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NANOEMULSION/MICROEMULSION TECHNIQUES FOR DELIVERY OF NEUTRACETICALS THROUGH LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

NANOEMULSIONS/MICROEMULSIONS TECHNIQUES FOR DELIVERY OF NUTRACEUTICALS THROUGH LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

Dr Anita KatekhayePhD Scholar, CVSc, Hyderabad

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NUTRACEUTICALS BACKGROUND AND HISTORY LIQUID-LIQUID SYSTEMSMICROEMULSIONS/NANOEMULSIONSCHARACTERIZATION OF NANOEMULSIONS TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGESFABRICATION OF NANOEMULSIONSNUTRACEUTICALS VIA DAIRY PRODUCTSNUTRACEUTICALS VIA MEAT PRODUCTS REFERENCESTRENDS IN NUTRACEUTICALS & FUNCTIONAL FOODS

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TRENDS IN FUNCTIONAL FOOD & NUTRACEUTICALSGlobal food encapsulation market is projected to reach about $39 billion by the year 2015 (GIA) Global Industry Analysis, Inc

Currently, functional food market of India is estimated at $70 billion Or 4% of processed food market and is growing at 3 times rate

Japan is the single largest market followed by US and Europe In India, around 20 companies have record of producing nutraceuticals & marketing them globally

Ref: A. A. Patel & A. K. Singh (2012)

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In India, Nutraceuticals are marketed as Indian System of Medicine Drugs (ISMD) under the Over-the-Counter (OTC) category

No clinical validation of their safety or efficacy is required if therapeutically usefulness is mentioned in the text

Nutraceutical foods are not subject to the same testing and regulations as pharmaceutical drugs

Ref: A. A. Patel & A. K. Singh (2012)

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WHY THERE IS NEED OF FORTIFICATION ? Fortification of widely consumed staple foods offer one of the simplest and most practical methods to alleviate Hidden Hunger

1. In 1930s Vitamin D was added to milk in US to help prevent rickets in children 2. In several countries liquid milk fortification with vit A and vit D is mandatory 3. Dried milk often fortified with Vit A and D, Calcium and Iron 4. Milk based infant formula and weaning foods are fortified with a range of Vitamins, Minerals and other nutrients such as PUFA

Investigation is carried out at NDRI suggest possibilities of fortification of liquid milk with Ca and Iron

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NUTRACEUTICALS Nutraceuticals is a hybrid or contraction of Nutrition and PharmaceuticalReportedly, it was coined in 1989 by Dr Stephen L De Felice, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine in Medicine, New Jersey, USA

Term commonly used synonymously for Designer foods, Health foods, Fortified foods, Medifoods, Vita foods, Pharma foods, Functional foods and Dietary supplements

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WHAT ARE NUTRACEUTICALS ?

A nutraceuticals is any substance considered as a food or its part which in addition to its normal nutritional value provides health benefits including prevention of disease or promotion of health OrAny non-toxic food component that has scientifically proven health benefits, including disease treatment or prevention

Functional component of the food must be standardized in nutraceuticals product and produced under good manufacturing conditions (GMPs)

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CLASSIFICATION

ISOPRENOIDS (TERPENOIDS)

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

PROTEIN/AMINO ACID -BASE

CARBOHYDRATE & DERIVATIVES

FATTY ACIDS & STRUCTURAL LIPIDS

MINERALS

MICROBIAL

Carotenoids, Saponins, Tocopherol, Terpenes Tannin, Lignin, Flavones, Isoflavons, CourmarinsAmino acid, Indoles, Isothiocyanates, Choline Ascorbic acid, Oligosaccharides, Non-starch PSn-3PUFA, CLA, MUFA, lecithin, SphingolipidsCa, Se, K, Cu, ZnProbiotics, Yeast

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Summary of major Lipophilic Nutraceuticals Components that need to be delivered into foodsNAMETYPESNUTRITIONAL BENEFITSFatty Acidsn-3 fatty acids, CLA, Butyric acidsCoronary Heart Disease, Bone health, Immune response disorders, Weight gain, Stroke prevention, Mental health, Cancer, Visual acuityCarotenoids- Carotene, Lycopene, Lutein and ZeaxanthinCancer, Coronary Heart Disease, Macular degeneration and CataractAntioxidantsTocopherols, Flavonoids, PolyphenolsCoronary Heart Disease, Cancer and Urinary Tract DiseasePhytosterolsStigmasterol, - sitosterol, CampesterolCoronary Heart Disease

