is mahatma gandhi an incarnation ?

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Gandhi's 11 VowsAhimsa


AsteyaNon Stealing

BrahmacharyaSelf Discipline

AparigrahaNon-PossessionSharirshramaBread Labor

AswadaControl of the Palate

Sarvatra BhayavarjanaFearlessness

Sarva Dharma SamantvaEquality of All Religions

SwadeshiUse Locally Made Goods

SparshbhavanaRemove Untouchability

• Ahimsa (Nonviolence)• Ahimsa is not merely a negative state of harmlessness , but

it is positive state of love , of doing good even to the evil-doer. - Young India,August 25, 1920

Ahimsa is a weapon of matchless potency. It is the summum bonum of life. It is an attribute of the brave, in fact, it is their all. It does not come within the reach of coward. It is no wooden or lifeless dogma, but a living and life giving force. - Young India, Sept 6, 1926.

Ahimsa is not the way of the timid or cowardly. It is the way of the brave ready to face death. He who perishes sword in hand is no doubt brave; but he who faces death without raising his little finger and without flinching, is braver. - Young India, Oct. 11, 1928

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• Satya (Truth)

Truth has no form. Therefore everyone one will form such an idea or image of Truth as appeals to him, and there will be as many images of Truth as there are men. These will be true as long as they last. For they enable a man to obtain everything he wants. - Diary of Mahadevbhai, p. 120 .

Truth should be Truth in thought, Truth in speech, and Truth in action. To the man who has realised this Truth in its fulness , nothing else remains to be known, because all knowledge is necessarily included in it. What is not included in it, is not truth and so not true knowledge. - From Yeravda Mandir, p. 2.

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• Asteya (Non-stealing)

Non-stealing does not mean merely not to steal. To keep or take anything  which one does not is also stealing. And of course, stealing is fraught with violence.- Bapu-ke-Aashirvad, November 24, 1944.

We are not always aware of our real needs, and most of us improperly multiply our wants and thus , unconsciously, make thieves of ourselves. One who follows the observance of Non-stealing will bring about a progressive reduction of his own wants. Much of the distressing poverty in this world has risen out of the breaches of the principle of Non-stealing.- From Yeravda Mandir, p. 20.

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• Brahmacharya (Self Discipline)

Brahamchraya means control of all the organs of sense. He who attempts to control only one organ, and allows all the others free play is bound to find his effort futile .- Bapu's Letters to Mira. P.257.

To hear suggestive stories with the ears, to see suggestive sights with the eyes, to taste stimulating food with the tongue, to touch exciting things with the hands, and at the same time to expect to control the only remaining organ, is like putting one's hands in the fire and expecting to escape being hurt. Bapu's letters to Mira. P.257.

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• Aparigraha (Non-possession)• Non possession means that we should not hoard anything

that we do not need today. - Bapu-ke-Aashirvad, Nov. 25,1944.

The less you possess, the less you want , the better you are. And better for what ? Not for your enjoyment of this life but for enjoyment of personal service to your fellow beings ; service to which you dedicate yourself ,body, soul and mind. - Mahatma Vol. 3, p.155.

•  • When you dispossess yourself of everything you have, you

really possess all the treasures of the world. In other words , you really get all that is in reality necessary for you., everything . If the food is necessary, food will come to you.- My Philosophy of Life, p. 138

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• Sharirshrama (Bread Labour)•  • Earn thy bread by the sweat of the brow- says Bible . Bread labour means

that everyone is expected to perform sufficient body-labour in order to entitle him to his living. It is not ,therefore, necessary to earn one's living by bread labour ,taking living' in its broader sense. But everyone must perform some useful body-labour. Young India, Nov. 5, 1925.

The economics of Bread labour are the living way of life . It means that every man has to labour with his body for his food and clothing. If I can convince the people of the value and necessity of bread-labour, there never will be any want of bread and cloth. - Harijan, Sept. 7, 1947.

The idea is that every healthy individual must labour enough for his food and his intellectual faculties must be exercised not in order to obtain a living or amass a fortune, but only in the service of mankind. If this principle is observed everywhere, all men would be equal, none would starve and world would be saved from a sin.- Harijan, Aug 3, 1935.

