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CHAPTER - II
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND
TECHNICALITIES OF SANSKRIT DRAMA
Sanskrit Dramaturgy deals with various characteristics and
technicalities of Sanskrit drama. The Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata, Daśarūpaka
of Dhanañjaya, Abhinavabhāratī of Abhinavagupta, Nāṭyadarpaṇa of
Rāmachandra and Guṇachandra, Nāṭyamimāṃsā of Ruyyaka and
Sāhityadarpaṇa of Viśwanātha are the various works on Dramaturgy. In
this respect, Nāṭyaśāstra is the chief authority. This Nāṭyaśāstra and other
works on Dramaturgy, mentioned earlier had guided the later dramatists in
the composition of their drama. A discussion is made in this chapter on
classification of drama and some technicalities such as Purvaraṅga, Nāndī,
Vṛtti, Prasthāvanā and its five types, Patākāsthānaka, Arthopakṣepaka, the
plot of the drama, five stages of action, five types of Arthaprakṛties and
five Sandhis along with their varieties because these are the essential parts
of a drama and hence a clear discussion is necessary, to justify the status of
Sanskrit Drama is termed as Dṛśyakāvya. It is also called Rūpaka as
the rūpa of a character is imitated by an actor or actress1
on the stage.
Bharata in his famous work Nāṭyaśāstra has introduced ten Rūpakas. His
classification of dramas has been adopted by almost all the later theorists.
Bharata has discussed all the ten Rūpakas in his work. After Bharata,
Dhanaňjaya and Viśwanātha have put their opinions regarding these ten
Rūpakas. Though they have not attempted to modify any thing of the ten
Rūpakas, discussed by their authority, they further added some sub-
divisions of Uparūpakas. Bharata has not discussed anything about
Uparūpakas but while discussing the Rūpakas he mentioned a variety
called Nāṭikā. According to Viśwanātha, Dṛśyakāvya is of two types-
Rūpaka and Uparūpaka or minor Rūpaka, where Rūpaka is divided into ten
and Uparūpaka is divided into eighteen varieties. The ten Rūpakas are –
Nāṭaka, Prakaraṇa, Bhāna, Vyāyoga, Samavakāra, Dima, Ihāmṛga, Aṅka,
Vīthī and Prahasana. Every Rūpaka differs from each other for their
characteristics such as the nature of the plot, the hero and the heroine, the
sentiment and the length of the play or the numbers of the act. Among the
ten Rūpakas, Nāṭaka and Prakaraṇa are considered as the more developed
forms consisting of not less than five acts to represent the five stages of
development of the plot.
The characteristics of Nāṭaka, provided by Sanskrit Dramaturgy are
to some extent rigid. The Vastu or the plot of Nāṭaka should be derived
from the traditional or popular Legend i.e. it must be well known. This plot
is an aggregate of all incidents and episodes. The plot of a drama is of three
types- Prakhyāta, Utpādya and Mixed. Prakhyāta is that where the plot is
borrowed from any traditional stories i.e. well known Legend. The story
which is not borrowed from any mythological or historical source and is
the creation of the poet’s own fancy is Utpādya. Again the plot which is
partially traditional and partially original and at the same time is created by
poet’s own fancy is called Miśra or Mixed.
The plot of Nāṭaka should be Prakhyāta or Khyāta or popular2. The
number of acts of Nāṭaka would be five to ten. The Nāṭyaśāstra gives a
brief outline regarding the characteristics of Nāṭaka. Nāṭaka is the most
developed form of drama which narrates some events of the life of a
distinguished Prince or Saintly character3. The plot of a Nāṭaka would be
Prakhyāta or well known suggests that it should only deal with the past
event and should not deal with the present or future, as the present event
will stand against the path of the poet’s freedom of imagination and the
future event is unknown to all.
According to Bharata, the hero of Nāṭaka would be Udātta or
Gallant4. He should be brave, hand-some, courtly, noble in temperament
and of high birth. There should be a balance in every respect in the
character of a hero. Bharata has classified the hero of a drama into four
varieties-Dhīrodātta, Dhīroddhata, Dhīralalita and Dhīrapraśānta.5 Dhīra,
the common attribute in all the four types of hero and from this point of
view it can be said that the hero of Nāṭaka should be Dhīrodātta where
Bharata mentions the term Udātta. But the main problem which arises here
is that while describing the characteristics of four variety of hero, Bharata
explains that Dhīroddhata hero should represent a God, a Dhīralalita is a
king, Dhīrodātta is a minister or Commander of forces and Dhīrapraśānta
is either a Brāhmana or Vaiśya.
Viśwanātha clearly mentions that the hero of Nāṭaka should be
Dhīrodātta6 and he should be either Divya (god) or Divyādivya
7. He should
be a mortal being. For example of Divya-nāyaka he mentions the name of
Lord Śrīkṛṣṇa and divyādivya like Rāma.
The principal character or the hero enjoys the benefit of entire
dramatic action. He becomes the substratum of all actions and is the basic
factor of the principal sentiment. Rasa or Sentiment is the most important
constituent of Nāṭaka. Not only in case of Nāṭaka, it pays great attention in
any kind of Dṛśya or Śravya kavya, as it gives delight in the mind of the
spectator or reader. Bharata has mentioned that Nāṭaka would be full of
Rasas but he never speaks of the principal Sentiment of Nāṭaka, rather, he
only mentions that in Nirvahanasandhi of Nāṭaka, there should be Adbhuta
Rasa. But Viśwanātha commands that in Nāṭaka, the principal Sentiment
should be either Erotic (Śṛṅgāra) or Heroic9 (Vīra) where other Rasas
would be sub-ordinate to the principal Rasa. Like Bharata, Viśwanātha also
admits Adbhuta Rasa in Nirvahanasandhi.The most important feature of
Nāṭaka is that it should be completed in five Sandhis10
in connection with
the five Arthaprakṛtis and five Kāryāvasthās or stages of action.
Prakaraṇa is a type of Rūpaka which is distinguished from the
Nāṭaka or other Rūpakas for its plot and characterization. The plot of a
Prakaraṇa should be created by the poet’s own capacity or imagination11
The Prakaraṇa, like the Nāṭaka, consists of five Sandhis and the number of
acts also is similar to that of Nāṭaka. Other technicalities i.e. the five
Arthaprakṛties, five stages of action, the different modes of behaviour etc.
follow the pattern of Nāṭaka. Yet it has some peculiarities.
