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Republic Of India Bharat Ghanarjya ENI CAHYA WIJAYATI

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Page 1: India   eni cahya wijayati

Republic Of IndiaBharat Ghanarjya


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Motto “"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)"Truth Alone Triumphs"

National Anthem : Jana Gana Mana “

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The Population FactorThe world’s 2nd largest country with 1,121,800,000

Only 1/3 the size of the U.S.

1.7% natural increase2025 – approaching 1.4 billion

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World’s largest!Will surpass China by 2032

70 million have moved to the cities between 1991-2001

Growing massive cities such as: Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai

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Customs and Traditions: Dress Cotton, Silk, & Polyester Traditional & Casual Colorful & Ornamental South India

◦ Doti, Sari◦ Silk Shirts & Sari◦ 22 Ct Gold Jewelry◦ Shirts & Pants

North India◦ Kurtha, Pajamas◦ Sari◦ Salwar Kameez◦ Silk, Cotton, & Wool◦ Gold & Silver Jewelry

Chennai Silks

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Customs and Traditions: JewelryTota Ram

Rasi Silks

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Currency : Rupee – 43 R to the $1.00

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National Bird - Peacock

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National Flower - Lotus

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Political System Gained Independence from British on August

15, 1947 Became a Democratic Republic on January 26,

1950 Constitution of India adopted 395 Articles and 7 Schedules 93 Amendments

President Head of the State Parliament Prime Minister Council of Ministers Members of the Parliament Based on British System

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President : Pranab MukherjeeVice President : Mohammad Hamid AnsariPrime Minister : Narendra ModiLegislature : Parliament of IndiaUpper house : Rajya SabhaLower House : Lok Sabha

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Federal system 26 states and 6 centrally

administered Union Territories2 states are partially claimed

by Pakistan and China

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Federal System1. Relatively centralized2. Federal government controls the

most essential government functions

• defense• foreign policy• taxation• public expenditures• economic (industrial) planning

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Continued ... State governments formally control

agriculture education law and order within states dependent on central government

for funds

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Continued .... Balance of power between central and

state governments varies by time and place state power was constrained

during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi

state governments have more room to maneuver when central government is weak since 1998

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Parallel state structureFormal political structure of the states

parallels that of the national governmentNational StatePresident GovernorPrime Minister Chief MinisterParliament AssemblySupreme Court High Court

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The legislatureParliamentary system of government

The executive authority is responsible to the Parliament

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The legislatureBicameral Parliament

Rajya Sabha (Council of States)Lok Sabha (House of the


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Rajya Sabha (Council of States)The Upper House

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Upper HouseRajya Sabha (Council of States)not more than 250 members

12 are nominated by the President of India

the rest are indirectly elected by state Legislative Assemblies

The Council of States can not be dissolved members have terms of 6 years 1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd


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Lok Sabha

House of the People

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Lower HouseLok Sabha (House of the People)545 members

2 are appointed by the President of India the rest are directly elected from single-

member districts5-year terms unless dissolvedLok Sabha elects its presiding officer

the Speaker

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Lok Sabha

Elections held at least every 5 yearsPrime Minister may call elections earlier543 single-member districts of roughly

equal populationparty nomination1st-past-the-post

winner-take-allwomen’s share

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Prime Minister

• Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister• Prime minister nominates a cabinet

- members of Parliament in the ruling coalition- Council of Ministers

• Effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister

- where most of the important policies originate

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The President of India

Head of the StateCommander-in-Chief of the armed

forceselected by an electoral college

national Parliamentstate legislature

5-year termscan be reelected

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The Judiciary

Fundamental contradiction in constitutionprinciple of parliamentary

sovereigntyprinciple of judicial review

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The Judiciary Judiciary tries to preserve

the constitution’s basic structure

to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution

parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution

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Religion in IndiaIndia is a Secular CountryNo State Sponsored ReligionMajor Religions

Hindu: 75% Muslim: 12% Christian: 6% Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, &

