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Addressing the other water crisis! Everyone Forever!! हह हह हहह हहहहह V. Kurian Baby, India Country Director, IRC Water for People, New Delhi 2 December 2014

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Page 1: India addressing the other water ciris

Addressing the other water crisis!

Everyone Forever!!

हर के� लि�ए हमे�शा�

V. Kurian Baby, India Country Director, IRCWater for People, New Delhi

2 December 2014

Page 2: India addressing the other water ciris

Is India ready for EF? - status

• Rural India near universal coverage >90%• Over $ 35 billion investment – annual $ 3-4

billion• Over 30% slippage another 30% sub-optimal• Service delivery failing – piped water only 32%• Everyone will be reached even at high cost;

forever remains a challenge

Page 3: India addressing the other water ciris

Plus factors for EF• Sound policies and plans ( Strategic plan 2022; NRDWP

guidelines, Water Policy 2013; Local Govts)• New political vision – urban services for rural• Govt. led investments – resources are there• India fast growth trajectory – PCI –demand better

services• National Water grids with CBM for intra village

management• EF can be possible without huge incremental outlay• Greater role for CBM and local governments• Forward states are low hanging fruits

Page 4: India addressing the other water ciris


Financing not designed for resilience

CapEx requirements

Coverage rates


25% 50% 75% 100%0


Source: Adapted from Moriarty, 2011

Danger Zone

Recurrent expenditure & support requirements

CapManEx requirements

Page 5: India addressing the other water ciris


A birds-eye view of “the sector”


Household /Community

NGOs and CBOs

Urban utilities(public & private)

Regulators and Policy MakersUsers Funders and


Academia / Think tanks


Multilaterals / IFIs





Ministry of Finance

Ministry responsible for sanitation/hygiene

Ministry responsible for water supplySmall scale


Regulatory agencies

Rural government



Product andService Providers

Researchersand developers(global to local)


Manufacturers(global to local)

Source: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Water and Sanitation Strategy Mimeo, 2007

Page 6: India addressing the other water ciris


Decision making processes: messy.

Source: CEPT Performance Assessment System Project Mimeo, 2011

Page 7: India addressing the other water ciris

India: Services that last…(EF) Vision

Everyone Forever exists where: “everyone expects and receives water and sanitation services which last indefinitely”.

Vision India: Everyone ever enjoy right to safe, sustainable WASH services by 2019 and improved services by 2022 (GoI 2010,12)

Page 8: India addressing the other water ciris

India: Services that last…(EF) Strategy

• Government vision and leadership• Collaborative /contextualised solutions• Multiple delivery models including community

centric PRI led governance• Mainstream funding by Governments• Leverage funding by Donors• Large impact EF action research, learning and

scaling up – low hanging fruits????

Page 9: India addressing the other water ciris

India: Services that last (EF ) Vision –Approach?

• Shifting from systems to services – understanding sector sustainability holistically

• How to translate policy into practice• To take mind-set out of the closet – broaden the

horizon and sector perspective• Whole system approach for transformational




Systems to services>>>


Page 10: India addressing the other water ciris

India: Services that last…(EF)- Approach?

• Improved buying- in - concept and framework• Convince - Everyone forever is possible• Doable with little incremental investment• Take donors on board- India a low hanging fruit

(absolute number, multiplier and leverage, shaping tools for future in

other developing countries, scale)• Convince WFP-IRC can catalyse and drive• Develop /scale up –leapfrog -large impact EF

Page 11: India addressing the other water ciris

EF achieved and sustained when:• Everyone expects and receives a service

( improved?)• Government champions and leads over time • Funding flows support services on an on-going basis,

and expand to meet new demand • Problems and challenges are identified and

addressed promptly• All water users collaborate, not compete, to ensure

environmental sustainability • Monitoring is so effective, nobody doubts the results

Page 12: India addressing the other water ciris

Core areas of Innovation• Developing service delivery models and post

construction support mechanisms that work in specific contexts;

• Harmonised low cost, high-value monitoring systems that link performance to investment planning;

• Testing finance mechanisms to support sustainability and expansion of services over time

• Testing effective models of local water governance that ensure water (source) security over time