The Prakaraṇa deals with narration of the characters of a Brāhmana,
a Businessman, a Minister, a Purahita or a Sārthavāha12
. The hero of a
Prakaraṇa would be a Dhīrodātta or Dhīrapraśānta character13
. Hence the
hero would be depicted as an ordinary human being and should not be
divine or semi-divine being. Even a divine character would not be
introduced for a remote assistant, rather low character like Vīṭa, Slave,
Dancing-girl and Gambler could be used in the interest of the poet. The
heroine of a Prakaraṇa may be a married lady or a courtesan14
Viśwanātha has accepted three types of heroine for a Prakaraṇa-
married lady, courtesan and both the married lady and the courtesan15
Regarding the hero also he has restricted the area while he admits only the
Dhīrapraśānta character that would be the hero of a Prakaraṇa16
predominant Sentiment, according to him, would be Erotic17
where Bharata is silent regarding this matter.
Samavakāra is distinct from other Rūpakas for its peculiarities. It
deals with the different objects of deities and demons18
. The deities include
the semi-divine beings or the super human beings of various classes like
the Yakṣas, Kinnaras, Gandharvas and Vidyādharas. The principal
character or the hero of Samavakāra would be divine and this hero would
also be well known and gallant (Udātta) type. The number of the heroes is
Samavakāra consists of three acts, three horror, three types of
passion or Śṛṅgāra and three types of dejection19
(sadness). The three types
of passion or Śṛṅgāra are Dharmaśṛṅgāra, Kamaśṛṅgāra and
Another peculiarity of Samavakāra is the absence of Vindu or Drop
and Introductory scene. It contains four Sandhis; Vimarṣa-sandhi is absent
here. It also has another exception in the use of different varieties of Vīthī
and Prahasana. All the Sentiments would be accepted in this type but
Viśwanātha is of opinion that the principal Sentiment would be Heroic or
Ihāmṛga is another variety of Rūpaka the plot of which deals with
Divine and Human being22
. It is of a mixed type which is partly legendary
and partly invented by the poet’s own fancy. The subject matter follows the
acquisition of a divine woman or a celestial damsel who is captivated by
the opponent but is difficult to obtain and the hero is found to be met with
tragic end, yet the actual death of the hero is technically avoided on the
stage. The hero of this type of drama is Uddhata and he may be either a
divine or human character. Ihāmṛga contains three types of Sandhis,
Garbha and Vimarṣa are absent here.
Dima is a four-act drama having four junctures23
. Garbhasandhi is
absent in this type of drama. The plot of Dima is well-known as in case of
Nāṭaka. It has sixteen principal characters possessing Uddhata nature.
Most of them are Gods, Rākṣasas, Yakṣas, Piśācas and other witches.
Heroic (Sāttvatī) or Horrific (Ᾱrabhaṭī) are the Vṛttis which belong to the
mode of the behaviour of the characters24
Dima contains only six sentiments and does not admit Erotic and
. Magic, Sorcery etc. are the important deeds found in
the actions of the characters. In this type of drama Viṣkambhaka and
Praveśaka do not get any place though it is important in case of Nāṭaka.
Utsṛṣṭikāṅka is a Rūpaka mainly in pathetic sentiment which depicts
a well-known story of mortal character26
. Bharata has strictly prohibited the
divine character here and adds the women characters who are found to
lament in sorrowful speech. It contains only one mode of behaviour i.e.
Bhāratī Vṛtti while Sāttvatī, Ᾱrabhaṭī and Kaiśikī are omitted here27
Viśwanātha has named it Aṅka.
The term Prahasana itself depicts the sense of comedy. It is full of
comic characters and is presented in the costumes, suitable for comic
scene. The ruling sentiment is Hāsya as it arouses laughter in the audience.
It is of two types- Śuddha and Saṃkīrṇa28
. The characters of Prahasana are
Monks, Brāhmanas, Servants, Slaves, Villains, Courtisans etc29
Prahasana contains all the ten sub-divisions of Vīthī30
. It follows the
pattern of Bhāna in case of behaviour, junctures etc.
Bhāṇa is a monologue or one-act play, the plot of which is purely
created by the poets own imagination. In this type of Rūpaka the hero
speaks for himself and also for other characters. In Bhāṇa, at the time of
presentation of the play on the stage, only one actor appears on the stage as
it is a monologue and addresses to a feigned listener and also himself acts
as the treatment of the addressee. There would be two Sandhis-
Mukhasandhi or opening juncture and Nirvahaṇa or concluding juncture.
Vyāyoga is a Rūpaka of one-act31
. It deals with a popular topic as its
characters are also popular or well- known, though it has a little women
character. The hero of this type of drama, according to Bharata, should not
be a divine figure, or a king with saintly character32
. It contains only three
junctures namely the opening, the progression and the conclusion33
Vīthī is also a one-act play34
. All the sentiments are introduced in
this type of drama but the principal sentiment should dominate here. It
contains Udghātyaka and Avalagita variety of Induction35
. Three types i.e.
upper, lower and middle characters are introduced in Vīthī category of
Rūpaka. Vīthī has its own thirteen sub-divisions which are also sub-
divisions of Bhāratī Vṛtti, known as Vīthyāṅgas. It contains only two
junctures- opening and conclusion.
Nāṭikā is a four - act drama36
which contains a large number of
female characters. Viśwanātha has defined Nāṭikā in a very clear way.
According to him the plot of the Nāṭikā is created by the poet by his own
. The hero is invariably a king possessing Dhīralalita
character and the heroine would be a young princess, well acquainted with
dance and music38
The hero of Nāṭikā is found to be afraid of the queen who is also
born of a royal family and the union of the hero and the heroine depends on
. One of the principal characteristics of Nāṭikā is that it
displays Śṛṅgāra as the principal sentiment, as the Vṛtti contains in it is
Kauśikī and like Nāṭaka, Adbhuta Rasa is found in its end.
As regards Sandhi, Bharata does not put any comment which
implies that Nāṭikā also contains five Sandhis like Nāṭaka. Viśwanātha
accepts five Sandhis in Nāṭikā but he is of opinion that Vimarṣasandhi
would be used in a very short extent. Nāṭikā is distinct from Nāṭaka
mainly for the plot and the numbers of act, otherwise it fulfills almost all
the characteristics of a Nāṭaka. The plot of the Nāṭikā is original, while the
Nāṭaka is based on popular or well known stories which must occur in
either Purāṇa, or Itihāsa or other distinguished works. The plot of Nāṭaka is
arranged in such a way for which the story becomes long and there comes
the necessity of Patākā or Prakarī but Nāṭikā has only a single plot for
which it is ended in four acts.
