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    Hydrogen Economy

    By:

    Siddharth Modi

    Matr. No. 851067

    International Mana ement

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    Contents

    Hydrogen Properties

    Hydrogen Fuel

    Hydrogen Storage

    Initiatives/ Current work

    Global Investments

    Comparison FCV vs ICE

    Conclusion

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    Hydrogen Properties

    Most abundant element in the Universe,

    makes up of 75% of all visible matter.

    Boiling point of 20K(-253) and melting

    point of 14K(-259) at atmospheric pressure.

    Density: 0.0899 kg/m(air=1.293 kg/m)

    Critical point is about 13bar, at 33K (-240

    ) Calorific value 142MJ/kgat STP (Gasoline is

    approximately 42MJ/kgat STP)

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    Chemical Reaction

    Energy Storage

    2HO 2H+ O Endothermic Reaction(H>0)

    The reaction needs energy.This Hydrogen can be stored or transported

    Energy Release

    2H+ O 2HO Exothermic Reaction(H

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    Hydrogen Production, Storage and Transmission

    fi ure b Karl

    Harrison Universit of Oxford

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    Hydrogen as Fuel

    In the future, hydrogen may be used in one of

    three ways to power vehicles:

    To produce electricity in a fuel cell,

    As a replacement for gasoline or diesel fuel in

    an internal combustion engine, or As a supplement to gasoline or diesel fuel

    used in an internal combustion engine.

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    Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different

    from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen internalcombustion car is a slightly modified version of thetraditional gasoline internal combustion engine car. Thesehydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner thatgasoline engines do.

    Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed in 1807 the firsthydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. Paul Diegespatented in 1970 a modification to internal combustionengines which allowed a gasoline-powered engine to runon hydrogen.

    Existing-technology ICE can still be applied for solvingthose problems where fuel cells are not a viable solutionso far, for example in cold-weather applications.

    ICE(Hydrogen as Fuel)

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    Hydrogen Fuel

    To perform reliably and travel for longer distances before

    refuelling, it should be able to travel atleast 500 km.

    Assuming 10km/L efficiency for gasoline, we would need

    about 50L gasoline with about 1500MJ energy. In

    comparison if we assume the efficiency of a FCV to be

    double we would need about 750MJ of energy, which is

    approximately 6kg of Hydrogen (assuming Lower HeatingValue). This is the amount of Hydrogen we should be able

    to store on board a vehicle.

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    Hydrogen Storage Methods

    Compressed Hydrogen Gas storage

    Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Solid State H Storage

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    Compressed Hydrogen Gas storage Due to low density, hydrogen has to be compre-

    ssed at very high pressures. Typically, it is stored atabout 250bars-300bars. Up to 700 bars is possible.

    Gravimetric and Volumetric energy storage density

    are around 3-5 wt. % and 2-4 MJ/litre (350 bars700 bars.)

    Due to the low wt. % of H2, the mass and the cost of

    the vessels becomes too high. To store 6kg of Hydrogen, the vessel would weigh

    around 120kg-200kg, which is extra weight and

    cost.

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    Compressed Hydrogen Gas storage

    http://research.uow.edu.au/energyfutures/researchtopics/UOW049258

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    Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Liquid Hydrogen storage at 20K and 1 bar, or

    about 33K and 13 bars.

    Gravimetric and Volumetric energy storage density

    are around 5-12 wt. % and 3.8-5.6MJ/litre

    respectively.

    Drawbacks: High specific wt. cost of the vessel,

    liquefaction cost, boil-off and leakage make it a very

    expensive and complex technology.

    To store 6kg of Hydrogen, the vessel would weigh

    around 50kg-120kg, which is extra weight and cost.

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    Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    http://autogreenmag.com/2009/05/16/first-czech-hydrogen-station-to-open-in-the-fall/

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    Solid State H StorageIt is the storage of Hydrogen atoms or molecules inmaterials, at near atmospheric pressure.

    Physisorption: Due to weak Van der Waals Forces,there is no bond formation. The Hydrogen moleculessit in voids or pores.

    Chemisorption: They are due to covalent bondformations, they are on the exposed surface of thematerial. Requires relatively high energy to releaseHydrogen.

    The wt. % can range between 1.5% - 7%, some haveclaims to be higher than 10-11%. Volumetric storagedensity around 10-15MJ/kg.

    To store 6kg of Hydrogen, the vessel would weigh

    around 100kg-400kg, which is extra weight and cost.

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    Solid State H Storage

    http://www.fuelcell.sg/hydrogen.php

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    International Centre for Hydrogen

    Energy TechnologiesICHETis a project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO)

    founded in Istanbul in 2004 and supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and

    Natural Resources (MENR). Its role is to support, demonstrate and promoteviable

    Hydrogen energy technologieswith the aims of enhancing future economicdevelopment, particularly in emerging countries and to prevent the widening of the

    energy and technology gap while helping to skip over the fossil fuel phase.

    Through ICHET, UNIDO has formed a partnership with the EU Commission Joint

    Research Institute for Energy and furthermore, has become a member of the IEA.

    On the Bozcaada island (Turkey), ICHET is currently implementing a Hydrogen energy

    facility utilizing renewable energies. It is involved in a similar project on the Cook

    Islands, for which it garnered support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF.)

