kathopanishat || କଠ ୋପ ଷତ୍ · the story is first suggested in the rig-veda; it is...
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KATHOPANISHAT.... || କଠ ୋପନଷିତ୍ ||
॥ कठोपनिषत ्॥ INTRODUCTION: 1. spn: Translation by Swami Paramananda
The Translation of Katha Upanishad: by Swami Paramananda
Katha-Upanishad The Katha-Upanishad is probably the most widely known of all the Upanishads. It was early
translated into Persian and through this rendering first made its way into Europe. Later
Raja Ram Mohun Roy brought out an English version. It has since appeared in various
languages; and English, German and French writers are all agreed in pronouncing it one of
the most perfect expressions of the religion and philosophy of the Vedas. Sir Edwin
Arnold popularized it by his metrical rendering under the name of "The Secret of Death,"
and Ralph Waldo Emerson gives its story in brief at the close of his essay on
There is no consensus of opinion regarding the place of this Upanishad in Vedic literature.
Some authorities declare it to belong to the Yajur-Veda, others to the Sama-Veda, while a
large number put it down as a part of the Atharva-Veda. The story is first suggested in
the Rig-Veda; it is told more definitely in the Yajur-Veda; and in the Katha-Upanishad it
appears fully elaborated and interwoven with the loftiest Vedic teaching. There is nothing
however, to indicate the special place of this final version, nor has any meaning been found
for the name Katha.
The text presents a dialogue between an aspiring disciple, Nachiketas, and the Ruler of
Death regarding the great Hereafter.
2. sr: Compiled and edited by Pandit Sri Rama
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ଓଂ ॥ ଅଥ କଠ ୋପନଷିଦ୍ ॥ ॐ ॥ अथ कठोपनिषद् ॥ ଓଂ ସହ ନୋଵଵତୁ । ସହ ଠନୌ ଭୁନକୁ୍ତ । ସହଵୀର୍ୟଂ କରଵୋଵଠହୈ । ଠତଜସି୍ଵ ନୋଵଧୀତମସୁ୍ତ । ମୋ ଵଦି୍ଵଷିୋଵଠହୈ ॥ ଓଂ ଶୋନ୍ିିଃ ଶୋନ୍ିିଃ ଶୋନ୍ିିଃ ॥ ॐ सह िाववतु । सह िौ भुिक्तु । सहवीर्य ंकरवावहै । तजेस्वव िावधीतमवतु । मा ववद्ववषावहै ॥ ॐ शास््तिः शास््तिः शास््तिः ॥ spn: May He (the Supreme Being) protect us both, teacher and taught. May He be pleased with us. May we acquire strength. May our study bring us illumination. May there be no enmity among us. OM! PEACE! PEACE! PEACE!
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Part I Canto (Valli) I (1.1) 1.1.1
ଓଂ ଉଶନ୍ ହ ଠଵୈ ଵୋଜଶ୍ରଵସିଃ ସଵୟଠଵଦସଂ ଦଠଦୌ । ତସୟ ହ ନଚଠିକତୋ ନୋମ ପୁତ୍ର ଆସ ॥ ୧॥ ॐ उशि ्ह व ैवाजश्रवसिः सवववेदसं ददौ । तवर्य ह िचिकेता िाम पुत्र आस ॥ १॥ spn: I. Vahasrava, being desirous of heavenly rewards (at the Viswajit sacrifice),
made a gift of all that he possessed. He had a son by the name of Nachiketas. sr: (Naciketas and His Father) u śan ha vai vā jaśravasaḥ sa rva-ve dasaṃ dadau | ta sya ha naci ketā nāma pu tra ā sa ||1|| uśan = being desirous [of the rewards of the Viśvajit sacrifice]; ha and vai =
equivalent to 'once upon a time'. Vājaśrava = he whose fame, is consequent on the
giving of food, he dadau = gave away ; sarva-vedasam = all (his) wealth; tasya = of
him; āsa = there was ; ha = as the story goes; naciketā nāma putraḥ = a son named
1. Desirous (of the fruit of the Vishva--‐jit sacrifice) Vajashravasa, they say, gave away all that he possessed. He had a son by name of Naciketas.
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ତଁ ହ କୁମୋରଁ ସନ୍ଂ ଦକି୍ଷଣୋସ ୁନୀର୍ମୋନୋସ ୁଶ୍ରଦ୍ଧୋଵଠିଵଶ ଠସୋଽମନୟତ ॥ ୨॥ तँ ह कुमारँ स्तं दक्षिणासु िीर्यमािासु श्रद्धावववेश सोऽम्र्यत ॥ २॥ spn: II. When the offerings were being distributed, faith (Shraddha) entered (the
heart of)Nachiketas, who, though young, yet resected:
sr: ta m ha ku māram santaṃ da kṣiṇāsu nī yamānāsu śra ddhā-’vi veśa so 'manyata || 2 || tam = into him, into Naciketā; kumāraṃ santam = while still a mere boy: śraddhā =
faith (in the verity of the Scriptures), āviveśa = entered; dakṣiṇāsu nīyāmāsu =
when gifts were being brought, [when cows meant for presents were being led
separately, to the priests and the assembled Brāhmaṇas]; saḥ = he, (Naciketā);
amanyata = thought.