Except the Nāṭikā Viśwanātha has explained seventeen variety of
Uparūpakas or minor Rūpakas which are -Troṭaka, Goṣṭhi, Saṭṭaka,
Nāṭyarāsaka, Prasthānaka, Ullāpya, Kāvya, Preṅkhana, Rāsaka, Saṃlāpa,
Śrīgadita, Śilpaka, Vilāsikā, Durmallikā, Prakaraṇikā, Hallīśa and
The play which is composed of seven, eight, five or nine acts is
termed as Troṭaka40
. It deals with the narration of the story of a divine
character and mortal characters. The clown or Vidūṣaka plays an important
part in this type of drama. He is found to be present in all the acts
especially in the first act, his presence is necessary. As the clown is found
present in all the acts the principal sentiment here is Erotic or Śṛṅgāra41
The clown is a conventional character who helps the hero in his love affair.
Goṣṭhī is a play consists of one act. This type of drama presents nine
or ten general heroes and five or six female characters42
. The main
language used here is Prākṛt. Sanskrit language does not get any scope
here. The principal sentiment of this type is kāma -Śṛṅgāra and the Vṛtti is
Kauśikī. Garbha and Vimarṣa Sandhis are absent here.
is an Uparūpaka consists in the pattern of Nāṭikā but the
entire conversation in it is conveyed either in Sanskrit or in any other
Prākṛt dialect. There would be no any space for Viṣkambhaka or
Praveśaka. The act of this type of play is termed as Yavanikā.The principal
sentiment is marvelous in this play. Regarding the language of Saṭṭaka
Viśwanātha differs from other dramaturgists and accepts only the Prākṛt
language and denies the use of Sanskrit.
It consists of one act and enriched in Tāla and Laya44
. The hero of
this type is gallant where a character called Pīṭhamarda is presented as
Upanāyaka. Pīṭhamarda is generally a helping character of the hero45
sentiment of Nāṭyarāsaka is Hāsya or laughter. It contains two Sandhis i.e.
Mukhasandhi and Nirvahanasandhi and it also includes ten Lāsyāṅgas.
Regarding the number of Sandhis there is a dispute among the theorists as
some admit that, this type of Uparūpaka contains four Sandhis, only
Nirvahana is omitted here.
In Prasthānaka, the hero would be a slave and the semi hero would
be more inferior to him46
. The heroine in this type of play is a maid
. Kauśikī or Kaiśikī and Bhāratī would be the two Vṛttis in it. The
proposed subject would be ended, following the matter of drinking of wine.
This play consists of two acts and there will be splendor of melody of
Ullāpya deals with a divine story where the hero bears the character
of a Dhīrodātta type49
. It consists of one act and is connected with the parts
of Śilpaka. Hāsya (laughter), Śṛṅgāra (Erotic) and karuṇa (Pathetic) are
the three sentiments in Ullāpya. It displays the narration of many wars. A
very important characteristic of an Ullāpya is that it presents a charming
music named Asragīta or Tripadī song. The number of Nāyikā in it is four.
According to some Scholars there will be three acts in this play50
Kāvya consists of one act with the presentation, full of comedy51
is endowed with khaṇḍamātrā, Dvipadikā and Bhagnatāla.The
conversation made in it, gives rise to the Erotic sentiment. Both the hero
and the heroine of this play are of Dhīrodātta type. The Sandhis, included
here are Mukha, Pratimukha and Nirvahana. Except the Ᾱrabhaṭī, all the
Vṛttis are found to be present in this type.
The Uparūpaka in which Garbha and Avamarṣa Sandhis are
and the hero, is from an inferior class, falls under the category of
Preṅkhaṇa. It consists of one act. Sūtradhāra or the stage manager has no
any role in this type of drama as the Nāndī and Prarocanā are sung from
behind the screne. It contains all the four Vṛttis.
Rāsaka is a play in which there are only five characters. Among the
Sandhis, Mukha and Nirvahana are only accepted by the dramaturgist
Viśwanātha. So far as language is concerned, Sanskrit and Prākṛt are used
much in this type of play. Like the Preṅkhaṇa, there is no Sūtradhāra and
among the Vṛttis, Bhāratī and Kauśikī are the two Vṛttis, found in this type.
It consists of one act and includes the part of Vīthī and sixty four types of
Kalā (Art). The Nāndī verse of Rāsaka gives double meaning. Viśwanātha
commands that the heroine of this type would be well known where the
hero would be an illiterate person53
. Its plot would be woven in such a way
where the chivalrous character of the hero is shown to increase, step by
step. In defining Rāsaka, Viśwanātha differs from the other canonists. He
admits only two junctures i.e. Mukha and Nirvahana, while others opine
that there should be Pratimukha54
type of Uparūpaka consists of either three or four acts.
The character of the hero should be rough and rude. Except the Erotic and
Pathetic, other sentiments get their position. Attacking the cities, cheating
and escaping due to fear (Vidrava) get their respective position in this type
of Uparūpaka 56
. Bhāratī and Kauśikī are absent here.
The characteristics of Śrīgadita follow thus: the plot of this
Uparūpaka would be drawn from either history or Purāṇa, the hero would
be Dhīrodātta as well as popular and the heroine would also be well
known. The plot would be woven into three junctures where the Garbha
and Vimarṣa would not be present. The only Vṛtti of this type of play
would be Bhāratī and the term ‘Śrī’ would be used in a great extent. As the
term ‘Śrī’ is used again and again, the scholars termed it Śrīgadita.57
Some scholars thought that, in this type of play, the Naṭī or actress
plays the role of ‘Śrī’ or ‘Lakṣmī’ and acts to sing or recite anything , in a
sitting posture. It consists of one act and the prominent Vṛtti here is
Śilpaka consists of four acts and it includes all the four Vṛttis. It also
includes almost all the sentiments. Only the Śānta and Hāsya would not be
employed here. The Nāyaka of this type is Brāhmana and there will be
Upanāyaka from the lower class. It contains the description of Śmaśāna.
Twenty seven divisions of Śilpaka are found in the Sāhityadarpaṇa which
are – Ᾱśaṃśā, Tarka, Sandeha, Tāpodvega, Prasakti, Prayatna, Grathana,
Utkaṇṭhā, Avahitthā, Pratipatti, Vilāsa, Ᾱlasya, Vāṣpa, Praharṣa, Śvāsa,
Mudhatā, Sādhana, Anugama, Ucchvāsa, Vismaya, Prāpti, Lābha, Vismṛti,
Sampheṭa, Vaiśyāradya, Pravodhana and Camatkṛti.
It is a class of play where the Erotic Sentiment is found in great
extent i.e. the Sentiment Erotic spreads over the whole play. It consists of
one act, and the ten Lasyāṅgas are adopted in this type.59
It presents the
characters Vidūṣaka and Vīṭa, where the hero is from a inferior class.
Garbha and Vimarṣa are absent here. It is a play which presents limited
incidents. This Vilāsikā is also called Vināyikā by some scholars. Some
opine that it is included in the Durmallikā type of Uparūpaka.
consists of four acts and it includes two Vṛttis i.e.