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• Aswada (Control of the Palate)• Unless we are satisfied with foods that are necessary for the

proper maintenance of our physical health, and unless we are prepare to rid ourselves of stimulating heating and exciting condiments that we mixed with food. We will certainly not be able to control the over-abundant, unnecessary, and exciting stimulation that we may have. If we do not do that, the result naturally is that we abuse ourselves, and become less than animals and brutes. - Speeches & Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. p. 384

•  • The diet should be healthy and well-balanced. The body

was never meant to be treated as a refuse-bin. Food is meant to sustain the body. - My Philosophy of Life.p.111

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• Sarvatra Bhayavarjana (Fearlessness)• Fearlessness should connote absence of all kinds of fear

- fear of death, fear of bodily injury, fear of hunger, fear of insults, fear of public disapprobation, fear of ghosts and evil spirits, fear of anyone's anger. Freedom from all these and other such fears constitute fearlessness. - Bapu - Ke Ashirwad. Nov 26, 1944

•  • Fearlessness does not mean arrogance and

aggressiveness. That in itself is a sign of fear. Fearlessness presupposes calmness and peace of mind. For that it is necessary to have a living faith in God. - Harijan, Nov. 3, 1946.

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• Sarva Dharma Samantva (Equality of the religions)• Religions have been interwoven . One sees a special quality in every one

of them . But no one religion is higher than another. All are complimentary to one another .Since this is my belief, the speciality of any one religion cannot run counter to another, cannot be at variance with universally accepted principles. - Harijanbandhu, March 19, 1933. 

• For I believe in the fundamental truth of all great religions of the world. I believe that they are all God-given, and I believe that they were necessary for the people to whom these religions were revealed. And I believe that, if only we could all of us read the scriptures of the different faiths from the standpoint of the followers of those faiths we should find that they were at bottom all one and were all helpful to one another.- Harijan, Feb. 16, 1934 .

•  • Just as men have different names and faces, these religions also are

different. But just as men are all human in spite of their different names and forms, just as leaves of a tree though different as leaves are the same as the leaves of the same tree , all religions though different are the same. We must treat all religions as equals. - Harijanbandhu, July 22, 1934.

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• Swadeshi (Use Locally Made Goods)• Swadeshi is that sprit in us which requires us to serve our immediate neighbours before

others , and to use things produced in our neighbourhood in preference to those more remote. So doing, we cannot serve humanity to the best of our capacity, we cannot serve humanity by neglecting our neigbours. - Young India, April 20 1919.

It is sinful to buy and use articles made by sweated labour. It is sinful to eat American wheat &and let my neighbour, the grain dealer starve for want of custom. Similarly, it is sinful for to wear the latest finery of Regent Street when I know that if I had but worn the things woven by the neighbouring spinners and weavers, that would have clothed me, and fed and clothed them. - Young India, Oct. 13, 1921.

My definition of Swadeshi is well known . I must not serve my distant neighbour at the expense of the nearest. It is never vindictive or punitive. It is in no sense narrow , for I buy from every part of the world what is needed for my growth. I refuse to buy from anybody anything, however nice or beautiful, if it interferes with my growth or  injures those whom Nature has made my first care. - Young India, March 12, 1925.

Swadeshi is that spirit in us which restricts us to the use and service of our immediate surroundings to the exclusion of the more remote& I should use only things that are produced by my immediate neighbours and serve those industries by making them efficient and complete where they might be found wanting. It is suggested that such Swadeshi , if reduced  to practice, will lead to the millennium. - Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi.

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• Sparshbhavna (Untouchability)•  • Untouchability means pollution by the touch of certain persons in

reason of their birth in a particular state or family. It is an excrescence. In the guise of religion, it is always in the way, and erupts religion. - From Yeravda Mandir, p. 31

•  • Removal of untouchability means love for, and service of, the whole

world and thus merges into Ahimsa. Removal of untouchability spells the breaking down of barriers between man and man and between the various orders of Being. -From Yeravda Mandir, p.33

•  • I consider untouchability to be a heinous crime against humanity. It

is not a sign of self-restraint, but an arrogant assumption of superiority. - Young India, Dec. 8, 1920


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• Gandhi's Views On TruthTruth (Meaning of Truth)

• I deal with truth first of all, as the Satyagraha Ashram owes its very existence to the pursuit and the attempted practice of truth.