2. As the gifts were being brought to the priests, faith entered him, although but a (mere) boy; he thought …...
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ପୀଠତୋଦକୋ ଜଗ୍ଧତୃଣୋ ଦୁଗ୍ଧଠଦୋହୋ ନରିନି୍ଦ୍ରରି୍ୋିଃ । ଅନନ୍ଦୋ ନୋମ ଠତ ଠ ୋକୋସ୍ତୋନ୍ ସ ଗଚ୍ଛତ ିତୋ ଦଦତ୍ ॥ ୩॥ पीतोदका जग्धतणृा दगु्धदोहा निररस््िर्यािः । अि्दा िाम त ेलोकावताि ्स गच्छनत ता ददत ्॥ ३॥ spn: III. These cows have drunk water, eaten grass and given milk for the last
time, and their senses have lost all vigour. He who gives these undoubtedly goes to
joyless realms. In India the idea of sacrifice has always been to give freely for the joy of giving, without asking anything in return; and the whole purpose and merit of the sacrifice is lost, if the giver
entertains the least thought of name, fame or individual benefit. The special Viswajit sacrifice
which Vajasrava was making required of him to give away all that he possessed. When, however, the
gifts were brought forward to be offered, his son Nachiketas, although probably a lad about twelve
years of age, observed how worthless were the animals which his father was offering. His heart at
once became filled with Shraddha. There is no one English word which can convey the meaning of
this Sanskrit term. It is more than mere faith. It also implies self-reliance, an independent sense of
right and wrong, and the courage of one's own conviction. As a boy of tender age, Nachiketas had no
right to question his father's action; yet, impelled by the sudden awakening of his higher nature, he
could not but reflect: "By merely giving these useless cows, my father cannot gain any merit. If he
has vowed to give all his possessions, then he must also give me. Otherwise his sacrifice will not be
complete and fruitful." Therefore, anxious for his father's welfare, he approached him gently and
sr: pī toda kā ja gdha-tṛ ṇā du gdha-do hā niri ndriyāḥ | a na ndā nāma te lo kās tān sa gaccha ti tā dada t || 3 || The cows meant for presents to the Brāhmaṇas are being described:
Those by which udakam = water, has been pītam = drunk, are pītodakaḥ; those by
which tṛṇam = grass, has been jagdham = eaten, are jagdha-tṛṇam; those whose
dohaḥ = milk, has been dugdhah = milked, are dugdha-dohaḥ ; nirindriyāḥ = those
that are devoid of the power of their organs, incapable of breeding; [i.e. the cows
are decrepit and barren], dadat = giving ; tāḥ = those, gacchati = (he, the
performer of sacrifice) goes; tān = to those (worlds); anandā = unhappy.
3. Their water drunk, their grass eaten, their milk milked, their strength
spent; joyless, verily, are those worlds, to which he, who presents such (cows) goes.
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ସ ଠହୋଵୋଚ ପିତରଂ ତତ କଠମୈ ମୋଂ ଦୋସୟସୀତ ି। ଦ୍ଵତିୀର୍ଂ ତୃତୀର୍ଂ ତ ଁଠହୋଵୋଚ ମତୃୟଠଵ ତ୍ଵୋ ଦଦୋମୀତ ି॥ ୪॥ स होवाि वपतरं तत कवमै मां दावर्यसीनत । द्ववतीर्य ंततृीरं्य तँ होवाि मतृ्र्यवे त्वा ददामीनत ॥ ४॥ spn: IV. He said to his father: Dear father, to whom wilt thou give me? He said it a
second time, then a third time. The father replied: I shall give thee unto Death. Nachiketas, being a dutiful son and eager to atone for his father's inadequate sacrifice, tried to remind him thus indirectly that he had not fulfilled his promise to give away all his
possessions, since he had not yet offered his own son, who would be a worthier gift than useless
cattle. His father, conscious that he was not making a true sacrifice, tried to ignore the boy's
questions; but irritated by his persistence, he at last impatiently made answer: "I give thee to
Yama, the Lord of Death." The fact that anger could so quickly rise in his heart proved that he had
not the proper attitude of a sacrificer, who must always be tranquil, uplifted and free from egoism.
sr: sa hovāca pi taram tāta ka smai mām dāsyasīti | dvi tīyam tṛ tīyam taguṁ ho vāca mṛ tyave tvā dadāmīti || 4 || saḥ, = he, approached his father ; and uvāca ha = said; pitaram = to the father.
Tāta = O father; kasmai = to whom, to which of the priests; mām dāsyasi = will you
offer me, that is to say, offer me as a present? Though ignored by his father; dvitīyam trtīyam uvāca = he spoke even a second time and a third time. Incensed at
the thought, "This one is not behaving like a mere boy!" uvāca ha = said, tam = to
him, mṛtyave = to Death, dadāmi = I give away; tvā = you, iti = this much.
4. He said to his father, "O Sire, to whom will you give me?" For a second and a
third time (he repeated) (then the father) said to him,"Unto Death shall I give
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ବହୂନୋଠମମି ପ୍ରଥଠମୋ ବହୂନୋଠମମି ମଧ୍ୟମିଃ । କିଁ ସି୍ଵଦୟମସୟ କତୟଵୟଂ ର୍ନମର୍ୋଽଦୟ କରଷିୟତ ି॥ ୫॥ बहूिामेमम प्रथमो बहूिामेमम मध्र्यमिः । ककँ स्ववद्र्यमवर्य कतवव्र्यं र्य्मर्याऽद्र्य कररष्र्यनत ॥ ५॥ spn: V. Nachiketas thought: Among many (of my father's pupils) I stand first;
among many (others) I stand in the middle (but never last). What will be
accomplished for my father by my going this day to Yama? It was not conceit which led Nachiketas to consider his own standing and importance. He was weighing his value as a son and pupil in order to be able to judge whether or not he had merit
enough to prove a worthy gift. Although he realized that his father's harsh reply was only the
expression of a momentary outburst of anger; yet he believed that greater harm might befall his
father, if his word was not kept. Therefore he sought to strengthen his father's resolution by
reminding him of the transitory condition of life. He said:
sr: ba hūnām e mi prathamo ba hūnām e mi madhyamaḥ | ki ggas svid yamasya ka rta vya m ya n mayā 'dya ka riṣya ti || 5 || bahūnām = among many — of many sons or disciples; emi = I go (rank); prathamaḥ =
as first, that is to say, through the foremost conduct of a disciple etc. And
bahūnāṃ = among many - many middling ones; madhyamaḥ emi = I move (count) as a
middling one, I behave through the middling conduct. Though I am a son possessed
of such quality, still my father has said to me, "To Death I shall offer you." Kim
svit = what; kartavyam = purpose; yamasya = of Death-can there be; which purpose
he (my father) adya = today; kariṣyati = will achieve; mayā = through me
5. Naciketas [says] 'Of many (sons or disciples) I go as the first; of many, I go as the middling. What duty towards Yama that (my father has to
accomplish) today, does he accomplish through me?'
