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IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO. 7631 OF 2002
Dev Dutt .. Appellant
Union of India & Ors. ..Respondents
Markandey Katju, J.
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1. This appeal by special leave has been filed against the impugned
judgment of the Gauhati High Court dated 26.11.2001 in Writ Appeal No.
447 of 2001. By the aforesaid judgment the Division Bench of the Gauhati
High Court dismissed the Writ Appeal of the appellant filed against the
judgment of the Learned Single Judge dated 21.8.2001.
2. Heard learned counsel for the parties and perused the record.
3. The appellant was in the service of the Border Roads Engineering
Service which is governed by the Border Roads Engineering Service Group
A Rules, as amended. As per these rules, since the appellant was promoted
as Executive Engineer on 22.2.1988, he was eligible to be considered for
promotion to the post of Superintending Engineer on completion of 5 years
on the grade of Executive Engineer, which he completed on 21.2.1993.
Accordingly the name of the appellant was included in the list of candidates
eligible for promotion.
4. The Departmental Promotion Committee (DPC) held its meeting on
16.12.1994. In that meeting the appellant was not held to be eligible for
promotion, but his juniors were selected and promoted to the rank of
Superintending Engineer. Hence the appellant filed a Writ Petition before
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the Gauhati High Court which was dismissed and his appeal before the
Division Bench also failed. Aggrieved, this appeal has been filed by special
leave before this Court.
5. The stand of the respondent was that according to para 6.3(ii) of the
guidelines for promotion of departmental candidates which was issued by
the Government of India, Ministry of Public Grievances and Pension, vide
Office Memorandum dated 10.4.1989, for promotion to all posts which are
in the pay scale of Rs.3700-5000/- and above, the bench mark grade should
be very good for the last five years before the D.P.C.. In other words, only
those candidates who had very good entries in their Annual Confidential
Reports (ACRs) for the last five years would be considered for promotion.
The post of Superintending Engineer carries the pay scale of Rs.3700-
5000/- and since the appellant did not have very good entry but only good
entry for the year 1993-94, he was not considered for promotion to the post
of Superintending Engineer.
6. The grievance of the appellant was that he was not communicated the
good entry for the year 1993-94. He submitted that had he been
communicated that entry he would have had an opportunity of making a
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representation for upgrading that entry from good to very good, and if that
representation was allowed he would have also become eligible for
promotion. Hence he submits that the rules of natural justice have been
7. In reply, learned counsel for the respondent submitted that a good
entry is not an adverse entry and it is only an adverse entry which has to be
communicated to an employee. Hence he submitted that there was no
illegality in not communicating the good entry to the appellant.
8. Learned counsel for the respondent relied on a decision of this Court
in Vijay Kumar vs. State of Maharashtra & Ors. 1988 (Supp) SCC 674
in which it was held that an un-communicated adverse report should not
form the foundation to deny the benefits to a government servant when
similar benefits are extended to his juniors. He also relied upon a decision
of this Court in State of Gujarat & Anr. vs. Suryakant Chunilal Shah
1999 (1) SCC 529 in which it was held:
"Purpose of adverse entries is primarily to forewarn the government servant to mend his ways and to improve his performance. That is why, it is required to communicate the adverse entries so that the government servant to whom the adverse entry is given, may have either opportunity to explain his conduct so as to show that the
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adverse entry was wholly uncalled for, or to silently brood over the matter and on being convinced that his previous conduct justified such an entry, to improve his performance".
On the strength of the above decisions learned counsel for the respondent
submitted that only an adverse entry needs to be communicated to an
9. We do not agree. In our opinion every entry must be communicated
to the employee concerned, so that he may have an opportunity of making a
representation against it if he is aggrieved.
10. In the present case the bench mark (i.e. the essential requirement) laid
down by the authorities for promotion to the post of Superintending
Engineer was that the candidate should have very good entry for the last
five years. Thus in this situation the good entry in fact is an adverse entry
because it eliminates the candidate from being considered for promotion.
Thus, nomenclature is not relevant, it is the effect which the entry is having
which determines whether it is an adverse entry or not. It is thus the rigours
of the entry which is important, not the phraseology. The grant of a good
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entry is of no satisfaction to the incumbent if it in fact makes him ineligible
for promotion or has an adverse effect on his chances.
11. Hence, in our opinion, the good entry should have been
communicated to the appellant so as to enable him to make a representation
praying that the said entry for the year 1993-94 should be upgraded from
good to very good. Of course, after considering such a representation it
was open to the authority concerned to reject the representation and confirm
the good entry (though of course in a fair manner), but at least an
opportunity of making such a representation should have been given to the
appellant, and that would only have been possible had the appellant been
communicated the good entry, which was not done in this case. Hence,
we are of the opinion that the non-communication of the good entry was
arbitrary and hence illegal, and the decisions relied upon by the learned
counsel for the respondent are distinguishable.
12. Learned counsel for the respondent submitted that under the Office
Memorandum 21011/4/87 [Estt.A] issued by the Ministry of
Personnel/Public Grievance and Pensions dated 10/11.09.1987, only an
adverse entry is to be communicated to the concerned employee. It is well
settled that no rule or government instruction can violate Article 14 or any
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other provision of the Constitution, as the Constitution is the highest law of
the land. The aforesaid Office Memorandum, if it is interpreted to mean
that only adverse entries are to be communicated to the concerned employee
and not other entries, would in our opinion become arbitrary and hence
illegal being violative of Article 14. All similar Rules/Government
Orders/Office Memoranda, in respect of all services under the State,
whether civil, judicial, police, or other service (except the military), will
hence also be illegal and are therefore liable to be ignored.
13. It has been held in Maneka Gandhi vs. Union of India & Anr. AIR
1978 SC 597 that arbitrariness violates Article 14 of the Constitution. In
our opinion, the non-communication of an entry in the A.C.R. of a public
servant is arbitrary because it deprives the concerned employee from
making a representation against it and praying for its up-gradation. In our
opinion, every entry in the Annual Confidential Report of every employee
under the State, whether he is in civil, judicial, police or other service
(except the military) must be communicated to him, so as to enable him to
make a representation against it, because non-communication deprives the
employee of the opportunity of making a representation against it which
may affect his chances of being promoted (or get some other benefits).
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Moreover, the object of writing t