• The word satya (Truth) is derived from Sat which means 'being'. Nothing is or exists in reality except Truth. That is why Sat or Truth is perhaps the most important name of God, In fact it is more correct to say that Truth is God than to say God is truth. But as we cannot do without a ruler or a general, such names of God as 'King' or 'Kings' or ' The Almighty' are and will remain generally current. On deeper thinking, however it will be realized that Sat or Satya is the only correct and fully sign fact name for God.

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• And where there is Truth, there is also is knowledge which is true. Where there is no Truth, there also is knowledge which is true. Where there is no Truth, there can be no true knowledge. That is why the word Chit or knowledge is associated with the name of God. And where there is true knowledge, there is always bliss. (Ananda). There sorrow has no place. And even as Truth is eternal, so is the bliss derived from it. Hence we know God as Sat-Chit-ananda, one who combines in Himself Truth, Knowledge and Bliss.

• Devotion to this Truth is the sole justification for our existence. All our activities should be centered in Truth. Truth should be the very breath of our life.

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• When once this stage in the pilgrim's progress is reached, all other rules of correct living will come without effort, and obedience to them will be instinctive. But without Truth it is impossible to observe any principles or rules in life.

• Generally speaking observation of the law of Truth is understood merely to mean that we must speak the Truth. But we in the Ashram should understand the word Satya or Truth in a much wider sense. There should be truth in thought, truth in speech, and truth in action. To the man who has realized this truth in its fullness, nothing else remains to be known , because all knowledge is necessary included in it. What is not included in it is not truth, and so not true knowledge; and there can be no inward peace without true knowledge. If we once learn how to apply this never failing test of Truth, we will at once able to find out what is worth doing, what is worth seeing, what is worth reading.

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• But how is one to realize this Truth, which may be likened to the philosophers stone or the cow of plenty? By single minded devotion (abhyasa  ) and indifference to all other interests in life (vairagya) replies the Bhagvat Gita. In spite, however of such devotion, what may appear as Truth to one person will often appear as untruth to another person. But that need not worry the seeker. Where there is honest effort, it will be realized that what appear to be different truths are like the countless and apparently different leaves of the same tree. Does not God himself appear to different individuals in different aspects? Yet we know that He is one. But Truth is the right designation of God. Hence there is nothing wrong in every man following Truth according to his lights. Indeed it is his duty to do so. Then if there is a mistake on the part of any one so following Truth it will be automatically set right. For the quest of Truth involves tapas self suffering, sometimes even unto death. There can be no place in it even a trace of self interest. In such selfless search for Truth nobody can lose his bearings for long. Directly he takes to the wrong path he stumbles, and is thus redirected to the right path. Therefore the pursuit of Truth is true bhakti (devotion). It is the path that leads to God. There is no place in it for cowardice, no place for defeat. It is the talisman by which death itself becomes the portal to life eternal.

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• In this connection it will be well to ponder over the lives and examples of Harishchandra, Prahlad, Ramchandra, Imam Hussain, the Christians saints, etc. How beautiful it would be if all of us, young and old, men and women devoted ourselves wholly to Truth in all that we might do in our walking hours, whether working, eating, drinking, or playing till dissolution of the body makes us one with Truth? God as Truth has been for me a treasure beyond price; may He be so to every one of us.

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• Quit India Resolution• On July 14th 1942, the Congress Working

Committee approved the resolution which declared "the immediate ending of the British rule in India is an urgent necessity both for the sake of India and for the success of the cause of United Nations." And it declared that free India "will assure the success by throwing his great resources in the struggle for freedom and against the aggression of Nazism, Facism and imperialism".

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In March 1942, British Government sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India with proposal for a new constitution. This proposal were found unsatisfactory and were rejected both by the Congress & Muslim league.

In May 1942, Gandhi called on Britain to "leave India to God. If this is too much then leave her to anarchy."