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ଅନୁପଶୟ ର୍ଥୋ ପୂଠଵୟ ପ୍ରତପିଶୟ ତଥୋଽପଠର । ସସୟମିଵ ମତୟୟିଃ ପଚୟଠତ ସସୟମିଵୋଜୋର୍ଠତ ପୁନିଃ ॥ ୬॥ अिुपश्र्य र्यथा पूवे प्रनतपश्र्य तथाऽपरे । सवर्यममव मत्र्यविः पच्र्यत ेसवर्यममवाजार्यत ेपुििः ॥ ६॥ spn: VI. Look back to those who lived before and look to those who live now. Like
grain the mortal decays and like grain again springs up (is reborn). All things perish, Truth alone remains. Why then fear to sacrifice me also; Thus Nachiketas convinced his father that he should remain true to his word and send him to Yama, the Ruler of
Death. Then Nachiketas went to the abode of Death, but Yama was absent and the boy waited
without food or drink for three days. On Yama's return one of his household said to him:
sr: a nupa śya ya thā pū rve pra tipa śya ta thā'pa re | sa syam iva martya ḥ pacya te sa syam iva jā yate puna ḥ || 6 || anu = successively, paśya = consider, have a look at; yathā = how; your, pūrve =
forebears, etc. behaved. Tathā = similarly too; as apare = others - other sages
behave; them also; you prati-paśya = consider; martyah = humans; sasyam iva = like
corn, pacyate = decays and dies; and after dying, punaḥ = again; sasyam iva jāyate =
reappears (is born) again like corn.
6. [Naciketas says to his father] "Consider how it was with the forefathers;
behold how it is with those who've come later; a mortal ripens like corn, and like
corn is born again”.
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ଠଵୈଶ୍ଵୋନରିଃ ପ୍ରଵଶିତୟତଥିିର୍ବ୍ୟୋହ୍ମଠଣୋ ଗହୃୋନ୍ । ତଠସୈୟତଁୋ ଶୋନ୍ଂି କୁଵୟନ୍ ିହର ଠଵୈଵସ୍ଵଠତୋଦକମ୍ ॥ ୭॥ वैश्वािरिः प्रववशत्र्यनतचथर्ब्ावह्मणो गहृाि ्। तवर्यैताँ शास््तं कुववस््त हर वैवववतोदकम ्॥ ७॥ spn: VII. Like fire a Brahmana guest enters into houses. That fire is quenched by
an offering. (Therefore) O Vaivaswata, bring water.
sr: Nāciketas in the Abode of Yama vaiśvānaraḥ pravi śaty atithi r brāhma ṇo gṛ hān | tasyai tāguṁ śā ntiṃ ku rvanti ha ra vai vasva toda kam || 7 || brāhmaṇaḥ = a Brāhmin; as atithiḥ = guest; praviśati = enters, like vaiśvānaraḥ =
fire itself; as though burning gṛhān = the houses; tasya = for his sake - for the
guest; kurvanti = accomplish: etām = this kind of; śāntim = propitiation - consisting
in offering water for washing feet, a seat, etc., just as people do for allaying the
conflagration of fire - and since evil consequences are declared in case of not doing
so (Mu.1.ii.3), therefore vaivasvata = O Death; hara = carry, udakam = water - for
Nāciketa for washing his feet.
7. "As a fire a Brahmana guest enters into houses and (the people) do him this
peace--‐offering; bring water, O Son of the Sun"!
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ଆଶୋପ୍ରତୀଠକ୍ଷ ସଂଗତଁ ସନୃୂତୋଂ ଠଚଷ୍ଟୋପୂଠତୟ ପୁତ୍ରପଶଁଶୂ୍ଚ ସଵୟୋନ୍ | ଏତଦ୍ ଵୃଙ ଠକ୍ତ ପୁରୁଷସୟୋ ପଠମଧଠସୋ ର୍ସୟୋନଶନନ୍ ଵସତ ିର୍ବ୍ୋହ୍ମଠଣୋ ଗଠୃହ ॥ ୮॥ आशाप्रतीिे संगतँ सूितृां िेष्टापूत ेपुत्रपशूँश्ि सवावि ्। एतद्वङृ्कक्त ेपुरुषवर्याल्पमेधसो र्यवर्यािश्ि्वसनत र्ब्ाह्मणो गहेृ ॥ ८॥ spn: VIII. The foolish man in whose house a Brahmana guest remains without food,
all his hopes and expectations, all the merit gained by his association with the holy,
by his good words and deeds, all his sons and cattle, are destroyed.
According to the ancient Vedic ideal a guest is the representative of God and
should be received with due reverence and honor. Especially is this the case with a
Brahmana or a Sannyasin whose life is wholly consecrated to God. Any one who fails
to give proper care to a holy guest brings misfortune on himself and his household.
When Yama returned, therefore, one of the members of his household anxiously
informed him of Nachiketas' presence and begged him to bring water to wash his
feet, this being always the first service to an arriving guest.
sr: ā śā-pra tīkṣe sa ṅgatagu ṁ sūnṛtāṃ ce ṣṭā-pū rte pu tra-pa śūggaś ca sarvān | e tad vṛ ṅkte puru śasyālpa -medha so ya syāna śnan va sati brāhma ṇo gṛ he || 8 || āśā = is the hope for a desirable thing which is attainable though unknown; pratīkṣa = is expectation for something that is attainable and known; saṅgatam =
the fruit derived from the association with spiritual people; sūnṛta = joy (in Vedic
Sanskrit), 'kindly speech' in Jaina and later Brāhmanical works; iṣṭam = fruit
produced by sacrifice, pūrtam = fruit resulting from such charitable works as
planting gardens, etc. putra-paśūṃśca = sons and cattle; sarvān etat (sarvam etat)
= all this; (he) vṛṅkte = excludes (from) i.e. destroys ; puruṣasya alpa-medhasaḥ =
from (i.e. of) a person of little intelligence; yasya = in whose; gṛhe = house;
brāhmaṇaḥ = a Brāhmana; anaśnan = not-eating, fasting; vasati = abides. Therefore a guest should not be neglected under any condition. This is the idea.