Bhāratī and Kauśikī. The embryo or Garbhasandhi is absent in this type
and the characters presented in it possess great skill in every aspect.The
hero of Durmallikā would be such a character who does not belong to a
lower category. Here the first act ends in three Nālis, with the many -fold
sporting activity of the Vīṭa. The second act, concluding in five Nālis,
contains the description of Vilāsa of Vidūṣaka, the third act concludes in
six Nālis with the description of Vilāsa of Pīṭhamarda and the fourth act,
which ends in ten Nālis present the narration of the sporting of the hero.61
It is an Uparūpaka where the hero is a merchant and the heroine is
also from the same class of the hero.62
The remaining features are like those
of the Nāṭikā.
is an Uparūpaka consists of one act. In this type, there will
be seven, eight or ten numbers of female characters where one male
character would be present, who would enjoy Sanskrit language. It is
endowed with Kauśikī Vṛtti. Like other Uparūpakas, it also does not
possess all the Sandhis. Mukha and Nirvahana are found absent here. It
depicts Tāla and Laya spontaneously.
Bhāṇikā is that minor Rūpaka which is enriched with the use of
charming dresses. It consists of one act64
and has only two Junctures-
Mukha and Vimarṣa. It contains mostly two Vṛttis i.e. Bhāratī or Vernal
and Kauśikī or gay bearing. The heroine of Bhāṇikā is a noble woman. On
the contrary the hero is an inferior one. This Uparūpaka has its seven
divisions- Upanyāsa, Vinyāsa, Vivodha, Sādhvasa, Samarpaṇa, Nivṛtti and
(i) Upanyāsa is the description of the dramatic motif in relation to a
(ii) Vinyāsa is the use of some statement of despair.
(iii) Clearification of mis-understanding is Vivodha.
(iv) Sādhvasa is the narration of the false statement.
(v) A speech delivered in great anger of pain is Samarpaṇa.
(vi) Nivṛtti is the citation of examples of illustrations and
(vii) Saṃhāra is the end of the main Motif.
The Dṛśyakāvya is Rūpaka as it is presented on the stage. Before the
beginning of the main show, a Purvaraṅga is required, which, according to
Bharata, consists of nineteen items, among which Nāndī is a part. Nāndī is
recommended by Bharata to recite by the Sūtradhāra in front of the
audience for the smooth -going of the drama and to destroy the obstruction
which may come in the path of the success of the performance. This Nāndī
is a benedictory verse, where the gods, Brāhmanas and the kings are
eulogized for the welfare of the actors and the spectators. It is of two types-
Śuddha and Patrāvalī. It is seen in case of all the dramas that the authors
maintain the convention of introducing a Nāndī verse at the very beginning
of the plays.
Viśwanātha, however, opines that Nāndī is most auspicious and
essential part of a drama which should be recited on the stage and after
Nāndī the Sūtradhāra appears on the stage and starts his dialogue. On the
other hand Bharata in his Nāṭyaśāstra has given instruction that after the
recitation of Nāndī, Sūtradhāra is supposed to leave the stage and another
actor called Sthāpaka has to come on the stage for the introduction of the
drama, its Seed, Title and the author. That person will use Sanskrit
language and he must be a male actor not a female actor. At the time of
introduction the Sthāpaka has to use Bhāratī Vṛtti67
. In this regard
Viśwanātha is of opinion that in almost all the dramas Sūtradhāra is found
to play the role of a Sthāpaka.
Bhāratī Vṛtti has four varieties – Prarocanā, Vīthī, Prahasana and
. Prarocanā is introduced to attract the audience towards the
performance of the drama with the appreciation of the poet, the drama and
also the audience69
. Among these four varieties the Prasthāvanā or
Ᾱmukha is very much essential. In Prasthāvana, the Sūtradhāra or the
stage manager engages himself in conversation with the actress or his
associate or the jester to inform the audience about the author, the title of
the play, the occasion of the enactment and the season in which the action
of the play has taken place70
. Prasthāvanā makes a situation for the
entrance of an actor or an actress on the stage. Bharata accepts five types of
Prasthāvanā- Udghātyaka, Kathotghāta, Prayogātiśaya, Pravṛttaka and
, though Udghātyaka and Avalagita are discussed by him in the
characteristics and varieties of Vīthī. Viśwanātha accepts these five types of
while Dhanaňjaya accepts only three.
Bharata has defined Udghātyaka as one of the thirteen varieties of
Vīthī, though it is also mentioned by him as one of the elements of
Prasthāvanā. When the actor accepts a set of words of uncertain or
inexplicit meaning and connect these to another words for their own
meaning then it is called Udghātyaka73
. In this case the Sūtradhāra utters a
sentence but the actor takes it with his own meaning and gets entry on the
stage to make a situation in favour of his performance.
In Kathodghāta the character enters the stage directly repeating the
words of the Sūtradhāra or reproducing the substance of the words of the
Sūtradhāra just after the utterance of his words74
When the entrance of a character is directly commenced by the
Sūtradhāra, is called the Prayogātiśaya variety of Induction. “This is a
form of Induction wherein the Sūtradhāra introduces a character (patra) in
so many words, as, ‘here enters so and so’. This reference could be put in
the mouth of the one, acting as the Establisher (Sthapaka) even for the
purpose of the establishing some point of similarity in respect of the taste,
quality or action between himself and the one of the dramatic personae
who is presently to appear on the stage.”75
Pravṛttaka or Pravartaka
Pravṛttaka or Entrance of Character is a type of Prasthāvanā or
Induction where the Sūtradhāra gives the description of a certain season
and in reference to that description the character is introduced on the
is that type where a different purpose is shown to be
served in case of another action which has no any relation with that
In a drama Patākāsthānaka also plays a very important role but in
the application of this element the author should be very much careful.
Next, arises, the necessity of Arthopakṣepaka. The Dramaturgy kept
some restrictions in the construction of any drama. As the Sanskrit drama
is one- act-one- scene, so, to connect different episodes of a drama, the
technicalities like Intermediary scenes or Arthopakṣepakas are inserted in it
by the dramatist to analyse those incidents which are not possible to
dramatise in the acts but which are needed for connecting different
episodes of the play. Sometimes mentioning of lengthy incidents also gets
necessity in connection with the main plot. In such cases the introduction
of Intermediary Scene or Arthopakṣepaka is necessary. It is of five
varieties - Viṣkambha or Viṣkambhaka, Praveśaka, Culikā, Aṅkāvatāra and
Viṣkambhaka presents those portions of a story which occurred in
the past and the incident that will occur in future. Viṣkambhaka is occurred
in the opening of any act. According to Bharata the characters in
Viṣkambhaka should be Purahita, minister and Kañcukin79
Viṣkambhaka is of two types- Śuddha and Saṃkīrṇa. When an
Intermediary Scene is presented by one or two middle characters, it is
or Pure and when it is presented by middle character and lower
one, is Saṃkīrṇa81
. Praveśaka is also applied in the same purpose. Its
functions are also almost same as that of Viṣkambhaka. In Praveśaka the
characters use Prākṛt language82
as the persons acting in this part come
from lower section. The purpose of Praveśaka is to explain the events
which are generally omitted between two acts of a drama.
is the third mode of Indication where the background
events are presented through characters that narrate the events from the
back of curtain. Culikā can be inserted in the middle of an act unlike
Praveśaka and Viṣkambhaka.
