development of madhyamaka philosophy arya nagarjuna and madhyamaka philosophy
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Development of Madhyamaka PhilosophyArya Nagarjuna and Madhyamaka philosophy
Madhyamaka PhilosophyThe Madhyamaka Philosophy was created by Arya Nagarjuna Pada and he lived between 2nd and 3rd Century A.D.It was mentioned earlier that Arya Nagarjuna has written a Commentary to Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita in the name of Mahaprajnaparamita Sastra.Probably Nagarjuna Pada originated the Sunyata Theory in his mind when he was writing Maha- Prajnaparamita Sastra.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyThe Prajnaparamita literature carries the analysis of Sunyata and its main theme is the theory of Sunyata.In order to put forward the theory of Sunyata Nagarjuna pada wrote the Mula Madhyamaka Karika.In the Mulamadhyamaka Karika Nagarjuna pada has written one Stanza in 24th chap.
Madhyamaka PhilosopyClarifying the meaning of Sunyata.Yah pratityasamutpadah Sunyatam tam pracakmahe Sa prajnapti mupadaya Pratiptsaiva madhyama 24:18(If anything is dependently originated we say that is Sunya, that is dependent upon convention. That itself is middle path)
Madhyamaka PhilosophyAccording to the above mentioned stanza Sunyata means theory of Pratityasamutpada. (Dependently origination). Then at the very beginning in the pranama gatha (Paying Homage ) of Mulamadhyamaka karika mentions in the 2nd stanza.
Madhyamaka PhilosopyYah pratitya samutpadam Prapancopasamam sivam Desayamasa sambuddhah Tam vande vadatam varam(I salute him, the fully enlightened, the bestof Speakers, who preached the dependent arising, the appeasement of obsessions and the auspicious).
Madhyamaka PhilosophyIn this manner Arya Nagarjuna explained the Sunyata theory in the way of Pratityasamutpada.Arya Nagarjunapada tried to explain Sunya and tried to analyze everything in the manner of Pratityasamutpada, because he realizes everything is Sunya and nothing exist which is not dependently originated.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyApratitya-samutpanno Dharmah kascid na vidyate Yasmat tasmat asunyo hi Dharmah kascin na vidyate -24:19(There is no a thing that is not dependentlyArisen. For that reason, a thing that is non-empty is also not evident.)
Madhyamaka PhilosophyTherefore Arya Nagarjuna tried to explain not the pratityasamutpada but nature of dependently origination of everything.The first chapter of Mulamadhyamaka karika is called Pratyayapariksa (Investigation of Pratyaya) and tried to analyze Cause (hetu) and Effect (Phala).
Madhyamaka PhilosophyIn this chapter he negated the notion that things are not produced by hetu-Pratyaya.The first Stanza is: Na svato na pi parato Na dvabhyam na pi ahetutah Uppanna jatu vidyante Bhavah kvacana kecana
Madhyamaka Philosophy(There is nothing exist which is produced by himself, by otherselves, by both, or without a cause).The Main teachings of Madhyamaka PhilosophyT.R.V.Murti shows the four instances of theDevelopment of Madhyamaka Philosophy.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyThose are: 1.Writing the primary works of the Madhyamaka philosophy by Arya Nagarjuna and his close students. 2. Writing the commentaries to the Madhyamaka Karika by Buddhapalita and Bavaviveka. 3.writing Prasannapada tika by Candrakirthi Pada to approve the Buddhapalitas view. 4. starting the system of interpretation with the mixer
Madhyamaka PhilosophyOf Madhyamaka and Yogacara by Shantarakkhita and Kamalasila.1. Writing the primary works of Madhyamaka Philosophy by Arya Nagarjuna and his close students.Arya Nagarjuna was living between 2 3 century, written a large number of Books. Among those books Karika (Madhyamaka Karika) becomes primary work and the
Madhyamaka PhilosophyMadhyamaka system was developed with commentaries written for the Karika. In the history of Madhyamaka philosophy Arydeva pada was considered as one of the members of orijinators of this system similar to Arya Nagarjuna. Aryadeva has written Catussataka explaining Madhyamaka system Candrakirthi has written a commentary to it. According to the commentary to the
Madhyamaka PhilosophyCatussataka Aryadevapada was a prince of a Sinhala Country and became a monk under the teachership of Arya Nagarjuna. A.K.Wader says Aryadevapada takes the Bodhisattva doctrine as primary teachings. Catussataka contains 400 slokas, it devids into the 16 chapters and each chapter contains 25 slokas. In the first part of this
Madhyamaka PhilosphyHe discarded opposite views. Unlike Arya Nagarjuna pada, he was interested to refute the Sankhya and Vaisesika views. In the book called Satasatra he discarded the views of Sankhya, Vaisesika, Jaina, Lokayata and Theistic views mentioning their names. According to Tibetan system Catussataka, Aksarasataka, Hastavala