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8. Hope and expectation, companionship and joy, sacrifices (iṣṭa) and good works (pūrte), sons, cattle and all are taken away from a person of little
understanding in whose house a Brahmin remains unfed.
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ତଠିରୋ ରୋତ୍ରୀର୍ୟଦଵୋତ୍ସୀଗୟଠୃହ ଠମ- ଽନଶନନ୍ ର୍ବ୍ହ୍ମନ୍ନତଥିିନୟମସୟିଃ । ନମଠସ୍ତଽସୁ୍ତ ର୍ବ୍ହ୍ମନ୍ ସ୍ଵସି୍ତ ଠମଽସୁ୍ତ ତମୋତ୍ ପ୍ରତ ିତ୍ରୀନ୍ ଵରୋନ୍ ଵୃଣୀଷଵ ॥ ୯॥ नतस्रो रात्रीर्यवदवात्सीगृवहे मे- ऽिश्िि ्र्ब्ह्म्िनतचथिवमवर्यिः । िमवतऽेवतु र्ब्ह्मि ्ववस्वत मेऽवतु तवमात्प्रनत त्री्वरा्वणृीष्व ॥ ९॥ spn: IX. Yama said: O Brahmana! Revered guest! My salutations to thee. As thou
hast remained three nights in my house without food, therefore choose three
boons, O Brahmana.
sr: Yama's address to Nāciketas ti sro rātrīr yad avā tsīr gṛ he me 'na śnan bra hman a tithi r namasyaḥ | nama ste'stu brahman svasti me 'stu ta smāt prati trīn va rān vṛ ṇīṣva || 9 || brahman = O Brāhmaṇa; yat = since; avātsīḥ = you have stayed; grhe me = in my
house; tisraḥ rātrīḥ = for three nights; anaśnan = without eating, atithiḥ = a guest; and namasyaḥ = worthy of being saluted (venerable) as you are; therefore; namaḥ
te astu = salutations be to you; Brahman = O Brāhmaṇa; svasti = let there be good
fortune; me = for me; (through the aversion of the negative effects accruing);
tasmāt = therefore, (from the lapse caused by your abiding in my house without
food) vṛṇīśva = ask for; trīn varān = three boons —any particular three things you
like; prati = one in respect of each night you have spent without food.
9. "Since you, a venerable guest, have stayed in my house without food for
three nights, I make obeisance to you O Brahmana. Mayit be well with me.
Therefore, in return, choose three boons".
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ଶୋନ୍ସଂକ ପିଃ ସମୁନୋ ର୍ଥୋ ସୟୋଦ୍ ଵୀତମନୁୟଠଗୌତଠମୋ ମୋଽଭି ମଠୃତୟୋ । ତ୍ଵତ୍ ପ୍ରସଷୃ୍ଟଂ ମୋଽଭିଵଠଦତ୍ ପ୍ରତୀତ ଏତତ୍ ତ୍ରର୍ୋଣୋଂ ପ୍ରଥମଂ ଵରଂ ଵୃଠଣ ॥ ୧୦॥ शा्तसंकल्पिः सुमिा र्यथा वर्याद् वीतम्रु्यगौतमो माऽमभ मतृ्र्यो । त्वत्प्रसषृ्टं माऽमभवदेत्प्रतीत एतत ्त्रर्याणां प्रथमं वरं वणेृ ॥ १०॥ spn: X. Nachiketas said: May Gautama, my father, be free from anxious thought
(about me). May he lose all anger (towards me) and be pacified in heart. May he
know and welcome me when I am sent back by thee. This, O Death, is the first of
the three boons I choose.
sr: Nāciketas's first wish śā nta-sa ṅkalpaḥ su manā yathā syād vī ta-ma nyur gau tamo mā'bhi mṛtyo | tva t-prasṛ ṣṭam mā 'bhi va det pra tī ta e tat tra yāṇāṃ pra thama ṁ varaṁ vṛṇe || 10 || If you want to grant boons, then, mrtyo = O Death; yathā = as; my father;
Gautamaḥ (his clan-name) syāt = may become; sumanaḥ: = gracious, calm of mind;
and also; vīta-manyuḥ = free from anger; mā abhi = towards me; me abhivadet = may
talk to me; tvat-prasṛṣṭam = freed by you - sent home; pratītah = regaining his
memory - i.e. recognising (me), trayāṇāṃ = of the three boons; vṛṇe = I ask for;
prathamam = as the first boon; etat = this one that has this purpose, viz the
satisfaction of my father.
10. That Gautama (my father) with allayed anxiety, with anger gone, may be
gracious to me, O Death, and recognising me, greet me, when set free by you and
this, I choose as the first gift of the three.
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ର୍ଥୋ ପୁରସ୍ତୋଦ୍ ଭଵତିୋ ପ୍ରତୀତ ଔଦ୍ଦୋ କରିୋରୁଣିମୟତ୍ ପ୍ର ସଷୃ୍ଟିଃ । ସଖଁୁ ରୋତ୍ରୀିଃ ଶରି୍ତୋ ଵୀତମନୁୟିଃ ତ୍ଵୋଂ ଦଦୃଶଵିୋନ୍ ମତୁୃୟମଖୁୋତ୍ ପ୍ରମକୁ୍ତମ୍ ॥ ୧୧॥ र्यथा पुरवताद् भववता प्रतीत औद्दालककरारुणणमवत्प्रसषृ्टिः । सुख ँरात्रीिः शनर्यता वीतम्रु्यिः त्वां ददृमशवा्मतृ्रु्यमुखात ्प्रमुक्तम ्॥ ११॥ spn: XI. Yama replied: Through my will Auddalaki Aruni (thy father) will know thee,
and be again towards thee as before. He will sleep in peace at night. He will be free
from wrath when he sees thee released from the mouth of death.
sr: ya thā pu rastād bha vitā pratīta au ddāla kir āruṇir ma t-prasṛ ṣṭah | sukhaguṁ rātrīḥ śa yitā vīta-manyus tvāṃ da dṛśi vān mṛ tyu-mu khāt pramuktam || 11 yathā purastāt = as before - the kind of affection that your father had towards you; Auddālaki refer to the same (person), and he is Arunī the son of
Aruna; or he bears two family names: pratītaḥ = having recognised (you); bhavitā =
will become possessed of, in that very same way: mat-prasṛṣṭah = being permitted
by me; (your father) śayitā = will sleep; during rātrīḥ = nights other (future) nights
too; sukham = happily with a composed mind; vīta-manyuḥ = free from anger; tvāṃ
dadṛśivān = having seen you; mṛtyu-mukhāt pramuktam = as having been freed from
the grasp of Death. 11. (Yama said): “Having, recognised you as before (your father) Auddālaki, the son of Aruna, will get over his anger and seeing you released from the jaws of
death through my favour, he will sleep peacefully many a night.”