The fourth mode of Indication is Aṅkāvatāra. Here the actors give
an intimation of the theme and the argument of the ensuing acts.
Aṅkāravatāra is thus known as that device in which without any
intervention by any Intermediary scene another act is introduced. Thus this
concluding portion of the previous act is termed as Aṅkāvatāra84
is the fifth mode of Indication in which the subjects of
all acts are indicated in brief.
Besides these five popular modes of Introductions there is another
method where one act is inserted within an act which is known as
Garbhāṅka. It is inserted in the midst of an act of the major part of the play
which works as a camouflage.
The plot of a drama plays a very significant role in determining its
identity. Bharata mentions in his Nāṭyaśāstra that the plot is the body of
. It is of two types – Ᾱdhikārika and Prāsaṅgika. Ᾱdhikārika
is that which consists of the incidents that are connected with the
principal character, which has the Adhikāra of enjoying the desired result.
He is the Adhikārin, whose attainment of a particular object is the main
purpose of a plot and other episodes are directly connected with that
principal part of that plot. The subsidiary plot or Prāsaṅgika Vṛtta dealt
with other incidents, which are connected with the characters known as
Subsidiary character but not the Adhikārin. The Subsidiary plot is
introduced to make the main plot attractive and interesting. The main
theme of the drama covers the entire stretch of action of the principal
character. The main action therefore necessarily requires a beginning and
an end. Therefore the entire dramatic plot is devided into five stages of
actions viz. Prārambha (Ᾱrambha), Yatna (Prayatna), Prāptisambhava or
Prāptyāśā, Phalaprāpti (Niyatāpti) and Phalayoga (Phalāgama)88
Prārambha or Beginning
A sanskrit drama is very often found to start in two situations-either
i) the means through which the goal is to be achieved has already been
acquired by the favour of the fate or personal effort or, ii) the means to
achieve the goal is yet to be acquired. Beginning89
is that stage of action
where the eagerness is seen for the achievement of the desired object of the
hero or the principal character. It is not necessary that the beginning should
be done by the hero. It may be made by the heroine or any other characters
too. If the hero entrusts his affairs to the case of his ministers then it can
also be bagun by his minister.
Prayatna or Effort
The Prārambha of the drama may be made by any character such
as, the hero, the heroine, minister or even by divine being but the Prayatna
or Effort has to be made by the central figure of the drama. It is the second
stage of action where the hero or the heroine suffers from anxiety to find
all sorts of means to the end. Generally, effort means an action performed
by any individual to fulfill his desire. In Sanskrit dramaturgy it is that stage
of action that depicts the proactiveness of the central character of the
drama. Thus it is a speedy endaevour on the part of the hero or heroine to
find all sorts of means to the end.
Prāptyāśā or Prāptisambhava is the third stage of action, the
of which suggests its purpose. In this stage there are two
opposite parties (a) One which helps the central figure in the attainment of
the desired object, (b) the other which stands as an obstacle in the
attainment of the object. In Prāptyāśā the cause of central figure is
sometime seen to advance and also gets reverse. Again it advances and gets
back due to the presence of the opposite party. Sometimes there is a hope
of success in the mind of the central figure and sometimes he becomes
hopeless for the activities of the opponent party. Thus in this stage of
action the possibility of becoming successful is contained despite the
obstacles faced by the central figure.
Phalaprāpti is the fourth stage of action. In the third stage of action
the central figure meets with various obstacles and hence in the fourth
stage of action he searches for the possible means to attain the objective by
removing various obstacles. Sanskrit drama generally does not entertain
any tragic end for which the hero of the drama is presented in such a way
that he is always able to overcome the difficulties that arise in the path of
the attainment of his goal. The obstacle that comes on the way of
attainment of goal is removed in two ways-either by complete destruction
of the obstacle or by making reconciliation of the leader of the opposition
party. Niyatāpti or Phalaprāpti is explained by Bharata as that stage of
action where the success91
is certained and which does not have any risk92
Phalayoga or Phalāgama
Phalāgama is the last stage of action where all efforts attain
. Thus it is the attainment of the desired object where the dramatic
action reaches its goal or fulfillment. When all the obstacles have been
removed, the fruition of action does not take time rather meets with
The dramaturgy has explained five types of Arthaprakṛtis in
connection with the main plot of a drama, like the five stages of actions.
Drama has an aim to a certain purpose and the Arthaprakṛti is the means to
the attainment of that purpose94
. The five Arthaprakṛtis are- Vīja, Vindu,
Patākā, Prakarī and kārya95
The means which is manifested at the out- set in a very small form
but expands later in many fold ways is known as Vīja or Seed96
. Vīja is the
first element to the attainment of the purpose which corresponds to the first
stage of action. It is a compulsory element of a drama. The main purpose of
Vīja is to determine the attitude of the audience. It must be remembered
that the spectator or audience is simply a passive recipient of whatever is
presented. In such situations the faculty of audience or spectator to make
any independent judgement is inactive and thus dependent on whatever is
presented. Vīja helps the spectator to suspend his personal volitional power
to identify his subjective realism of the basic mental state with the focus of
the situation. Besides determining the attitude of the audience Vīja has
other functions also. Another important function of Vīja is to inform the
spectator about the circumstances from which the action is originated.
Vindu or Drop is that means which supplies the summery of the
main purpose of the play when it breaks the continuity97
. A Sanskrit drama
is oriented to achieve the goal by the central figure. This achievement of
goal is not possible unless the conditions favourable to achieve the goal are
met. These conditions for achieving the goal are presented in different
events. What happens is that these conditions are not achieved very
smoothly rather the main motive gets interrupted again and again. Thus it
is very much necessary to hold the main motive of action when different
events are presented. Vindu is the recollection of that motive force of action
when the situation is interrupted in changed circumstances. In drama this
motive force is resumed so that the principal objective of the central figure
is achieved finally.
