ergonomics satyam

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  • 8/8/2019 Ergonomics Satyam


    Prepared ByPrepared By:: --

    SatyamSatyam GargGarg (0722913041)(0722913041)

    NikhilNikhil ChaudharyChaudhary(0722913023)(0722913023)

    VibhuVibhu AgarwalAgarwal(0722913055)(0722913055)

  • 8/8/2019 Ergonomics Satyam


    Cognitive Ergonomics 2

  • 8/8/2019 Ergonomics Satyam


    y Cognitive ergonomics studies cognition in worksettings, in order to optimize human well-being and

    system performance. It is a subset of the larger field ofhuman factors and ergonomics.

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3

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    The definition of the field

    Amultidisciplinary science that seeks to conform the workplace and all of

    its physiological aspects to the worker

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 4

    Ergonomics = human engineering = human factors

    Ergono ics = the science of fitting the job to the worker

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    Domains of ergonomics

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 5

    International Ergonomics Association:

    Physical ergonomicshuman anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as

    they relate to physical activity

    (wor ing postures, materials andling, repetitive movements, wor relatedmusculos eletal disorders, wor place layout, safety and ealt .)

    Cognitive ergonomics: mental processessuc asperception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions

    among humans and other elements of a system

    (mental wor load, decision-ma ing, s illed performance, uman-computer interaction,uman relia ility, wor stress and training as t ese may relate to uman-system design.)

    Organizational ergonomics: the optimization of sociotechnical systemsincluding t eirorganizational structures, policies, and processes(communication, crew resource management, wor design, design ofwor ing times,teamwor , participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative wor , newwor

    paradigms, virtual organizations, telewor , and quality management.)

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  • 8/8/2019 Ergonomics Satyam


    The traditional application

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 7

    Workplace design and work organisation

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    Muscular-skeletal disorders (MSDs)

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55ercen age

    usculos ele al disorders 52%

    S ress depression anxie y 18%

    Lung disorders 8%

    Cardiovascular disorders 4%

    Headac es visual a igue 3%

    Hearing disorders 3%

    In ec ious diseases 3%

    S in pro lems 3%

    O er 6%

    E. R. Vaidogas Lec ures on OSH 8

    Work related heath problems by diagnosis group (EU-15, 1999)

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    Dealing withMSDs 2/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 11

    Factors contributing to the development of s (1/ )

    h sical factors:

    Forceapplication, e.g. lifting, carrying, pulling, pushing, useof tools

    Repetitionofmovements Awkwardandstaticpostures, e.g. with handsaboveshoulder level,

    or prolongedstandingandsitting Local compressionof toolsandsurfaces Vibration Coldorexcessive heat oor lighting, e.g. cancauseanaccident igh noise levels, e.g. causing the body to tense

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    Dealing withMSDs 3/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 12

    Factors contributing to the development of s ( / )

    Organisational and ps chosocial factors:

    Demanding work, lack ofcontrol over the tasksperformed, and low

    levelsofautonomy Low levelsof job satisfaction Repetitive, monotonous work, at a high pace Lack ofsupport fromcolleagues, supervisorsandmanagers

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    Dealing withMSDs 4/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 13

    Factors contributing to the development of s ( / )

    Individual factors:

    Priormedical history P

    hysical capacity Age Obesity Smoking

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    Dealing withMSDs 5/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 14

    European prevention approach

    1. Avoid risks & evaluate risks which can not be avoided

    . Combat the risks at source

    . Adapt the work to the individual, especially the design ofwor places,the choice ofwor equipment and the choice ofwor ing and production

    methods, with a view, in particular, to alleviating monotonous wor andwor at a predetermined wor -rate and to reduce their effect on health

    4. Adapt to technical progress

    5. Replace the dangerous by the non-dangerous or less dangerous

    . evelop a coherent overall prevention policy wh


    covers tech

    nology,organisation of wor , wor ing conditions, social relationships and theinfluence of factors related to the wor ing environment

    7. ive collective protective measures priority over individualprotective measures

    . ive appropriate instructions to workers

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    Dealing withMSDs 6/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 15

    E ample 1: solutions to manual handling risks

    Lifting cast parts before and after the introduction of lifting/tippingcontainers

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    Dealing withMSDs 7/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 16

    E ample : work at a pharmaceutical plant

    Before and after adjustments were made to a workstation

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    Dealing withMSDs 8/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 17

    E ample : operator at assembly line for transformers

    Before - working with raised armand elevated shoulder

    After - automated conveyor ofadjustable height

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    Dealing withMSDs 9/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 18

    E ample 4: awkward work posture in construction

    A special device introduced to protect knees. The device also functionsas a stool

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    Dealing withMSDs 10/10

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 19

    E ample 5: manoeuvring trolley

    Altering the handle height on this trolley improves posture andreduces effort required to push it

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    Control room ergonomics 1/3

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 21

    The origin of the problem

    The control room at Vsters old power plant (around 19 0)

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    Control room ergonomics 2/3

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 22

    Increasing amount of information

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    Control room ergonomics 3/3

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 23

    Concentrating the operators information

    Cube display wall

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    To end of part eleven

    E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 24