Jews: 7%Ironically religion is a uniting

featureHinduism is non proselytizingNo preachingMost people are tolerantVery privateBecoming less important

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India’s People Have Different Religious Beliefs

Hinduism Buddhism Islam

(Muslims) Sikkhism Christianity Judaism

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Languages in IndiaTwenty-two (22) Official Languages:

Hindi Language of the State English

Languages Demarcate StatesNorth India

Sanskrit (like Latin) Indo-Iranian-Germanic

Branch Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, &

MarathiSouth India

Dravidian Branch Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu,

and Kannada


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India’s People Eat Many Foods Rice Vegetables Seafood Meat-however,

cows are considered sacred by Hindus, many of whom are vegetarian

Masala-spices Tea-common


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Traditions: Food Use of Spices, Lentil, &

Herbs Practicing Vegetarians South India

Idli, Dosai, Vadai Sambar, Chutney,

Vegetables Rice, Pickle, & Yogurt Coffee (Milk + Sugar)

North India Roti, Chapati Lentils, Cheese Sweets, Yogurt Tea (Milk + Sugar)

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Transportation in India Planes Trains Cars Rickshaws Camel &

donkey carts Bicycles Walking

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Traditional Music of India Hindustani

means classical music of North India

Carnatic means classical music of South India

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Traditional Elements of Indian Music

Melody (raga)

Drone (harmony)

Rhythm (tala)

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Indian Instruments

String Wind Percussion

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India’s People and the Musical Instruments of India Are Very Diverse!

India, the land of “Unity through diversity!”

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Entertainment: Movies Largest producer of

movies About 1000

movies/year Bombay (Bollywood) Chennai Kolkata Hindi, Bengali, Tamil,

Telugu, and others Songs and dances are

important Story line range from

banal to serious

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Entertainment: Television & Radio

Slowly Replacing Movies Doordarshan (State

owned) National and Regional

Other Television Stations Private Corporations

Hindi, Tamil, English language programs

News, Sports, Drama, Mini Series

Regional (Sun TV) Radio is loosing popularity

Urban Stations Popular All India Radio

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Entertainment: Dance Traditional (Natraj:

Shiva) Bharata Natyam Kuchi Pudi Katha Kali

Popular Dance Movie Dance Western Rock & Roll


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Entertainment: Music Traditional Music

Hindustani (N India) Vocal Instrumental

Carnatic (S India) Vocal Instrumental

Popular Music Movies

Very Popular Professionals

Western Pop Music Urban Areas Clubs


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Places of historic importance

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Tirumala - TirupatiWorld’s richest temple

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Saint Thomas CathedralStatue of Virgin Mary brought from

Portugal in 1543

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The Golden Temple

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Jamma MasjidThe biggest mosque in India

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Thousand pillar temple

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Gateway of India

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Mysore PalaceIlluminated by 97,000 light bulbs

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The Taj Mahal

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CherrapunjiWettest place on earth

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Economy of India Traditional

Legacy-System Agrarian Textile Raw Materials Spices Jewelry

Modern Knowledge-Based Information Technology Out-Sourcing Customer Service Manufacturing (Low

cost qualified people)

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India is in Transition Middle Class is Gaining Economic Status There is a Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor Small Percentage is Very Rich Social System may not be Ready There is no Economic Safety Net Young Entrepreneurs should Embrace Rural Folks

Grameen Bank of Bangladesh Micro Lending Technological Empowerment

Government Should Enforce Fair Distribution of Wealth

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9th largest economy in terms of nominal GDP and 3rd largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP)

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High Tech India!

• Bangalore in southern India is the new software center of the world!

• Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Motorola, Intel, Honeywell, Cisco, Philips, and Dell

• Indian software companies: TATA, Wipro, and Infosys.

• Gurgaon, Chennai, and other cities are becoming call center headquarters.

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Major issues India faces• Population related:–Poverty– Literacy rates (education)–Agricultural misuse or overuse

• Hindu – Muslim relationships:– India – Pakistan tensions–Kashmir situation– Sikh nationalism–Hindu nationalism

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Thank you