Patākā is that means which is introduced in a play for the benefit of
the principal character when he is unable to achieve his end98
. In different
Sanskrit dramas it is found that there are some characters of some plots
who, help the central figure in the achievement of his goal, is known as
Patākā or Sub-plot. The Patākā character has no any personal objectives99
and they are independent. Bharata has opinion that Patākā looses its
necessity in the Garbhasandhi or Vimarṣasandhi100
The fourth element of a plot is Prakarī or Minor plot. The Miror
plot, which is also a part of the drama, helps the central figure to achieve
his end, and has also no any personal objective, like Patākā.
The difference between the Sub- plot and Minor plot is that the Sub-
plot receives more attention of the dramatist and is treated as the main plot,
which possesses Sandhis but the minor plot receives very scanty attention
and has no Sandhi.
Kārya is the fifth element of the plot which is very essential for the
attainment of the end. In the Sanskrit dramatic world there is no any drama
where there is absence of this element i.e. Kārya. It depicts the cause of the
drama. The object of every drama is to present a certain portion of hero’s
life where he desires to attain something and in this connection some
means are essential to achieve his goal, which is called kārya101
In a drama the five means to the end are though necessary but not
strictly essential, for instance when the hero is intended to be presented to
achieve his objectives independently in such cases the Sub- plot and the
Minor-plot do not get any necessity but the rest three elements are very
essential in every drama.
After a discussion on five stages of action, a discussion on Sandhi
and its importance in drama is very much imperative. Sandhi is found to be
the most essential technique enunciated in various works on Dramaturgy.
Sandhi or juncture means combination. Regarding this combination again
there are divergent views found to prevail in dramaturgical canons, but all
the theorists unanimously accepted that the Sandhi or Juncture is five in
number-Mukhasandhi, Pratimukhasandhi, Garbhasandhi, Vimarṣasandhi
and Upasaṃhṛti. Following is a brief discussion on these five aspects.
Mukhasandhi is that juncture where the seed is originated102
i.e. it is
the first phase of the dramatic germ which introduces a variety of events
and Rasa or Sentiment. Viśwanātha has drawn some modifications in the
definition and adds some new words “prārambhenasamājuktā” in place of
“kāvyaśarīrānugatā” which indicates that the Mukhasandhi involves the
beginning of the action with the Seed or the Germ.
As Bharata has put his argument that without the sub-division of
Sandhi, a drama cannot be able to give pleasure in the mind of the reader or
, hence the sub-division of Sandhi are also necessary to
determine the status of a drama. The sub-division of the Mukhasandhi are
twelve in number104
- Upakṣepa, Parikara, Parinyāsa, Vilobhana, Yukti,
Prāpti, Samādhānam, Vidhānam, Paribhāvana, Udbheda, Karaṇa and
It consists in the development of the Seed which is originated in the
Mukhasandhi, is partly seen and partly unseen in this Sandhi. It has its
varieties- Vilāsa, Parisarpa, Vidhṛta Tāpanam, Narma, Narmadyūti,
Prāgamanam, Nirodha, Paryupāsanam, Puṣpam, Vajram, Upanyāsa and
The Garbhasandhi is that where the Seed develops a further stage
than it was in Pratimukhasandhi. Garbhasandhi represents the embryonic
fruition. In this Sandhi the Seed is attended by frequent hindrance and is
anxiously nursed by search and other attempt to juvenate it106
. Here the
central figure is presented to achieve the wished for and also looses it again
and again. Every time the wished for is lost and there is a new search for it.
Garbhasandhi has thirteen sub-divisions107
– Abhūtāharaṇa, Mārga, Rūpa,
Udāharaṇa, Krama, Saṃgraha, Anumāna, Prārthnā, Kṣipta, Toṭaka,
Adhivala, Udvega and Vidrava. Viśwanātha has accepted these thirteen
varities but two names are found with little difference. He uses the terms
Kṣipti and Troṭaka in place of Kṣipta and Toṭaka.
Vimarṣa or Avamarṣa Sandhi
The germ which was developed in the past i.e. in earlier junctures,
gets open more clearly in Avamarṣasandhi, but is interrupted by some
calamity like the one of curse or of seduction108
. The Avamarṣa essentially
involves doubt for the interruption which is caused by curse and the hope
of the achievement of the wished-for becomes doubtful. In the beginning of
the Avamarṣa the hero meets with some obstacles which are only put on
his way to bring out his best qualities and the Sandhyāṅgas play a great
role in this connection like other Sandhis. It has also its own divisions-
Apavāda, Sampheṭa, Vyavasāya, Drava, Dyūti, Śakti, Prasaṅga, Kheda,
Pratiṣedha, Virodha, Prarocanā, Ᾱdana and Chādana.
Nirvahaṇa or Upasaṃhṛti
In Nirvahaṇa the Seed becomes fully developed and ripens to a
stage of fruition. In this Juncture all other Sandhis also contribute to the
production of one result i.e. the attainment of the desired object by the
hero. Like other Sandhis, Nirvahaṇa has its sub- divisions- Sandhi,
Virodha, Grathana, Nirṇaya, Paribhāṣana, Kṛti, Prāsāda, Ᾱnanda,
Samaya, Upagūhana, Bhāṣaṇa, Pūrvavākya, Kāvyasaṃhāra and
Sandhi has a systematic relation with the seed hence to summerise
the five Sandhis it can be said that (i) Mukhasandhi is the commencement
of the seed (ii) in Pratimukha the development of the seed is sometimes
seen and sometimes unseen, (iii) in Garbha the seed springs up and faces
obstacles again and again (iv) in Vimarṣa the developed seed becomes
clumsy due to some doubts and lastly (v) in Nirvahaṇa the seed fully
develops and ripens to the stage of fruition.
Regarding the constitution of Sandhi there are two schools who
have given their views in different ways. According to one school, Sandhi
is the combination of five stages of action with the respective sources of
the plot and other school is of opinion that Sandhi is the different phases of
the dramatic germ or Seed from its initial appearance to its fruition at the
end. According to the first group Sandhi is of five varieties as there are five
stages of action and five elements of plot. According to one school the
Sandhi or combination manifests in the following way-
Vīja +Ᾱrambha= Mukhasandhi
Vindu+ Yatna= Pratimukhasandhi
Patākā + Prāptyāśā = Garbhasandhi
Prakarī+ Niyatāpti = Vimarṣa or Avamarṣasandhi
Kārya+ phalāgama = Nirvahanasandhi or Upasaṃhṛti.
This theory is adopted by Dhanañjaya but it has already been stated
that Patākā and Prakarī are not necessary in every drama and they are also
not found in all the dramas, so this theory has much scope for criticism.
