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  • 1

    ekft^:ksokpkoQthA iwks bJh

  • 2

  • 3

    ekft^:ksok

    pkoQthA iwks bJh

    ;?ANob p'ov nk| ;?ezvoh n?i{e/PBgqhs ftjko, fd~bh^110092

  • 4

    KAAV YATRA (For Class XII)

    gfjbh tko ^ 2011

    w[Zb L 00$^ o[gJ/

    XzBtkdn;hA T[jBK ;ko/ b/yeK d/ fdb'A XzBtkdh jK fiBQK B/ nkgDhnK ouBktK fJ; g[;se ftZu Pkwb eoB bJh nkfrnk fdZsh.

    ;?ANob p'ov nk| ;?ezvoh n?i{e/PB, fdZbh^110092

    gqekPevkH thok r[gsk,;?eo/Noh, ;?ANob p'ov nk| ;?ezvoh n?i{e/PB, fdZbh^110092

    This book or part thereof may not be reproduced by any person of agency in any manner.

    Printed at :

  • 5

    w[~y Ppd

    d{;ohnK nkX[fBe Gkosh GkPktK tKr gzikph th pj[s nwho GkPk j?. fJ; ftZu fby/ ik oj/;kfjs dk fto;k th pj[s nwho j?. fJ; ftZu ;ko/ ;kfjs o{gK ftu ouBk ehsh ik ojh j?. gzikph;kfjs dh gozgok Xow, iks^gks ns/ fJ; gqeko dhnK j'o ;hwktK s'A w[es j?.

    fgSb/ e[M ;w/A s'A fJj wzr ehsh ik ojh ;h fe gzikph ftP/ ftZu B"thA ns/ d;thA iwks dhsoQK frnkoQthA ns/ pkoQthA iwks bJh th gkm^g[;seK p'ov d[nkok jh fsnko eotkJhnK ikD. fJ;wzr fXnkB ftZu oyfdnK j'fJnK ;?ANob p'ov nk| ;?ezvoh n?i{e/PB d[nkok ;hBhno ;?ezvoh iwksKbJh BthnK gkm^g[;seK fsnko eokT[D dh iz[w/tkoh bJh rJh. fJ; i[zw/tkoh nXhB nkX[fBe gzikpheftsk Bkb ;zpzfXs jEbh gkm^g[;se ekft^:ksok p'ov dh pkoQthA iwks bJh fsnko eotkJh rJhj?.

    fJ; g[;se ftZu nkX[fBe gzikph eftsk, fi; dk ;zpzX ftdtkB 19thA ;dh d/ nZX s'A wzBd/ jB,Bkb ;zpzfXs d; gqshfBZX ethnK dhnK ekft^ouBktK Pkfwb jB. fJ; g[;se dh fsnkoh fJe wzvbB/ ehsh j?, fi; ftu gzikph GkPk ns/ ;kfjs d/ wkfjo Pkfwb jB. p'ov tZb'A fJ; g[;se d/ yoV/ ;hBhno ;?ezvoh iwksK ftu gzikph gVQkT[D tkb/ nfXnkgeK dh toePkg ftu th ftukfonk frnk.

    w?A T[jBK ;ko/ gzikph wkfjoK dk XzBtkd eodk jK fiBQK B/ fJ; g[;se fsnko eoB ftZu ;kvh;jkfJsk ehsh j?. w?A ;?ANob p'ov nk| ;?ezvoh n?i{e/PB dh vkH ;kXBk gokPo, gqw[Zy (BthA ekYns/ y'i) ns/ T[BQK d/ ;fj:'rh ;qh nb fjbkb nfjwd dk XzBtkd eodk jK fiBQK dh gq/oBk ns/ ;jhfBod/PB Bkb n;hA fJ; g[;se fsnko eoB ftZu ;|b j'J/ jK. w? Go';k j? fe gzikph GkPkgVQB tkfbnK fJ; g[;se dk Gog{o bkG j't/rk.

    g[;se d/ ;[Xko tk;s/ nfXnkgeK ns/ ftfdnkoEhnK tZb'A nkJ/ ;[MktK s/ gqshfeqnktK dk ;[nkrsehsk ikt/rk.

    ftBhs i'Ph(u/now?B)

  • 6

    ekft^:ksok

    ;hHphHn?Z;HJhH ;bkjeko ew/Nh L

    ;qh tBhs i'Ph (nkJhHJ/Hn?~;H)u/now?B, ;hHphHn?~;HJhH, fdZbh

    ;qh PPh G{PDvkfJo?eNo (nekdfwe), ;hHphHn?~;HJhH, fdZbh

    vkH ;kXBk gqkPogqw[Zy, BthA ekY s/ y'i, ;hHphHn?~;HJhH, fdZbh

    ;zgkdeh wzvb L

    vkH nwohe f;zx g[zBh ;kpek gq'c?;o ns/ w[yh, gzikph ftGkr, fdZbh :{Bhtof;Nh, fdZbh

    vkH ftB?Bhs e"o n?;';hJ/N gq'c?;o, ;qh r[o{ BkBe d/t ykb;k ekbi, d/t Bro, BthA fdZbh