VitaminsVit D and Oil Soluble VitPrevent Rickets and Osteomalacia

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HISTORY Since beginning of last century Australian housewives used Water/Eucalyptus oil/Soap flake/White spirit mixtures to wash woolSchulman et al.,(1959) : First used microemulsion to describe multiphase system (water, oil, surfactant and alcohol which form transparent solution)Rodawald, 1928: Discovered liquid waxes the first commercial microemulsions

In late 1970s and early 1980s interest in microemulsions really step up when it was recognized that such systems could improve oil recovery and when oil prices reached levels

Last 20 years great deal of progress in understanding the properties of Microemulsions

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EMULSION

E.g. Mayonaise (W/O), Butter E.g. Milk, Meat Emulsion,Cream

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BACKGROUND Wide variety of delivery systems have been developed to encapsulate lipophilic functional component including e.g. Simple solution, Association colloids, Emulsions, Biopolymer matrices, Powders etcEmulsion based delivery systems are getting more attention now days- 1. Due to their targeted delivery 2. More absorption in human gut 3. Solid matrix material can be added in liquid food system

Emulsion offers a viable option for drug delivery:- order of selective uptake lymphatic regions Oil in Water> Water in Oil> Aqueous solution

(Nishioka & Yoshino 2001)

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES

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Structural components selection depends upon:- TARGET APPLICATIONS FINAL CONTINUOUS PHASE CHARACTERISTCS OF BIO-ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

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LIPIDSLipids are predominantly non-polar substances that are highly hydrophobicIn food Industry major source of lipids are Tryglycerols which may come from animal, fish or plant originsUsed to solubilize non-polar lipophilic components in foodsIn Microemulsions Diglycerides are usedNanoemulsions requires long chain triglycerides (LCT) with some degree of unsaturation (Prevent Oswald Ripening and Health effect also)

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SURFACTANTSAre surface-active molecules that consists of a hydrophilic head group and a lipophilic tail groupFunctional performance depends on the molecular characteristics of head and tail groups

Head group characterize Anionic, Cationic, Zwitterionic, Non-ionic Tail group characterize- number of tails (One or Two)

Synonyms - Emulsifier or Amphiphilic Compounds

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SUITABLE NON IONIC SURFACTANTS INCLUDE

1. Polysorbates Polyethoxyethylene sorbitan monoesters, Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 65, Tween 802. Sugar Surfactant Sucrose nanopalmitate, sucrose monolaurate, Sucrose monostearate Crodesta F-160, Sucrose monopalmitate3. Polyoxamers Polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymers e.g. Monolan, Lutrol etc

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Preferably surfactant that acts synergistically with the hydrophilic non-ionic surfactant to alter the interfacial curvature This lowers interfacial tension, permitting easier emulsion formation

Suitable food grade co-surfactant include: Sorbitan fatty acid esters such as sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), Span 40, Span 65, Span 60, Span 80, Span 85

Phospholipids egg/soy lecithin

Co-Surfactant

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Purified or Ultrapure Water, Saline or Buffered Saline More preferably balance of water 30 to 99.90 wt%

Co-solvent lowers the interfacial tension of the aqueous phase which enables the formation of smaller emulsion droplet sizeSuitable Co-solvent include C1-C10 alcohols such as methanol, ethanol .decanolMore preferably ethanol (C1-C4)

Aqueous PhaseCo-solvent

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Additives are added to make the nanoemulsions last for longer periods

Additives

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DIFFERENT DELIVERY SYSTEMS

Fig: Different types of delivery systems that can be created based on Emulsion Technology

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Conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions consist of emulsifier-coated lipid droplets dispersed in an aqueous continuous phase

Formed by homogenization of oil and water phase together in the presence of a hydrophilic emulsifier

Ref: Gaonkar et al., (2014)CONVENTIONAL EMULSIONSMULTIPLE EMULSIONSMultiple water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsions consist of small water droplets contained within larger oil droplets that are dispersed in aqueous continuous phase

Two steps of formation: Preparation of W/O emulsion Homogenization of W/O emulsion and aqueous phase and water soluble emulsifier

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MULTILAYER EMULSIONS

Fig. Schematic representation of formation of conventional and multilayer emulsions

Multilayer Emulsions are formed by adding polyelectrolytes to an emulsion containing oppositely charged droplets

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