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ସ୍ଵଠଗୟ ଠ ୋଠକ ନ ଭର୍ଂ କଂିଚନୋସି୍ତ ନ ତତ୍ର ତ୍ଵଂ ନ ଜରର୍ୋ ବଠିଭତ ି। ଉଠଭ ତୀତ୍ଵୟୋଽଶନୋର୍ୋପିପୋଠସ ଠଶୋକୋତଠିଗୋ ଠମୋଦଠତ ସ୍ଵଗୟଠ ୋଠକ ॥ ୧୨॥ ववगे लोके ि भर्य ंककंििास्वत ि तत्र त्व ंि जरर्या बबभेनत । उभे तीत्वावऽशिार्यावपपासे शोकानतगो मोदते ववगवलोके ॥ १२॥
spn: XII. Nachiketas said: In the realm of heaven there is no fear, thou (Death)
art not there; nor is there fear of old age. Having crossed beyond both hunger and
thirst and being above grief, (they) rejoice in heaven.
sr: (Nāciketas's second wish) sva rge lo ke na bha yaṁ kiñca nāsti na ta tra tvaṁ na ja rayā bibheti | u bhe tī rtvā 'śanā yā pipāse śo kāti go moda te sva rga-lo ke || 12 || svarge loke = in the heavenly world: bhayam kiñcana na asti = there is no fear whatsoever - fear arising from disease etc.; tvam = you, O Death; na tatra = are
not there - you do not exert your influence there; jarayā = because of old age; na
bibheti = nobody fears; ubhe aśanāyā-pipāse-tīrtvā = having transcended both
hunger and thirst; śokātigaḥ = having crossed over sorrow - being free from mental
stress; (one) modate = rejoices; svarga-loke = in the heavenly world.
12. [Naciketas said]:— "In the heavenly realm there is no fear whatever; you [O Death] are not there, nor does one fear old age. Transcending both hunger and
thirst, leaving sorrow behind, one rejoices in the heavenly realm".
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ସ ତ୍ଵମଗ୍ନିଁ ସ୍ଵଗୟୟମଠଧ୍ୟଷି ମଠୃତୟୋ ପ୍ରବୂହ ିତ୍ଵଁ ଶ୍ରଦ୍ଦଧୋନୋର୍ ମହୟମ୍ । ସ୍ଵଗୟଠ ୋକୋ ଅମତୃତ୍ଵଂ ଭଜନ୍ ଏତଦ୍ ଦ୍ଵତିୀଠର୍ନ ଵୃଠଣ ଵଠରଣ ॥ ୧୩॥ स त्वमस्ग्िँ ववग्र्यवमध्रे्यवष मतृ्र्यो प्रर्ब्ूहह त्व ँश्रद्दधािार्य मह्र्यम ्। ववगवलोका अमतृत्व ंभज्त एतद् द्ववतीरे्यि वणेृ वरेण ॥ १३॥ spn: XIII. Thou knowest, O Death, the fire-sacrifice that leads to heaven. Tell
this to me, who am full of Shraddha (faith and yearning). They who live in the realm
of heaven enjoy freedom from death. This I beg as my second boon.
sr: sa tva m agniguṁ svargya m a dhyeṣi mṛtyo prabrū hi taguṁ śraddadhā nāya mahyam | sva rga-lokā a mṛta tvam bhajanta eta d dvitī yena vṛ ṇe va rena || 13 || mrtyo = O Death; since saḥ tvam = you, such as you are; adhyeṣi = remember, i.e. know; svargyam agnim = the Fire that is the means for the attainment of
heaven - heaven that has the aforementioned qualities; (therefore) tvam = you;
prabrūhi = speak; mahyam śraddadānāya = to me who am full of faith, and who
desire heaven = (tell me of that Fire) by worshipping which; svarga-lokā = the
dwellers of heaven, those who have reached heaven, the sacrificers; bhajanta = get
; amṛtatvam = immortality, divinity. That fact which is etat = this knowledge of
Fire; vṛṇe = I seek for; dvitīyena varena = through the second boon.
13. You know O Death, that fire (meditation upon which) leads one to heaven. Describe it to me, who listens to you full of faith. Immortal are they who dwell in
heaven — This I choose, as my second boon.
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ପ୍ର ଠତ ର୍ବ୍ଵୀମି ତଦୁ ଠମ ନଠିବୋଧ ସ୍ଵଗୟୟମଗି୍ନଂ ନଚଠିକତିଃ ପ୍ରଜୋନନ୍ । ଅନନ୍ଠ ୋକୋପି୍ତମଠଥୋ ପ୍ରତଷି୍ୋଂ ଵଦି୍ଧ ିତ୍ଵଠମତଂ ନହିତିଂ ଗୁହୋର୍ୋମ୍ ॥ ୧୪॥ प्र त ेर्ब्वीमम तद ुमे निबोध ववग्र्यवमस्ग्िं िचिकेतिः प्रजािि ्। अि्तलोकास्ततमथो प्रनतष्ठां ववद्चध त्वमेतं निहहतं गुहार्याम ्॥ १४॥ spn: XIV. Yama replied: I know well that fire which leads to the realm of heaven. I
shall tell it to thee. Listen to me. Know, O Nachiketas, that this is the means of
attaining endless worlds and their support. It is hidden in the heart of all beings.
