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  • http://JUDIS.NIC.IN SUPREME COURT OF INDIA Page 1 of 23

    REPORTABLE

    IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

    CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION

    CIVIL APPEAL NO. 7631 OF 2002

    Dev Dutt .. Appellant

    -vs-

    Union of India & Ors. ..Respondents

    JUDGMENT

    Markandey Katju, J.

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    1. This appeal by special leave has been filed against the impugned

    judgment of the Gauhati High Court dated 26.11.2001 in Writ Appeal No.

    447 of 2001. By the aforesaid judgment the Division Bench of the Gauhati

    High Court dismissed the Writ Appeal of the appellant filed against the

    judgment of the Learned Single Judge dated 21.8.2001.

    2. Heard learned counsel for the parties and perused the record.

    3. The appellant was in the service of the Border Roads Engineering

    Service which is governed by the Border Roads Engineering Service Group

    A Rules, as amended. As per these rules, since the appellant was promoted

    as Executive Engineer on 22.2.1988, he was eligible to be considered for

    promotion to the post of Superintending Engineer on completion of 5 years

    on the grade of Executive Engineer, which he completed on 21.2.1993.

    Accordingly the name of the appellant was included in the list of candidates

    eligible for promotion.

    4. The Departmental Promotion Committee (DPC) held its meeting on

    16.12.1994. In that meeting the appellant was not held to be eligible for

    promotion, but his juniors were selected and promoted to the rank of

    Superintending Engineer. Hence the appellant filed a Writ Petition before

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    the Gauhati High Court which was dismissed and his appeal before the

    Division Bench also failed. Aggrieved, this appeal has been filed by special

    leave before this Court.

    5. The stand of the respondent was that according to para 6.3(ii) of the

    guidelines for promotion of departmental candidates which was issued by

    the Government of India, Ministry of Public Grievances and Pension, vide

    Office Memorandum dated 10.4.1989, for promotion to all posts which are

    in the pay scale of Rs.3700-5000/- and above, the bench mark grade should

    be very good for the last five years before the D.P.C.. In other words, only

    those candidates who had very good entries in their Annual Confidential

    Reports (ACRs) for the last five years would be considered for promotion.

    The post of Superintending Engineer carries the pay scale of Rs.3700-

    5000/- and since the appellant did not have very good entry but only good

    entry for the year 1993-94, he was not considered for promotion to the post

    of Superintending Engineer.

    6. The grievance of the appellant was that he was not communicated the

    good entry for the year 1993-94. He submitted that had he been

    communicated that entry he would have had an opportunity of making a

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    representation for upgrading that entry from good to very good, and if that

    representation was allowed he would have also become eligible for

    promotion. Hence he submits that the rules of natural justice have been

    violated.

    7. In reply, learned counsel for the respondent submitted that a good

    entry is not an adverse entry and it is only an adverse entry which has to be

    communicated to an employee. Hence he submitted that there was no

    illegality in not communicating the good entry to the appellant.

    8. Learned counsel for the respondent relied on a decision of this Court

    in Vijay Kumar vs. State of Maharashtra & Ors. 1988 (Supp) SCC 674

    in which it was held that an un-communicated adverse report should not

    form the foundation to deny the benefits to a government servant when

    similar benefits are extended to his juniors. He also relied upon a decision

    of this Court in State of Gujarat & Anr. vs. Suryakant Chunilal Shah

    1999 (1) SCC 529 in which it was held:

    "Purpose of adverse entries is primarily to forewarn the government servant to mend his ways and to improve his performance. That is why, it is required to communicate the adverse entries so that the government servant to whom the adverse entry is given, may have either opportunity to explain his conduct so as to show that the

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    adverse entry was wholly uncalled for, or to silently brood over the matter and on being convinced that his previous conduct justified such an entry, to improve his performance".

    On the strength of the above decisions learned counsel for the respondent

    submitted that only an adverse entry needs to be communicated to an

    employee.

    9. We do not agree. In our opinion every entry must be communicated

    to the employee concerned, so that he may have an opportunity of making a

    representation against it if he is aggrieved.

    10. In the present case the bench mark (i.e. the essential requirement) laid

    down by the authorities for promotion to the post of Superintending

    Engineer was that the candidate should have very good entry for the last

    five years. Thus in this situation the good entry in fact is an adverse entry

    because it eliminates the candidate from being considered for promotion.

    Thus, nomenclature is not relevant, it is the effect which the entry is having

    which determines whether it is an adverse entry or not. It is thus the rigours

    of the entry which is important, not the phraseology. The grant of a good

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    entry is of no satisfaction to the incumbent if it in fact makes him ineligible

    for promotion or has an adverse effect on his chances.

    11. Hence, in our opinion, the good entry should have been

    communicated to the appellant so as to enable him to make a representation

    praying that the said entry for the year 1993-94 should be upgraded from

    good to very good. Of course, after considering such a representation it

    was open to the authority concerned to reject the representation and confirm

    the good entry (though of course in a fair manner), but at least an

    opportunity of making such a representation should have been given to the

    appellant, and that would only have been possible had the appellant been

    communicated the good entry, which was not done in this case. Hence,

    we are of the opinion that the non-communication of the good entry was

    arbitrary and hence illegal, and the decisions relied upon by the learned

    counsel for the respondent are distinguishable.

    12. Learned counsel for the respondent submitted that under the Office

    Memorandum 21011/4/87 [Estt.A] issued by the Ministry of

    Personnel/Public Grievance and Pensions dated 10/11.09.1987, only an

    adverse entry is to be communicated to the concerned employee. It is well

    settled that no rule or government instruction can violate Article 14 or any

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    other provision of the Constitution, as the Constitution is the highest law of

    the land. The aforesaid Office Memorandum, if it is interpreted to mean

    that only adverse entries are to be communicated to the concerned employee

    and not other entries, would in our opinion become arbitrary and hence

    illegal being violative of Article 14. All similar Rules/Government

    Orders/Office Memoranda, in respect of all services under the State,

    whether civil, judicial, police, or other service (except the military), will

    hence also be illegal and are therefore liable to be ignored.

    13. It has been held in Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India & Anr. AIR

    1978 SC 597 that arbitrariness violates Article 14 of the Constitution. In

    our opinion, the non-communication of an entry in the A.C.R. of a public

    servant is arbitrary because it deprives the concerned employee from

    making a representation against it and praying for its up-gradation. In our

    opinion, every entry in the Annual Confidential Report of every employee

    under the State, whether he is in civil, judicial, police or other service

    (except the military) must be communicated to him, so as to enable him to

    make a representation against it, because non-communication deprives the

    employee of the opportunity of making a representation against it which

    may affect his chances of being promoted (or get some other benefits).

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    Moreover, the object of writing t