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    EU Commission: EU research and

    innovation policy

    The Joint Technology Initiative has been set up

    for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen.

    (JTI): They comprise long-term Public-Private

    Partnerships which support large-scale,

    multinational research activities in areas of

    major importance for European society and

    industry.

    F l C ll d H d j i

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    Fuel Cells and Hydrogen joint

    undertaking

    It is a unique public-private partnershipsupporting research, technological developmentand demonstration (RTD) activities in fuel cell

    and Hydrogen energy technologies in Europe. Itsaim is to accelerate the market introduction ofthese technologies realising their potential as aninstrument in achieving a carbon-lean energy

    system

    Members:

    The EU Commission, NEW-IG and NENERGY.

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    Fuel Cells and Hydrogen joint

    undertaking

    It was formed in 2008 by the European research community to effectively

    represent its interests within the JTI. N.ERGHY as a Belgian non-

    profit association and is completely financed by its members.

    Their objective is to promote, support and accelerate the research and

    deployment process of fuel cell and Hydrogen technology in Europe from

    the point of view of the research community.

    The New Energy World Industry Grouping (NEW-IG) works to accelerate the

    market deployment of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen (FCH) technologies. Our

    mission is to create a more sustainable economy while positioning Europe

    at the forefront of global technological developments.

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    The formation of IPHE was facilitated by theU.S. Department of Energy and the U.S.Department of Transportation in 2003to

    foster international cooperation on Hydrogenand fuel cell R&D. Today, IPHEs 18 partnersorganize, evaluate, and coordinatemultinational research, development and

    deployment programs which advance theintroduction of Hydrogenand fuel celltechnologies on a global scale.

    International Partnership forHydrogen and Fuel Cells in the

    Economy

    I t ti l P t hi f

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    International Partnership for

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in

    EconomyMembers

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    Existing Infrastructure

    Hydrogen Fuel Stations (USA having about 60)

    Hydrogen Production plant from RE

    Hydrogen Cars and Buses Stationary Fuel Cell

    Demonstration and Commercial Projects

    Eg. HYDROSOL I costing about 2.6million Euro &HYDROSOL II costing 4.2 million Euro which is

    funded by EU Commission. (Hydrogen splitting

    from water with CSP)

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    Global Investments In Plant and

    Equipment

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    4000

    4500

    2006 2007 2012

    Hydrogen Production

    Storage and

    distribution

    Energy conversion

    Other

    Figures in Millions US$

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    Global Investments In Plant and

    Equipment

    1.353,90

    1.670,60

    5.510,40

    0,00

    1.000,00

    2.000,00

    3.000,00

    4.000,00

    5.000,00

    6.000,00

    2006 2007 2012

    Total*

    Total*

    Figures in Millions US$

    These figures represent a CAGR of 27.0% over the next 5 years.

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    Advantages Environmental Friendly.

    Good source of Energy Storage, especially withthe increase of Renewable Energy sources in the

    network.

    Abundant

    Disadvantages

    Low boiling point and density

    Complex and currently expensive technology

    Q lit ti i F l C ll V hi l /H d

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    Qualitative comparison Fuel Cell Vehicle/Hydrogen

    and Internal Combustion Engine

    Fuel Cell Vehicle/Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine

    Higher Efficiency Lower Efficiency

    No GHG(Water as exhaust) GHG Emission

    Abundant fuel Source Limited Fuel Source

    R&D and Infrastructure req. Infrastructure already present.

    Higher Calorific Value Lower Calorific Value

    Lower Volumetric Energy density Higher Volumetric Energy density

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    Conclusion

    Bring Hydrogen fuel cost to compete fossil fuel

    Current cost (1-20$/kg) to be (5-6)$/kg.

    High Wt. % hydrogen content and needs lightmaterials.

    Distribution and Infrastructure needs to be

    changed to cope with Hydrogen technology.

    High Volumetric Storage Density (by better

    Solid storage methods of Hydrogen)

    Reliable

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    Reference http://www.unido-ichet.org/

    http://www.iphe.net/index.html

    http://www.fch-ju.eu/

    http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/r

    esearch-policy/index_en.htm http://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydroge

    n_energy.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehicle#I

    nternal_combustion_vehicleMaterials:

    Hydrogen Energy Fundamentals (Notes)

    http://www.unido-ichet.org/http://www.iphe.net/index.htmlhttp://www.fch-ju.eu/http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydrogen_energy.htmlhttp://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydrogen_energy.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehiclehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehiclehttp://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydrogen_energy.htmlhttp://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydrogen_energy.htmlhttp://www.altprofits.com/ref/ct/ctv/eg/hydrogen_energy.htmlhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/policy/research-policy/index_en.htmhttp://www.fch-ju.eu/http://www.fch-ju.eu/http://www.fch-ju.eu/http://www.fch-ju.eu/http://www.iphe.net/index.htmlhttp://www.iphe.net/index.htmlhttp://www.unido-ichet.org/http://www.unido-ichet.org/http://www.unido-ichet.org/http://www.unido-ichet.org/
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    Thank You!!!

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