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• The historic session of the All India Congress Committee began on the 7th August 1942 and was concluded after midnight of 8th/9th August 1942 at Gowalia Tank Maidan, Mumbai.

•    • The resolution was passed unanimously. The

resolution which came to be known as 'Quit India Resolution' created on 'electrifying atmosphere' in the country.

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• Gandhi conferred with his colleagues for the appropriate slogan for the movement against British to leave India. One of them suggested 'Get Out'. Gandhi rejected it as being impolite. Rajagopalachari suggested 'Retreat' or 'Withdraw'. That too was not acceptable. Yusuf Meheraly presented Gandhi a bow with a inscription bearing 'Quit India'. Gandhi said in approval, 'Amen'. That is how the historic slogan was selected.

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Gandhi in his stirring speech told the people "There is a mantra, short one, that I give you. You imprint it on your heart and let every breath of yours give an expression to it. The mantra is "do or die".

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• In early hours of 9th August, all the top leaders - Gandhi, Nehru, Patel, Azad were arrested and Congress was declared an unlawful organization.

• With the arrest of all the national leaders, there was nobody to guide the popular agitation. There were hartals and riots by the crowd. Even the private cars were not allowed to proceed unless there was a Gandhi cap on the head of at least one of the passengers.

•  • The Government issued an order banning public processions, meetings & assemblies.

Despite the police warning large crowd had gathered at Gowalia Tank Maidan. Aruna Asaf Ali hoisted the Indian flag. 

• Lathi charge and tear gas was used by the police to disperse the crowd which had gathered at Gowalia Tank Maidan. The national flag was pulled down and volunteers who went to its rescued were beaten off.

•   The Congress Radio, as it termed itself, calling on 42.34 metres was perhaps the only one and first of its kind in India. It broadcasted the news of underground activity and directed the freedom fighters in their struggle. It was located 'somewhere in Bombay' and was frequently moved from place to place. The brain behind this brilliant activity was Dr. Usha Mehta, she was then a girl student in Bombay, who later rose to be a distinguished professor of Politics in University of Bombay. She was also Chairman of Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya and Gandhi Smarak Nidhi.


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• Up to 1960, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded almost exclusively to Europeans and Americans. In retrospect, the horizon of the Norwegian Nobel Committee may seem too narrow. Gandhi was very different from earlier laureates. He was no real politician or proponent of international law, not primarily a humanitarian relief worker and not an organiser of international peace congresses. He would have belonged to a new breed of laureates.

• There is no hint in the archives that the Norwegian Nobel Committee ever took into consideration the possibility of an adverse British reaction to an award to Gandhi. Thus it seems that the hypothesis that the Committee's omission of Gandhi was due to its members' not wanting to provoke British authorities, may be rejected.

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• In 1947 the conflict between India and Pakistan and Gandhi's prayer-meeting statement, which made people wonder whether he was about to abandon his consistent pacifism, seem to have been the primary reasons why he was not selected by the committee's majority. Unlike the situation today, there was no tradition for the Norwegian Nobel Committee to try to use the Peace Prize as a stimulus for peaceful settlement of regional conflicts.

• During the last months of his life, Gandhi worked hard to end the violence between Hindus and Muslims which followed the partition of India. We know little about the Norwegian Nobel Committee's discussions on Gandhi's candidature in 1948–other than the above quoted entry of November 18 in Gunnar Jahn's diary–but it seems clear that they seriously considered a posthumous award. When the committee, for formal reasons, ended up not making such an award, they decided to reserve the prize, and then, one year later, not to spend the prize money for 1948 at all. What many thought should have been Mahatma Gandhi's place on the list of laureates was silently but respectfully left open.

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• 1948: A Posthumous Award Considered • Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948, two

days before the closing date for that year's Nobel Peace Prize nominations. The Committee received six letters of nomination naming Gandhi; among the nominators were the Quakers and Emily Greene Balch, former laureates. For the third time Gandhi came on the Committee's short list – this time the list only included three names – and Committee adviser Seip wrote a report on Gandhi's activities during the last five months of his life. He concluded that Gandhi, through his course of life, had put his profound mark on an ethical and political attitude which would prevail as a norm for a large number of people both inside and outside India: "In this respect Gandhi can only be compared to the founders of religions."