Another point is that all the Sandhis are also not found in all types of
dramas as in case of Dima and Samavakāra only four Sandhis are
. This theory can only be applicable in a perfect drama i.e. in
Nāṭaka and Prakaraṇa as these two types of dramas adopt five variety of
. In Dima and Samavakāra, there is absence of Avamarṣasandhi.
In Vyāyoga and Ihāmṛga only three Sandhis are employed112
Prahasana, Vīthī, Aṅka and Bhāṇa, only two types of Sandhis are found113
Hence, it is noticed that regarding the Sandhis, all types of dramas follow
certain rigid instructions.
Before making an attempt to determine the position of Harṣa in the
realm of Sanskrit literature as a play-wright, a conceptual clearity on
certain components of sanskrit drama is very much necessary which can
guide a researcher in the right way. Hence, in this chapter, a discussion on
those components has been carried out so that it can help in critical
analysis of Harṣa’s drama in more systematic way.
Notes & references:
1. “Dṛśyaṃ tatrābhineyam.” SD. Ch. VI. v.1
2. ‘Nāṭakaṃ khyātavṛttam syāt……’ SD. Ch.VI. v. 7.
3. NS. Ch. XVIII.v.10
4. Ibid.Ch. XVIII. v.10
5. Ibid. Ch. XXIV.v 17
6. Prakhyātavaṃśorājarṣīrdhīrodāttaḥ pratāpavān. SD. Ch.VI.v.9.
7. Divyo’thadivyādivyo vā guṇavānnāyako mataḥ. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 9.
8. NS. Ch. XVIII.v.43.
9. Eko eva bhavedaṅgī śṛṅgāro vīra eva vā. SD. Ch.VI.v.10
10. Mukhaṃ pratimukhaňcaiva garbho vimarṣa eva ca. Tathā
nirvahaṇam ceti nāṭake paňcasandhayaḥ. NS.Ch.XIX. v. 39; SD. Ch.
VI. v. 7.
11. Yatrakavirātmaśaktyā vastuśarīraṃ ca nāyakaṃ caiva. Outpattikaṃ
prakurute prakaraṇamiti vudhairjňeyam. NS. Ch. XVIII. v. 45.
12. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 48.
13. Ibid. Ch.XXIV. v. 19.
14. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 50.
15. Nāyikā kulajā kvāpi veśyā kvāpi dvayaṃ kvacit. SD.Ch. VI. v. 226.
16. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 224.
17. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 225
18. Devāsuravījakṛtaprakhyātodātta nāyakaścaiva. NS. Ch. XVIII. v. 63
19. Tryaṅkastathā trikapaṭa trividravaḥ syāt triśṛṅgāraḥ. Ibid. Ch. XVIII.
20. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 72.
21. ……..vīramukhyo’khilo rasaḥ. SD. Ch. VI. v. 236.
22. NS. Ch. XVIII. v. 38; SD. Ch.VI.v 246
23. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 45.
24. Ibid Ch. XVIII. v. 88.
25. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. Vv. 84, 85.
26. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 94.
27. Ibid. Ch. XVIII.v. 96.
28. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 101.
29. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. Vv. 103-105.
30. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 107.
31. Kāryastekāṅkam evāyam …..Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 91.
32. Ibid Ch. XVIII. Vv. 91,92.
33. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 46.
34. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 112.
35. Ibid. Ch. XVIII. v. 113
36. Ibid. Ch. XVIII.v. 59.
37. SD. Ch. VI. v. 269.
38. Ibid. Ch. VI. Vv. 269,270
39. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 272.67.
40. Saptāṣṭanavapaňcākaṃ divyamānuṣasaṃśrayam.Troṭakaṃ nāma tat
prāhuḥ pratyaṅkaṃ saVidūṣakam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v.273.
41. PratyaṅkasaVidūṣakatvādatra śṛṅgāro’ṅgī. Ibid. Ch. VI. P. 339.
42. Prākṛtairnavabhiḥ purṇabhirdaśabhirvāpyalaṃkṛtā. Nodāttavacana
goṣṭhī kau(kai)śikīvṛttiśālinī. Ibid, Ch VI. v.274.
Kāmaśṛṅgārasaṃjuktā syādekaṅ-kavinirmitā. Ibid. Ch. VI. Vv. 274,
43. Saṭṭakaṃ prākṛtāśeṣapaṭhyaṃ syād praveśakam. Na ca viṣkambhako’
pyatrapracuraścādbhuto rasaḥ. Aṅkajavanikākhyāḥ syuḥ
syādanyaNāṭikā samam. Ibid. Ch. VI.v. 276.
44. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 277.
45. Dūrānuvartinī syāt tasya prāsaṅgiketivṛtte tu. kiňcittadguṇahīnaḥ
sahāyaḥ evāsya pīṭthamardākhyāḥ. Ibid. Ch. III. v. 48.
46. Prasthāne nāyako dāso hīnaḥ syādupanāyakaḥ. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 280.
47. ‘Dāsī ca nāyikā………’ Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 280.
48. Aṅkau dvau layatālādirvilāso vahulastathā. Ibid. Ch.VI. v.281.
49. Udāttanāyakaṃ divyavṛttamekāṅkabhuṣitam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 282.
50. Trayo’ṅka iti kecan. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 283
51. Kāvyamārabhaṭīhīnamekāṅkaṃ hāsyasaṃkulam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 284.
52. Garbhāvamarṣarahitaṃ preṅkhanaṃ hīnanāyakam.
ASūtradhāramekaṅkama-viṣkambhapraveśakam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 286.
53. Śliṣṭanāndīyūtaṃ khyātanāyikāṃ mūrkhanāyakam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v.
54. Ihapratimukhaṃ sandhimapi kecit pracakṣate. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 290.
55. Saṃlāpake’ṅkaścatvārastrayo vā nāyakaḥ punaḥ. Pāṣaṇḍaḥ
syādrasastatra śṛṅgārakaruṇetaraḥ. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 291.
56. Bhaveyuḥ pūrasaṃrodhaśchalasaṃgrāmavidravaḥ. Na tatra
vṛttirbhavati bhāratī na kau(kai)śikī. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 292.
57. Bhāratīvṛttibahulaṃ śrītiśabdena saṅkulam mataṃ śrīgaditaṃ nāma
vidvadbhiruparūpakam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 294.
58. Śrīrāsinā śrīgadite gāyet kiňcit paṭhedapi. Ekāṅko bhāratī prāya iti
kecit pracakṣate. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 295.
59. Śṛṅgāravahulaikāṅka daśalāsyāṅgasaṃyūta. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 301.
60. Durmalli caturaṅka syāt kau(kai)śikī bhāratī yūta. Agarbhā
nāgaranarānyu- nanāyakabhuṣitā. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 303
61. Ibid. Ch. VI. Vv. 304, 305.
62. Nāṭikaiva prakaraṇī sārthavāhādināyakaḥ. Samānavaśajā
neturbhavedatra ca nāyikā. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 306.