    ;H ;[fozdogkb f;zx w[Zy nfXnkge, ykb;k fwvb ;e{b, ;o'fiBh Bro, BthA fdZbh

    yoVk ohftT{eko L

    vkH wBihs f;zx w[yh, gzikph ftGkr, fdZbh :{Bhtof;Nh, fdZbh

    gqki?eN^n|;o L

    ;qh nb fjbkb nfjwd ;jkfJe f;Zfynk nfXekoh (GkPktK), ;hHphHn?~;HJhH, fdZbh

  • 7

    Hkkjr dk lafo/kkuHkkjr dk lafo/kkuHkkjr dk lafo/kkuHkkjr dk lafo/kkuHkkjr dk lafo/kkumsf'kdkmsf'kdkmsf'kdkmsf'kdkmsf'kdk

    ge Hkkjr ds yksx] Hkkjr dks ,d 1 lEiw.kZ izHkqRo&laiUu lektoknh iaFkfujis{k yksdra=kRed x.kjkT; cukus ds fy,] rFkk mldsleLr ukxfjdksa dks %

    lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd U;k;]fopkj] vfHkO;fDr] fo'okl] /keZ

    vkSj miluk dh Lora=krk]izfr"Bk vkSj volj dh lerk

    izkIr djus ds fy,]rFkk mu lc esa

    o;fDr dh xfjek vkSj 2 jk"V dh ,drkvkSj v[k.Mrk lqfuf'pr djus okyh ca/kqrk

    c lkoZtfud laifk dks lqjf{kr j[ksa vkSj fgalk ls nwj jgsa]vk O;fDrxr vkSj lkewfgd xfrfof/k;ksa ls lHkh {ks=kksa esa mRd"kZ dh vksj c

  • 8

  • 9

    THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

    PREAMBLE

    WE, THE POEPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a1

    (Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic) and to secure to all its citizenes :

    JUSTICE, social economic and political;

    LIBERTY of thought, experssion, belief, faith and workship;

    EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

    FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the2 [unity and integrity ofthe Nation];

    IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixty day of November, 1949, doHEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELEVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

    1. Subs by the Consitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec. 2, for "Sovereign DemocraticRepublic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)

    2. Subs by the Consitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976, sec. 2, for "unity of the Nation(w.e.f. 3.1.1977)

  • 10

    THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

    Chapter IVAFoundamental Duties

    ARTICLE 51A

    Fundamental DutiesIt shall be the duty of every citizen of India

    (a) to abide the Consititution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flagand the National Anthem ;

    (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle forfreedom ;

    (c) to uphold and protect the sovereighty, unity and integrity of India;

    (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

    (e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the peopleof India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities ; torenounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women ;

    (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

    (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers,wild life and to have compassion for living creature ;

    (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

    (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

    (j) to strive towards excellence in all shperes of individual and collective activity sothat the nation constantly rises to higher levles of endeavour and achievement.

  • 11

    sseok

    w[Zy Ppd L ftBhs i'Ph 5

    1H GkJh tho f;zx 13ezpdh ebkJhsq/b^s[gekj'P w;sh

    2H XBh okw ukfsqe 17ft;kyh dk w/bk;w/A dh pjko

    3H gq'H g{oB f;zx 22gzikp d/ dfonkroK dk fBZek u{ukfeqPB ih

    4H g'qH w'jB f;zx 27skiwjbfBZek oZpjtk dk ihtB

    5H nzfwqsk gqhsw 34;z[doKoky/uZgk uzB

    6H vkH jfoGiB f;zx 39XhfpoS Bkb b? e/ s[oBk j?ikb/

    7H fPt e[wko 44n;K i'pB o[Zs/ woBkftXtk o[Zsb{Dk

  • 12

    8H ;[oihs gkso 51T[j fdB}Ib

    9H w'jBihs 55wKw/o/ wfjowk

    10H wBihs fNtkDk 59foPfsnK dk eh oZyhJ/ BKIok ;'u'

  • 13

    GkJh tho f;zx(1872 ^ 1958)

    1H ezpdh ebkJh

    ;[gB/ ftu s[;hA fwb/ n;Kn;K Xk rbteVh gkJhfBok B{o s[;hA jZE Bk nkJ/;kvh ezpdh ojh ebkJh,

    Xk uoBK s/ ;h; fBtkfJnk;kv/ wZE/ S'j B gkJh,s[;hA T[~u/ n;hA Bht/A ;K;kvh g/P Bk rJhnk ekJh,

    fco bV cVB/ T[m dT[V/go bV T[j fpibh bfjokT[vdk iKdk, go Uj nkgDhS[j ;k r:k bkJh,

    fwZNh uwe gJh fJj w'Jhs/ s[;hA bz{nK ftu fbPe/fpibh e{zd rJh EooKdhj[D uekuz{X j? SkJh.

  • 14

    fN~gDh

    fJ; eftsk ftu GkJh tho f;zx B/ ojZ; dk fusoB ehsk j?. eftsk ftu nozG s'A b? e/ nzsse ;[gB/ d/ tksktoB f;ofink frnk j?. fJ; ojZ; ftu sBkT[ j?, go sBkT[ ekoB T[giD tkbhPKsh BjhA. eftsk ftu ojZ; fijk gqshs j[zdk j?, eth ;G e[M nkgD/ nkb/ d[nkb/ BIo nkT[Adkj? go, jZE BjhA nkT[Adk. w/b ns/ nw/b d/ ojZ; ftu jh eftsk ;zg{oB j[zdh j?.

    n"y/ PpdK d/ noE

    Xkd"V e/. rbteVhrb/ brkT[Dk. fBok B{o;[Xk gqekP (fe;/ dh j'Ad g{oB gqekP okjhAftnes eoBk). ebkJhthDh (r[N). g/P Bk ikDkg{o/ isB eoe/ th e'Jh bkG Bk j'Dk. fpibhbfjokfpibh dh uwe tork. w'Jhp/ikB. bz{nKbz{ ezv/ yVQ/ j'Dk. uekuz{Xu[zfXnk d/D tkbh fpibhdk gqGkt.

    gqPB

    1H eth dh ebkJh feT[A ezp ojh j?