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• Nobody had ever been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize posthumously. But according to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation in force at that time, the Nobel Prizes could, under certain circumstances, be awarded posthumously. Thus it was possible to give Gandhi the prize. However, Gandhi did not belong to an organization, he left no property behind and no will; who should receive the Prize money? The Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, August Schou, asked another of the Committee's advisers, lawyer Ole Torleif Røed, to consider the practical consequences if the Committee were to award the Prize posthumously. Røed suggested a number of possible solutions for general application. Subsequently, he asked the Swedish prize-awarding institutions for their opinion. The answers were negative; posthumous awards, they thought, should not take place unless the laureate died after the Committee's decision had been made.

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• On November 18, 1948, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided to make no award that year on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate". Chairman Gunnar Jahn wrote in his diary: "To me it seems beyond doubt that a posthumous award would be contrary to the intentions of the testator." According to the chairman, three of his colleagues agreed in the end, only Mr. Oftedal was in favour of a posthumous award to Gandhi.

• Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year.

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• A Customer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us.We are dependent on him. He is not an interruption on our work.He is the purpose of it.He is not an outsider on our business. He is a part of it. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. He is doing us a favor by giving us an opportunity to do so.

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• Politics without Principle • Wealth Without Work • Pleasure Without Conscience • Knowledge without Character • Commerce without Morality • Science without Humanity • Worship without Sacrifice • - Young India, 22-10-1925

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• 2 October, 1869• Birth at Porbunder in Gujarat (Sudamapuri, Kathiawad)• 1883• Married Kasturba• 4th September, 1888• Left for London to study Law• 12 January, 1891• Passed the Law examination• 10-11 June, 1891• Called to the British Bar and enrolled in the High Court• 12 June, 1891• Set sail for home• 6 July, 1891• In India, introduced to Raychandbhai (Whom Gandhiji regarded as his Guru)• 16 November, 1891• Applied for enrollment in the Bombay High Court• 24 May, 1892• Came to Bombay to start practice in the High Court as Barrister• April, 1893• Representing a Porbunder firm set sail for South Africa• June, 1893• At Pietermaritzberg station Gandhiji was ordered to go into the van compartment of the train although

he held a first class ticket. On his refusal, a constable was brought and he was forcibly ejected, his bundles pitched out after him. He was left to shiver in the waiting room all night.

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• 22 May, 1894• Proposed an Organisation to watch the interest of Indians and to oppose

colour bar against them in South Africa.• 22 August, 1894• Founded Natal Indian Congress to fight colour prejudice• 3 September, 1894• Admitted to Natal Supreme Court despite opposition by Natal Law

Society• 17 October, 1899• Out break of Boer War and Gandhiji joined Ambulance Corps• 18 October, 1899• Started for India assuring to return to South Africa in his service were to

be needed• 27 December, 1901• Moved a resolution on South Africa at Calcutta Congress session.• 20 November, 1902• At the growing pressure from Indians in South Africa, returned to South

Africa• 1903• Founded Transvaal British India Association

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• 1 October, 1904• Took over entire management responsibility of ‘Indian Opinion’• Nov.-Dec., 1904• Founded Phoenix settlement• September, 1906• Started Passive Resistance Movement• 13-22November, 1909• Wrote ‘Hind Swaraj’ in Gujarati on board S.S.Kildonan Castle on the way to South Africa from

London• 9 January, 1915• Returned to India• 25 May, 1915• Founded Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, Ahemadabad• April, 1917• Champaran Satyagraha• 1918• Ahemadabad mill workers & Kheda Peasant Satyagraha•  13 April, 1919• Massacre at mass meeting at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Gandhiji implored people to be calm• 8 October, 1919• First issue of ‘Young India’ under Gandhiji’s Editorship• 1920-21• Khilafat and non-Co-operation Movement• 5 February, 1922• Chauri Chaura incident and withdrawal of Non Co-operation