sr: pra te bravīmi tad u me nibodha svargya m agniṁ na cike taḥ prajānan | ana nta lokāptim a tho pra tiṣṭhāṃ viddhi tvam e taṃ nihita ṃ guhāyām ||14|| Naciketas = O Naciketa; te = to you; pra-bravīmi = I shall say; me = from me; nibodha = listen with attention; tat u = that very thing, svargyam agnim = the Fire
[meditation] that is the means for the attainment of heaven; I shall tell you,
prajānan = being well aware of (it). That (Fire) which is ananta-lokāptim = the
attainment of infinite world - viz heaven; atho = and also; pratiṣṭhāṃ = the support
- of the universe in the form of Virāṭ (Cosmic Person) - etam = this Fire which is
nihita guhāyām = abiding in the secret place (of the heart). The cave or the hiding-
place is said to be in the centre of the chest - i.e. the heart
14. [Yama said]: "Knowing well as I do, that fire (meditation which) leads to heaven, I shall describe it to you — learn it from me, O Naciketas. Know that fire
to be the means of attaining the spacious realm, as the support (of the universe)
and as abiding in the secret place (of the heart)".
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ଠ ୋକୋଦମିଗି୍ନଂ ତମଵୁୋଚ ତଠମୈ ର୍ୋ ଇଷ୍ଟକୋ ର୍ୋଵତୀଵୟୋ ର୍ଥୋ ଵୋ । ସ ଚୋପି ତତ୍ ପ୍ରତୟଵଦଦୟଠଥୋକ୍ତଂ ଅଥୋସୟ ମତୁୃୟିଃ ପୁନଠରଵୋହ ତୁଷ୍ଟିଃ ॥ ୧୫॥ लोकाहदमस्ग्िं तमुवाि तवमै र्या इष्टका र्यावतीवाव र्यथा वा । स िावप तत्प्रत्र्यवदद्र्यथोक्तं अथावर्य मतृ्रु्यिः पुिरेवाह तुष्टिः ॥ १५॥ spn: XV. Yama then told him that fire-sacrifice, the beginning of all the worlds;
what bricks, how many and how laid for the altar. Nachiketas repeated all as it was
told to him. Then Death, being pleased with him, again said:
sr: lokā dim a gniṃ tam u vāca tasmai yā iṣṭakā yā vatī r vā yathā vā | sa cā pi tat pratyavadat yathokta m athāsya mṛ tyuḥ punar e vāha tuṣṭah || 15 || Tasmai = to him; [Yama raja] uvāca = spoke of; tam lokādim agnim = that Fire [that is being dealt with, which as Virat preceded the world - since it was the first
embodied being;] yā iṣṭakā = the type of bricks, that are, to be collected (for the
sacrificial altar); yāvatīḥ vā, = how many in number; yathā vā = or how the fire is to
be arranged; sa cāpi = and he, [Naciketas, too]; prati-avadat = repeated verbatim;
tat = all that; yathoktam = just as Yama had spoken; atha = then; tuṣṭah = being
satisfied by his comprehension; mṛtyuḥ = Death; punaḥ eva aha = said over again.
15. [Yama] described to him that fire [ritual which is] the beginning of the world (as also) what kind of bricks (are to be used in building the sacrificial altar),
how many and in what manner. And he (Naciketas) repeated all that just as it had
been told; then, pleased with him, Death spoke again.
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ତମର୍ବ୍ଵୀତ୍ ପ୍ରୀର୍ମୋଠଣୋ ମହୋତ୍ମୋ ଵରଂ ତଠଵହୋଦୟ ଦଦୋମି ଭୂର୍ିଃ । ତଠଵୈଵ ନୋମନୋ ଭଵତିୋଽର୍ମଗି୍ନିଃ ସଙୃ୍ୋଂ ଠଚମୋମଠନକରୂପୋଂ ଗହୃୋଣ ॥ ୧୬॥ तमर्ब्वीत ्प्रीर्यमाणो महात्मा वरं तवेहाद्र्य ददामम भूर्यिः । तवैव िाम्िा भववताऽर्यमस्ग्ििः सङृ्ककां िेमामिेकरूपां गहृाण ॥ १६॥ spn: XVI. The great-soured Yama, being well pleased, said to him (Nachiketas): I
give thee now another boon. This fire (sacrifice) shall be named after thee. Take
also this garland of many colours.
sr: tam a bravīt prī yamā no mahātmā va raṃ tave hādya da dāmi bhūyaḥ | tavai va nā mnā bhavitā 'yam agniḥ sṛ ṅkāṃ cemām aneka-rū pāṁ gṛhāṇa || 16 || prīyamānaḥ = being delighted; mahātmā = the magnanimous One, [one who is not narrow-minded]; tam = to him; abravīt = said ; iha = here, [out of delight]; tava
= for you; [a fourth boon]: adya = now; dadāmi = I offer; bhūyaḥ = again; ayam agniḥ
= this fire ; bhavitā = will become [famous]; tava eva nāmnāḥ = by your name indeed;
ca = moreover; gṛhāṇa = accept; imām = this; srṅkāṁ = necklace; aneka-rūpāṁ =
multiformed and variegated.
16. The magnanimous one (Yama) extremely delighted, said to him (Naciketas) I give you here today another boon. By your own name will this fire
become (known). Take also this multiformed necklace.
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ତ୍ରଣିୋଚଠିକତସି୍ତ୍ରଭିଠରତୟ ସନ୍ଂି ତ୍ରକିମୟକୃତ୍ତରତ ିଜନମମତୂୃୟ । ର୍ବ୍ହ୍ମଜଜ୍ଞଂ ଠଦଵମୀଡ୍ୟଂ ଵଦିତି୍ଵୋ ନଚିୋଠର୍ୟମଁୋ ଶୋନ୍ମିତୟନ୍ଠମତ ି॥ ୧୭॥ बत्रणाचिकेतस्वत्रमभरेत्र्य सस््धं बत्रकमवकृत्तरनत ज्ममतृ्रू्य । र्ब्ह्मजज्ञं देवमीड्र्यं ववहदत्वा नििाय्रे्यमाँ शास््तमत्र्य्तमेनत ॥ १७॥ spn: XVII. He who performs this Nachiketa fire-sacrifice three times, being
united with the three (mother, father and teacher), and who fulfills the three-fold
duty (study of the Vedas, sacrifice and alms-giving) crosses over birth and death.