63. Halliśa eva ekāṅka saptāṣṭau daśa vā striyaḥ. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 307.
64. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 308.
65. Ibid. Ch. VI. Vv. 309, 310.
66. Prasaṅgena bhavet kāryasya kīrtanam. Ibid. Ch. VI. v. 310.
67. Ya vākpradhānā puruṣaprayujyā strīvarjitā saṃskṛtapāṭhyayuktā.
Svanāmadheyairbharataiḥ prayuktā sā bhāratī nāma bhavettu vṛttiḥ.
NS. Ch. XX. V. 26.
68. Ibid. Ch. XX. V. 27.
69. Ibid. Ch. XX. Vv.28, 29; SD. Ch. VI. v. 30.
70. Naṭī viduṣako vāpi pāripārśika eva vā.Sūtradhāreṇa sahitāḥ
saṃlāpaṃ yatra kurvate. Citrairvākyaiḥ svakāryotthair-
vīthyaṅgairaṇyathāpi vā. Ᾱmukhaṃ tattu vijňeyaṃ vudhaiḥ
prasthāvanāpi vā. NS. Ch. XX.Vv.30, 31.
71. Ibid. Ch. XX. v. 33.
72. SD. Ch. VI. v. 3
73. Padāni tadgatārthāni tadarthagataye narāḥ. Yojayanti padairanyaiḥ
sa udghātyaka ucyate. SD. Ch. VI. v. 34; NS. Ch.XVIII.Vv.115-116
74. Sūtradhārasya vākyaṃ vā samādāyārthamasya vā. Bhavet
pātrapraveśaścet kathodghtāḥ sa ucyate. SD. Ch. VI.v.35; NS. Ch.
75. Quoted from ‘Laws and Practice of Sanskrit Drama’ P. 58.
76. kālaṃ pravṛtyamāśritya sūtradhṛg yatra varṇayet. Tadāśrayaśca
pātrasya praveśastat pravartakam. SD. Ch. VI. v. 37; NS. Ch. XX. v.
77. Yatraikaśca samāveśāt kāryamanyat prasādhyate. Prayoge khalu
tajjňeyaṃ nāmnāvalagitaṃ vudhaiḥ. SD. Ch. VI. v. 38; NS. Ch.
XVIII. Vv. 116-117.
78. Viṣkambhaśculikā caiva tathā caiva praveśakaḥ.
SD.Ch. VI. v. 54.
79. Viṣkambhakastu kāryaḥ purohitamātyakaňcukibhiḥ. NS. Ch.
80. Madhyamapātraiḥ śuddhaḥ…. Ibid. Ch.XIX. v. 112.
81. Saṃkīrṇo nīcamadhyakṛtaḥ………. Ibid Ch. XIX. v. 112.
82. Prākṛtabhāṣacāraḥ prayogamāśritya kartavyaḥ. Ibid. Ch. XVIII.v.
83. Antaryavanikāsaṃsthaiḥ sūtādibhiranekadhā. Arthopakṣepaṇaṃ yattu
kriyate sā hi cūlikā. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v.113.
84. Ibid. Ch.XIX. v.114.
85. Ibid. Ch.XIX. v.115.
86. Itivṛttaṃ tu Nāṭyasya śarīraṃ parikīrtitam. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 1.
87. Ibid. Ch. XIX. Vv. 3-5.
88. Prārambhaśca prayatnaśca tathā prāpteśca saṃbhavaḥ. Niyatā ca
phalaprāptiḥ phalayogaśca paňcamaḥ. Ibid Ch. XIX. v. 8.
89. Autsukyamātravandhastu yadvījasya nivadhyate. Mahataḥ
phalayogasya sa phalārambha iṣyate. Ibid. Ch. XIX.v. 9.
90. Iṣatprāptiryadā kācitphalasya parikalpyate. Bhāvamātreṇa taṃ
prāhurvidhijňāḥ prāptisambhavam. Ibid.Ch. XIX. V. 11.
91. Niyatāṃ tu phalaprāpti yadā bhāvena paśyati. Niyatāṃ tāṃ
phalaprāpti saguṇāṃ paricakṣyate. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 12.
92. Apāyābhāvataḥ prāptirniyatāptistu niścitā. SD.Ch. VI. P. 264.
93. Abhipretaṃ samagraṃ ca pratirupaṃ kriyāphalam. Itivṛtte
bhavedyasmin phalayogaḥ prakīrtitaḥ. NS. Ch.XIX. v. 13.
94. Arthaprakṛtayaḥ prayojanasiddhihetavaḥ. SD. Ch. VI. P. 261.
95. Vījaṃ vinduḥ patākā ca prakarī kāryameva ca. Arthaprakṛtayaḥ
paňca jňātvā yojyā yathāvidhi. NS. Ch. XIX. v. 21.
96. Svalpamātraṃ samutsṛṣṭaṃ vahudhā yadvisarpati. Phalāvasānaṃ
yaccaiva vījaṃ tatparikīrtitam. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 22; SD. Ch. VI. v.
97. Prayojanānāṃ vicchede yadvicchedakāraṇam.
Yāvatsamāptirvandhasya sa vinduḥ parikīrtitaḥ. NS. Ch. XIX. v. 23.
98. Yadvṛttaṃ tu parārthaṃ syāt pradhānasyopakārakam.
Pradhānavacca kalpet sā patāketi kīrtitā. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 24.
99. Patākānāyakasya syānna svakīyaṃ phalāntaram. SD. Ch. VI. v. 67.
100. Garbhe sandhau vimarṣe vā nirvāhastasya jāyate. Ibid. Ch.VI. v. 67.
101. Yadādhikārikaṃ vastu samyak prājňaiḥ prayujyate. Tadartho yaḥ
samārambhastatkāryaṃ parikīrtitam. NS. Ch. XIX. v. 26.
102. Yatravījasamutpattirnānārtharasasambhavā.Kāvye śarīrānugatā
tanmukhaṃ parikīrtitam. Ibid. Ch. XIX.v. 39; SD. Ch.VI. v. 76.
103. NS. Ch. XIX. Vv.50-55.
104. Ibid. Ch. XIX. Vv. 57, 58.
105. Ibid. Ch. XIX. Vv.59, 60.
106. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 41.
107. Ibid. Ch. XIX.Vv.61, 62.
108. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 42; SD. Ch. VI. v. 79.
109. SD.Ch.VI. Vv. 108, 109
110. NS. Ch. XIX. v. 45.
111. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 44.
112. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 46.
113. Ibid. Ch. XIX. v. 47.