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• 10 March, 1922• Arrested. On 21 March sent to Yervada Jail. Remained in jail till March 1924.• 17 September, 1924• Started 21 days fast for Hindu-Muslim unity• December, 1924• Presided over the Belgaum Congress• December, 1928• Attended Calcutta Congress where a draft Constitution of India was  adopted on 31

December, 1928• December, 1929• Gandhiji’s resolution on Complete Independence was adopted at open session of Lahore

Congress along with immediate boycott of legislatures.• 26 January, 1930• Pledge of Independence day taken all over India• 19 February, 1930• All India Congress Committee adopted Civil Disobedience programme• 12 March, 1930• At 6.30 a.m. with 78 Ashramaties Gandhiji started his famous Dandi March to break the

Salt Law• 4 May, 1930• Arrested and taken to Yervada jail

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26 January, 1931 Released from Jail 5 March, 1931 Gandhi-Irwin Pact was announced 29 March, 1931 Left for London to attend Round Table Conference 5 December, 1931 Decided to restart Non Co-operation Movement 4 January, 1932 Started fast against separate electorate for the Harijans 8 May, 1933 Started 21 days fast for the improvement of Harijan’s condition and was released at 6 p.m. from jail 31 July, 1933 Individual Civil Disobedience started 1 August, 1933 Arrested and remained in Jail till 23 Aug.1933 17 September, 1934 Stated “I am going to resign from the Congress” 28 October, 1934 Declared his intention to retire from Congress 1936 Founded Sevagram Ashram at Wardha 1937 Wardha Scheme of Education

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May & Oct-Nov, 1938 North West Frontier tours 3 March, 1939 Started fast unto death at Rajkot and on settlement of the issue ended fast on 7

March, 1939 15 October, 1940 Started Anti-war individual Satyagraha with Vinoba as the first Satyagrahi 15 January, 1942 ‘My political successor is Jawaharlal’ Gandhiji said. 5 March, 1942 Cripps arrives 30 March, 1942 The idea of ‘Quit India’ burst upon Gandhiji 8 March, 1942 Addressed All India Congress Committee of Bombay and Quit India resolution

was passed. 9 August, 1942 Arrested and taken to Agakhan Palace-Jail 15 August, 1942 Lighted the pyre of Mahadev Desai, his secretary who died in Jail

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10 February, 1943 Started fast in Agakhan Palace-Jail 3 March, 1943 Ended fast-in-Jail 22 February, 1944 At 7.35 p.m. Kasturba died. The saree woven from yarn spun by Gandhiji was  wrapped round

her body 6 May, 1944 Released from Jail March, 1945 Cabinet Mission Jan-July, 1945 Simla Conference 1946 Cabinet plan accepted 10 October, 1946 In Naokhali and other districts in East Bengal inhuman atrocities started 6 November, 1946 Left Calcutta for Naokhali by a special train Jan-Dec., 1947 Toured troubled areas of Bengal, Bihar & Delhi

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• 15 August, 1947• At Calcutta, fasted as country was cut into two pieces• 13 January, 1948• Started fast in Delhi against communal riots• 16 January, 1948• ‘I do not wish to live if peace is not established in India and Pakistan’• 18 January, 1948• Broke fast by taking orange juice from Maulana Azad• 20 January, 1948• A bomb exploded during prayer• 27 January, 1948• Wrote that Congress should cease as political body & should devote on

his way to evening prayer ground at Birla House, Delhi.• 30th January 1948, Gandhiji, on his way to the prayer meeting at Birla

House, New Delhi, fell to the bullets fired by Nathuram Vinayak Godse.

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• Mahatma Gandhi :• Was not the leader of any Party• Does not belong to any Organization• Was not the leader of any Army• He did not own any Property• There was no Will • He took the responsibility to work hard for the

Independence of India,People followed him

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He did not gain anything except satisfaction of Achieving the freedom to the people of India and Pakistan

Can we believe that there was a time that there lived a person by name Gandhi who walked on this planet and lived a great life of values in this world

Pause –Think Of Any One who lived like him now ?

Considered Bhagavad-Gita as his mother. His last words –Hey Ram Is he an Incarnation of God?

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