• Test Institutional convergence framework

Page 13: India addressing the other water ciris

India: services that last…EF principal building blocks





y Ap













on a

nd A



Decentralize/ Professionalize community management

Convergence, capacity

Institutional Change

Local IWRM/community-PRI led

Financing to cover all life-cycle costs

Monitoring service

delivery and sustainability

Support to service


Regulation & support to

service authorities

Asset Management

& Rehabilitation

Harmonisation and coordination

Learning and adaptive management

Harmonisation and coordination

Learning and adaptive management

Page 14: India addressing the other water ciris


• Investment and financing plans: all categories of required costs, across the full life-cycle of service delivery

• Water security: Water security and decentralised governance at local level for source sustainability and water safety

• Reaching ‘everyone’: last mile, improved services and/or rehabilitation and upgrading of existing infrastructure to achieve full coverage

• Post construction support : institutional structures for post construction support to communities to ensure sustainable services

• Institutional capacity and change management• Monitoring and learning : Developing comprehensive EF monitoring

frameworks service delivery, processes, outputs and outcomes• Asset management planning: inventorisation, for routine and planned

maintenance, upgrading and replacement• Advocacy, Learning and research: designing a structured approach to

analytical advocacy, learning and sharing and research to support scaling up

Page 15: India addressing the other water ciris

The Process

Prepare Master

plan and

Integrate with



Page 16: India addressing the other water ciris

Master plan – vision, status and gaps

• Implementation plan – new coverage (all service providers)

• Inclusion strategy and plan – last mile• Sustainability plan – asset management, replacement

and rehabilitation)• Institutional capacity - change & convergence plan• Financing for resilience plan – life cycle• Monitoring indicators and plan – service delivery and

client rating • Risk and mitigation plans• Handholding and Exit plan

Page 17: India addressing the other water ciris

Hub Functions

• Co-create Vision, facilitate and support Government in– Programme planning, delivery, convergence, transform

policy, Budget tracking, monitor EF, Channel CSR• Drive reform and process of system change to EF• Ideally a hosted secretariat linked to incubators • Build capacity and ownership to sustain change• Convene, coordinate and catalyze actors and

resources across all aspects that contribute to sustained services

• NOT to simply replace the failing system whose performance it is their job to reform.

Page 18: India addressing the other water ciris












Page 19: India addressing the other water ciris

Role of Government of India – national Hub when?

• Institutionally and programmatically align with the GoI. • Finance investment 100% with States (except TA

component ( donors, private sector etc?)• Coordination and convergence at national level• Sign the MoU with supporting partners• Issue enabling guidelines and policies• Chair the national hub steering committee• Coordinate the programme at national level• Support the scale up the programme across the country

Page 20: India addressing the other water ciris

Role of state

• Demand the programme and sign MoU• Chair the State level Steering committee• Support enabling environment by issuing necessary

orders, guidelines and policies• Finance sector investments and resource

convergence, RING FENCE FOR RESILIENCE• Co-fund and anchor innovation• Coordinate and monitor the programme• Scale up successes in other districts /adopt state wide

Page 21: India addressing the other water ciris

Role of District

• DWSM Sign the MOU and demand the programme• Prepare integrated bottom-up sustainable service

delivery plan• Counter-part financing and harness flexi funding

options• Community engagement and mobilization• Roll out and Implement the programme• Coordinate and monitor• Represent in District steering committee• Provide institutional home for monitoring EF

Page 22: India addressing the other water ciris

International Hub Functions

• Strategic input in concepts, ideas , design of the programme as it evolves

• Support the formation of the National, State and District hubs and provide on-going capacity building

• Support experimentation and innovation in districts• Lead and coordinate research and bring in best practices

and lessons (like EF, Triple S, WSUP and LCCA?)• Fund raising, reporting to donors and Governments• Oversee monitoring and learning processes• Provide advocacy functions and action research analysis• Communication and engagement at national and

international level• Network and manage partner organizations

Page 23: India addressing the other water ciris

Measures of success

Impact indicators water supply % of people with access to water supply

% of water facilities that are functional

% facilities reliable according to national norms

% of water facilities that meet the national standards for crowding

Water quantity: % of people that receive at least the national norm

Water quality: % of users that perceive water quality as acceptable

User satisfaction water facilities

Page 24: India addressing the other water ciris

Outcome indicators water supply

# additional districts using EF in programme States# additional States applying EF approaches# GoI applying EF approaches in policy, funding and programmes# Private sector CSR funding to WASH



Page 25: India addressing the other water ciris

Phase Duration Main Characteristics and interventions

socialising the concepts

6 months to 1 year – depending on context

Socialising and building coalitions , reaching common agreement on the problems and the intent to change, include initial analysis and mapping.