Madhyamaka PhilosophyPrakarana and Jnanasara Samuccaya were his works. Some other works such as Satasatra Vaipulya, Cittavisuddhi Prakarana also ascribed to him. Naga(Nagabodhi Tathagatabhadra) was the other student of Nagarjuna Pada. He has written a Commentary to Pancavimsati Sahasrika Maha Prajna Paramita.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyWader says the relationship of Madhyamaka philosophy and the Prajnaparamita Sutras are clearly shown. Dvadasa Sastra, an explanation of Madhyamaka Philosophy (Only exists in Chainese language) also considered as one of his works. According to these information the works of Nagarjuna pada and is close two students works can
Madhyamaka PhilosophyBe considered as the first stage of this Madhyamaka Philosophy.2 Second Stage of Madhyamaka Philosophy. Writing commentaries to the Madhyamaka philosophy by Buddha Palita and BhavavivekaThe commentary to Madhyamaka Karika which was written by Buddhapalita is not
Madhyamaka KarikaExisting now in original form but existing in Tibetan language. Buddhapalita (470-550) has written commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. Buddhapalita was a great master and he was the exponent of Prasangika system of Mahayana Buddhism. It was said that he was born in Hamsakrida,
Madhyamaka PhilosophySouth India from an early age took a deep interest in the teachings of the Buddha. He received novice and full ordination and entered Nalanda monastery, where he studied under a Acarya Sangharaksita, himself a disciple of Nagamitra.Buddhapalita quickly Mastered the teachings of Arya Nagarjuna, later while residing at Dantapura
Madhyamaka PhilosophyMonastery in South India he composed many commentaries to the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva. In the 6th Century CE Buddhapalita composed his famous commentary to Nagarjunas Fundamental Wisdom (Mulasastra)called Buddhapalita Vrtti, a work of great clarity and insight.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyAs a true Prasangika treatise it extensively employed consequences to elaborate Madhyamaka view. His younger contemporary Bhavaviveka also composed a comentary to Nagarjunas work called Lamp of wisdom (Prajnapradipa) in which he criticized Buddhapalitas position.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyWhat is Prasangika SystemMadhyamakas disapprove opponents views by drawing out the implications (falacious nature) of their views, but does not show Madhyamakas own thesis. This is the meaning of Prasangavada (Acaryo bhuyasya prasangapatti mukhenaiva parapaksam nirakarotisma. Madhyamaka vrtti
Madhyamaka Philosophy (Prasannapada by candrakirthi) MKV p.24). This particular theory of Prasangavada of Buddhapalita Thera in Madhyamaka Karika is pointed out by Candrakirti Pada in his Madhyamaka Karika Vrtti. Therefore we have to accept that Buddhapalita Thera was the originator of Prasangika system.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyWhat is this Svatantrika systemBhavaviveka Thera was the originator of Svatantrika tradition. Svatantrika system is to criticize others views to prove Madhyamaka stand, but must put forward his own arguments (Swatantra anumana). That means while refuting opponents views he must bring forward his own thesis.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyBy this way Bhavaviveka Thera criticized the Buddhapalita Theras view of Prasangavada. Bhavaviveka Thera was a contemporary to Buddhapalita Thera and his commentary to Madhyamaka karika was Prajnapradipa. Bhavaviveka (Bhavya) (500-578) was one of the 1st Buddhist Logician to employ the formal syllogism of Indian logic in expounding
Madhyamika PhilosophyThe Madhyamaka which he employed to considerable effect in his commentary to Nagarjunas Mulamadhyamaka Karika entitled the Prajnapradipa. According to one source, Bhavaviveka was born to the East of Magadha in India of Ksatriya family. He was ordained by Nagarjuna. Another source claims that
Madhyamaka PhilosophyHe was born of a Royal family of Malayara in South India. After becoming a monk he travelled to Madhya-desa(Middle-India) and received the teachings on the Mahayana sutras and Nagarjuna texts from Acarya Sanharakhita. After that he returned to Southern India and became a head of 50 temples and taught extensively.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyBhavaviveka trys to prove his theory by Syllogistic argument. During that time the teachers of Vijnanavada Dingnaga and Dharmakirti developed Buddhist logic by criticizing five members of syllogism (Tarkika sanvakya) (panca avayava vakya) Brahmanic logic Five members. Buddhists maintained only three members only.
Madhyamaka PhilosophyFive memers syllogism (Anumana vakya) as follows. Brahmanik Syllogism1. Pratijna = Thesis = That mountain has fire2. Hetu = Reason = There is a smoke3. Drsthanta = Example = Similar to Kitchen4. Upanaya = Application = It has smoke5. Nigamana = conclusion = It has fire