar .

    triangulare f. javanicum Gutw . ; 64. Euastrum ansatum var . dideltiforme

    Duc . ; 65. Cosmarium pyramidatum Breb. ; 66 . Euastrum sublobatum var . incrassatum Scott & Prescott; 67 . Stauras-

    trum royi Turner ; 68 . Staurastrum rotula Nordst . ; 69 . Staurastrum hexacerum f. pentagona Krieger ; 70 . Euastrum

    denticulatum (Kirch .) Gay ; 71 . Micrasterias mahabuleshwarensis var . europaea Nordst . ; 72.Spondylosium mitens

    f. majus Turner ; 73 . Staurastrum margar...