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Republic Of India Bharat Ghanarjya ENI CAHYA WIJAYATI

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Republic Of IndiaBharat GhanarjyaENI CAHYA WIJAYATI


Flag National Emblem

The Population FactorThe worlds 2nd largest country with 1,121,800,000 Only 1/3 the size of the U.S.1.7% natural increase2025 approaching 1.4 billion

Worlds largest!Will surpass China by 203270 million have moved to the cities between 1991-2001Growing massive cities such as: Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai

8Customs and Traditions: DressCotton, Silk, & PolyesterTraditional & CasualColorful & OrnamentalSouth IndiaDoti, SariSilk Shirts & Sari22 Ct Gold JewelryShirts & PantsNorth IndiaKurtha, PajamasSariSalwar KameezSilk, Cotton, & WoolGold & Silver Jewelry

Chennai Silks

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9Customs and Traditions: Jewelry

Tota RamRasi Silks


Currency : Rupee 43 R to the $1.00


National Bird - Peacock

National Flower - Lotus

Political SystemGained Independence from British on August 15, 1947Became a Democratic Republic on January 26, 1950Constitution of India adopted395 Articles and 7 Schedules93 AmendmentsPresident Head of the StateParliamentPrime Minister Council of MinistersMembers of the ParliamentBased on British System


Federal system26 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China

Federal SystemRelatively centralizedFederal government controls the most essential government functions defense foreign policy taxation public expenditures economic (industrial) planning

Continued ...State governments formally controlagricultureeducationlaw and order within statesdependent on central government for funds

Continued ....Balance of power between central and state governmentsvaries by time and placestate power was constrainedduring the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhistate governments have more room to maneuverwhen central government is weaksince 1998

Parallel state structureFormal political structure of the states parallels that of the national governmentNational StatePresident GovernorPrime Minister Chief MinisterParliament AssemblySupreme Court High Court

The legislatureParliamentary system of government The executive authority is responsible to the Parliament

The legislatureBicameral ParliamentRajya Sabha (Council of States)Lok Sabha (House of the People)

Rajya Sabha (Council of States)The Upper House

Upper HouseRajya Sabha (Council of States)not more than 250 members12 are nominated by the President of Indiathe rest are indirectly electedby state Legislative AssembliesThe Council of States can not be dissolvedmembers have terms of 6 years1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year

Lok SabhaHouse of the People

Lower HouseLok Sabha (House of the People)545 members2 are appointed by the President of Indiathe rest are directly elected from single-member districts5-year terms unless dissolvedLok Sabha elects its presiding officerthe Speaker

Lok SabhaElections held at least every 5 yearsPrime Minister may call elections earlier543 single-member districts of roughly equal populationparty nomination1st-past-the-postwinner-take-allwomens share

Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister Prime minister nominates a cabinet- members of Parliament in the ruling coalition- Council of Ministers Effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister- where most of the important policies originate

The President of IndiaHead of the StateCommander-in-Chief of the armed forceselected by an electoral collegenational Parliamentstate legislature5-year termscan be reelected

The JudiciaryFundamental contradiction in constitutionprinciple of parliamentary sovereigntyprinciple of judicial review

The JudiciaryJudiciary tries to preserve the constitutions basic structureto ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitutionparliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution


Religion in IndiaIndia is a Secular CountryNo State Sponsored ReligionMajor ReligionsHindu: 75%Muslim: 12%Christian: 6%Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, & Jews: 7%Ironically religion is a uniting featureHinduism is non proselytizingNo preachingMost people are tolerantVery privateBecoming less important

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Indias People Have Different Religious BeliefsHinduismBuddhismIslam (Muslims)SikkhismChristianityJudaism

Languages in IndiaTwenty-two (22) Official Languages:HindiLanguage of the StateEnglishLanguages Demarcate StatesNorth IndiaSanskrit (like Latin)Indo-Iranian-Germanic BranchHindi, Bengali, Gujarati, & MarathiSouth IndiaDravidian BranchTamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and Kannada


35Spoken and written languages of India

Indias People Eat Many FoodsRiceVegetablesSeafoodMeat-however, cows are considered sacred by Hindus, many of whom are vegetarianMasala-spicesTea-common drink

Traditions: FoodUse of Spices, Lentil, & HerbsPracticing VegetariansSouth IndiaIdli, Dosai, VadaiSambar, Chutney, VegetablesRice, Pickle, & YogurtCoffee (Milk + Sugar)North IndiaRoti, ChapatiLentils, CheeseSweets, YogurtTea (Milk + Sugar)

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Transportation in IndiaPlanesTrainsCarsRickshawsCamel & donkey cartsBicyclesWalking

Traditional Music of IndiaHindustani means classical music of North IndiaCarnatic means classical music of South India

Traditional Elements of Indian Music

Melody (raga)Drone (harmony)Rhythm (tala)

Indian InstrumentsStringWindPercussion

Indias People and the Musical Instruments of India Are Very Diverse!India, the land of Unity through diversity!

Entertainment: MoviesLargest producer of moviesAbout 1000 movies/yearBombay (Bollywood)ChennaiKolkataHindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, and othersSongs and dances are importantStory line range from banal to serious

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Entertainment: Television & RadioSlowly Replacing MoviesDoordarshan (State owned)National and RegionalOther Television StationsPrivateCorporationsHindi, Tamil, English language programsNews, Sports, Drama, Mini SeriesRegional (Sun TV)Radio is loosing popularityUrban Stations PopularAll India Radio

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Entertainment: DanceTraditional (Natraj: Shiva)Bharata NatyamKuchi PudiKatha KaliPopular DanceMovie DanceWestern Rock & RollSpectators

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Entertainment: MusicTraditional MusicHindustani (N India)VocalInstrumentalCarnatic (S India)Vocal InstrumentalPopular MusicMoviesVery PopularProfessionalsWestern Pop MusicUrban AreasClubs


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Places of historic importance

Tirumala - TirupatiWorlds richest temple

Saint Thomas CathedralStatue of Virgin Mary brought from Portugal in 1543

The Golden Temple

Jamma MasjidThe biggest mosque in India

Thousand pillar temple

Gateway of India

Mysore PalaceIlluminated by 97,000 light bulbs

The Taj Mahal

CherrapunjiWettest place on earth

Economy of IndiaTraditionalLegacy-SystemAgrarianTextileRaw MaterialsSpicesJewelryModernKnowledge-BasedInformation TechnologyOut-SourcingCustomer ServiceManufacturing (Low cost qualified people)

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India is in TransitionMiddle Class is Gaining Economic StatusThere is a Widening Gap Between Rich and PoorSmall Percentage is Very RichSocial System may not be ReadyThere is no Economic Safety NetYoung Entrepreneurs should Embrace Rural FolksGrameen Bank of BangladeshMicro LendingTechnological EmpowermentGovernment Should Enforce Fair Distribution of Wealth

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INDIAN ECONOMY- KEY CHARACTERESTICS9th largest economy in terms of nominal GDP and 3rd largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP)

High Tech India!Bangalore in southern India is the new software center of the world!Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Motorola, Intel, Honeywell, Cisco, Philips, and DellIndian software companies: TATA, Wipro, and Infosys.Gurgaon, Chennai, and other cities are becoming call center headquarters.

Major issues India facesPopulation related:PovertyLiteracy rates (education)Agricultural misuse or overuseHindu Muslim relationships:India Pakistan tensionsKashmir situationSikh nationalismHindu nationalism

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