Knowing this worshipful shining fire, born of Brahman, and realizing Him, he attains
sp: tri-nā cike tas tribhir e tya sandhiṁ tri-ka rma-kṛ t tara ti janma-mṛtyū | brahma -jajñaṃ de vam ī ḍyam viditvā nicā yye'māguṁ śā ntim a tyantam eti || 17 || sandhiṁ etya = becoming connected; tribhiḥ = with the three; tri-nāciketaḥ = one who has piled up the Naciketa fire thrice; tri-karma-kṛt = one, who undertakes
three kinds of ritual activity; tarati = crosses over; janma-mṛtyū = birth and death.
[Moreover], viditvā = knowing from scriptures; brahma-jajñaṁ = one that is born
from Brahmā, ie. Hiraṇyagarbha is brahmaja (Virāṭ); and one who is enlightened, is
brahma-jajñaṁ = for That (ie. Virāṭ) is ominiscient; [knowing that]; devam = deity,
who is so called because of his effulgence; īḍyam = praiseworthy (adorable), (and)
nicāyya = meditating on (that Virāṭ) - as one's own Self; (one) eti = gets; imām =
this (tangible) ; śāntim = peace, cessation [from mental turmoil]; atyantam =
17. One who has thrice kindled the Naciketa fire, associating with the three, performs the three acts, crosses over birth and death. Knowing that which
arises from Brahma, the omniscient, resplendent and adorable and realising that,
one obtains this everlasting peace.
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ତ୍ରଣିୋଚଠିକତସ୍ତ୍ରର୍ଠମତଦ୍ଵଦିତି୍ଵୋ ର୍ ଏଵଂ ଵଦଁି୍ଵୋଶି୍ଚନୁଠତ ନୋଚଠିକତମ୍ । ସ ମତୁୃୟପୋଶୋନ୍ ପୁରତିଃ ପ୍ରଠଣୋଦୟ ଠଶୋକୋତଠିଗୋ ଠମୋଦଠତ ସ୍ଵଗୟଠ ୋଠକ ॥ ୧୮॥ बत्रणाचिकेतवत्रर्यमेतद्ववहदत्वा र्य एवं ववद्वाँस्श्ििुत ेिाचिकेतम ्। स मतृ्रु्यपाशाि ्पुरतिः प्रणोद्र्य शोकानतगो मोदते ववगवलोके ॥ १८॥ spn: XVIII. He who knows the three-fold Nachiketa fire and performs the
Nachiketa fire-sacrifice with three-fold knowledge, having cast off the fetters of
death and being beyond grief, he rejoices in the realm of heaven.
sr: tri-nā cike tas trayaṁ e tad viditvā ya e vaṁ vi dvaguṁś cinu te nā cike taṁ | sa mrtyu -
pāśān pu rata ḥ praṇodya śo kāti go moda te sva rga-lo ke || 18 ||
viditvā = after knowing ; etat trayam = these three described earlier, tri-nāciketas = a performer of the 'Naciketa sacrifice thrice; and yaḥ = who; evaṁ
vidvaṁ = having known the Fire (Virāṭ) thus - as identified with oneself; cinute =
accomplishes; nāciketaṁ = the Nāciketa fire; performs the sacrifice called
Nāciketa; saḥ = he; praṇodya = casting off; mrtyu-pāśān = the snares of Death -
consisting in ignorance, selfish-desire, hatred, etc; purataḥ = even earlier - i.e.
before death; śokātigaḥ = crossing over suffering - i.e. anxiety; modate = rejoices,
svarga-loke = in heaven, in the world of Virāṭ, by becoming identified with It.
18. The wise one who has sacrificed thrice the Naciketas rite and who knows the three, and so knowing, performs meditation on fire, throws off first the
bonds of death and overcoming sorrow, rejoices in the world of heaven.
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ଏଷ ଠତଽଗି୍ନନୟଚଠିକତିଃ ସ୍ଵଠଗୟୟୋ ର୍ମଵୃଣୀଥୋ ଦ୍ଵତିୀଠର୍ନ ଵଠରଣ । ଏତମଗି୍ନଂ ତଠଵୈଵ ପ୍ରଵକ୍ଷୟନ୍ ିଜନୋସିଃ ତୃତୀର୍ଂ ଵରଂ ନଚଠିକଠତୋ ଵୃଣୀଷଵ ॥ ୧୯॥ एष तऽेस्ग्ििवचिकेतिः ववग्र्यो र्यमवणृीथा द्ववतीरे्यि वरेण । एतमस्ग्ि ंतवैव प्रवक्ष्र्यस््त जिासिः ततृीरं्य वरं िचिकेतो वणृीष्व ॥ १९॥ spn: XIX. O Nachiketas, this is thy fire that leads to heaven, which thou hast
chosen as thy second boon. People will call this fire after thy name. Ask the third
boon, Nachiketas. Fire is regarded as "the foundation of all the worlds," because it is the revealer of creation. If there were no fire or light, no manifested form would be visible. We read in the
Semitic Scriptures, "In the beginning the Lord said, 'Let there be light."' Therefore, that which
stands in the external universe as one of the purest symbols of the Divine, also dwells in subtle
form in the heart of every living being as the vital energy, the life-force or cause of existence. Yama now tells Nachiketas how, by performing sacrifice with the three-fold knowledge, he may transcend grief and death and reach heaven. The three-fold knowledge referred
to is regarding the preparation of the altar and fire. Nachiketas being eager to learn, listened with
wholehearted attention and was able to repeat all that was told him. This so pleased Yama that he
granted him the extra boon of naming the fire-sacrifice after him and gave him a garland set with
Verses XVI-XVIII are regarded by many as an interpolation, which would account for certain obscurities and repetitions in them.
sr: e ṣa te 'gnir nacike tas svargyo yam avṛṇī thāḥ dvitī yena vareṇa | eta m agnim ta vaiva pravakṣyanti ja nāsa s tṛtī yaṁ va raṁ na cike to vṛṇīṣva || 19 || Naciketas = O Naciketas; te = to you; eṣa = this is; svargyaḥ agniḥ = the Fire that leads to heaven; yam = which; dvitīyena vareṇa = as the second boon; janāsaḥ =
people; pravakṣyanti = will speak of; etam agnim = this Fire; tava eva = as yours [by
your name]. [This is the fourth boon that I have willingly given]. Naciketaḥ vṛṇīṣva =
O Naciketa ask for; tṛtīyaṁ varaṁ = the third boon.