Demonstrating EF at scale

3 to 5 years – depending on context and scale of the country

Innovation and testing of the solutions identified as part of the initial mapping Specific actions and interventions will vary, but the interventions must take place at a logical unit of scale (most often the district)

Scaling up and leverage of EF

5 to 10 yearssuccessful lessons and documented practices of the demonstration phase can scaled up. Government is intimately involved in the process from the outset, scaling up institutionally is more likely to occur.

The EF phasing and timelines

Page 26: India addressing the other water ciris

Activity Plan – Timeframe??

• Socializing the concept and develop shared vision • Setting up driver “hubs” at state and district level• Communication materials/campaign (monitor results)• Round tables ( co-creating vision)• Develop EF service delivery indicators• Sector mapping/assessment and identify components• Master plan – investment plan and monitoring• National EF Hub – after 2-3 years• Hub attached preferably with Government – only have

the tools to correct failure and overcome deadlocks• Network all sector stakeholders in a mode of learning

and engagement

Page 27: India addressing the other water ciris

Start-up Activities?

Start-uP Activity (total period)


Socialising & coalition partner meetings Writing EF India concept note

Writing pitch deck and communication sharing concept note and discussing with GoI/States and potential partners

Sounding out with donors /foundations/private sector for funding

Series of meetings with GoI /donors Delhi

Visit State Governments for buying in Consolidating concept note and project Implementation plan

National advocacy meeting to launch EF

Page 28: India addressing the other water ciris


Service providers District/Municipality Service authority

National Gov’t Agencies

Innovation Lab

Water SPs

San SPs

District / Municipal

Service Authority

EF Hub


RelevantMinistries /

Departments & Gov’t officials

District / Municipal

Service Authority

District / Municipal

Service Authority Commerce


Global EF “backbone”




AdvocateResource Broker

Admin / Management Support

Start conversations and debate. Learn from data

and results. Support scaled approaches

Test ideas. Learn from failure. Adopt successes in

sector practice.


Every Clinic

Every Household


Every School

How we’re doing it

Page 29: India addressing the other water ciris

What will be the EF Hub- India?A. Building blocks

– Series of interlinked projects ( GoI Trg, WB RWSS, SDA scoping-round table, NIAR MoU, AusAid research, WFP-IRC study, PHED

capacity building)– National credibility + Access– Sound credible national /regional Network partners– Large Impact EF action research B. Institutional Architecture

Governments to anchorIRC lean nodal office – national steering committeeLocal partners collaborate on core strengths

Page 30: India addressing the other water ciris

What support from Global EF Backbone?

• Develop concept note – expert inputs• Consultation with Governments and partners• Sounding with donors and foundations for

leverage funding ( TA component)• Proposal development & source funding• Work with national/state Govt.- for buying- in• Global partnership in documentation and

learning, advocacy and communication

Page 31: India addressing the other water ciris

IRC-WFP Value Addition• Service delivery approach- Triple-S WASHCOST• LCCA for sustainable service delivery• Build on ongoing SDA strategy in India ( see note)• IRC expertise in learning &sharing and

communication • WFP success on EF in India –West Bengal/India• Strong network and partners in India• Customized action research and analysis

Page 32: India addressing the other water ciris

Additional discussion points

• How to sell /communicate EF to stakeholders?• Are we addressing sanitation as well?• Are we addressing rural and urban?• What is EF and what will be EF Hub• Development of EF/ service delivery indicators • Do we need a staggered approach to EF ( say 100 %

coverage by 2019 and EF by 2022?)• What shall be the convergence framework?• Role of CSR and private sector?