19. This is your fire (sacrifice) O Naciketas, that leads to heaven, which you have chosen for the second boon. This fire (sacrifice) people will call by your name.
Choose now, O Naciketas, the third boon.
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ଠର୍ର୍ଂ ଠପ୍ରଠତ ଵଚିକିତି୍ସୋ ମନୁଠଷୟ- ଽସ୍ତୀଠତୟଠକ ନୋର୍ମସ୍ତୀତ ିଠଚୈଠକ । ଏତଦ୍ଵଦିୟୋମନୁଶଷି୍ଟସ୍ତଵର୍ୋଽହଂ ଵରୋଣୋଠମଷ ଵରସୃ୍ତତୀର୍ିଃ ॥ ୨୦॥ रे्यर्य ंपे्रत ेववचिककत्सा मिुष्रे्य- ऽवतीत्रे्यके िार्यमवतीनत िैके । एतद्ववद्र्यामिुमशष्टवत्वर्याऽहं वराणामेष वरवततृीर्यिः ॥ २०॥ spn: XX. Nachiketas said: There is this doubt regarding what becomes of a man
after death. Some say he exists, others that he does not exist. This knowledge I
desire, being instructed by thee. Of the boons this is the third boon.
sr: (Nāciketas' third wish) yeyam prete viciki tsā manuṣye 'stīty e ke nāyam astī ti caike | etat vi dyām a nuśi ṣṭas tvayā'ham va rāṇām e ṣa va ras tṛ tīya || 20 || yā iyam vicikitsā = this doubt, that arises; prete manuṣye = when a person dies; eke = some (say); asti iti = (It) the Self, exists; ca eke = and others (say);
ayam = this [Self]; na asti = does not exist; tvayā anuśiṣṭaḥ = being instructed by you; aham = I; etat vidyām = would know this; varāṇām = of all the boons; eṣaḥ =
this one [is]; varaḥ tṛtīyaḥ = the third.
20. There is this doubt in regard to a person who has died, some say it exists” and some say it does not exist”. I would be instructed by you in this knowledge. Of all the boons, this is the third boon.
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ଠଦଠଵୈରତ୍ରୋପି ଵଚିକିତି୍ସତିଂ ପୁରୋ ନ ହ ିସଵୁଠିଜ୍ଞର୍ମଣୁଠରଷ ଧମୟିଃ । ଅନୟଂ ଵରଂ ନଚଠିକଠତୋ ଵୃଣୀଷଵ ମୋ ଠମୋପଠରୋତ୍ସୀରତ ିମୋ ସଠୃଜୈନମ୍ ॥ ୨୧॥ देवैरत्रावप ववचिककस्त्सतं पुरा ि हह सुववज्ञेर्यमणुरेष धमविः । अ्रं्य वरं िचिकेतो वणृीष्व मा मोपरोत्सीरनत मा सजैृिम ्॥ २१॥ spn: XXI. Yama replied: Even the Devas (Bright Ones) of old doubted regarding
this. It is not easy to know; subtle indeed is this subject. O Nachiketas, choose
another boon. Do not press me. Ask not this boon of me.
sp: devai r atrāpi viciki tsitam purā na hi suvijñeyam aṇur e ṣa dharmaḥ | anya ṁ varaṁ
na cike to vṛṇīśva mā mo parotsīr ati mā sṛjai nam || 21 ||
purā = in days of yore; atra = with regard to this thing; vicikitsitam = doubt was entertained; devaiḥ api = even by gods; hi = since; eṣa dharmaḥ = this principle
called the Self; na suvijñeyam = is not easily comprehensible [to common people]
anuḥ = it being so subtle and abstract. [Hence] naciketaḥ = O Naciketa; vṛṇīśva = you ask for; anyaṁ varaṁ = some other boon [- less complex]. Mā uparotsīḥ = do not press; mā = me [mā being the same as mām (me)]; ati sṛja = give up; enam = this one.
21. (Yama said): Even the gods of old had doubt on this point. It is not, indeed, easy to understand; (so) subtle is this truth. Choose another boon, O
Naciketas. Do not pressme. Release me from this.
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ଠଦଠଵୈରତ୍ରୋପି ଵଚିକିତି୍ସତିଂ କ ି ତ୍ଵଂ ଚ ମଠୃତୟୋ ର୍ନ୍ନ ସଠୁଜ୍ଞର୍ମୋତ୍ଥ । ଵକ୍ତୋ ଚୋସୟ ତ୍ଵୋଦୃଗଠନୟୋ ନ ଠଭୟୋ ନୋଠନୟୋ ଵରସୁ୍ତ ୟ ଏତସୟ କଶି୍ଚତ୍ ॥ ୨୨॥ देवैरत्रावप ववचिककस्त्सतं ककल त्वं ि मतृ्र्यो र्य्ि सुज्ञेर्यमात्थ । वक्ता िावर्य त्वादृग्र्यो ि लभ्र्यो िा्र्यो वरवतुल्र्य एतवर्य कस्श्ित ्॥ २२॥ spn: XXII. Nachiketas said: O Death, thou sayest that even the Devas had doubts
about this, and that it is not easy to know. Another teacher like unto thee is not to
be found. Therefore no other boon can be equal to this one.
sr: devai r atrāpi vi ciki tsitam kila tva ṁ ca mṛ tyo yan na su vijñeya m āttha | vaktā cāsya
tvā dṛg-a nyo na labhyo nānyo varas tulya e tasya kaścit || 22 ||
atra = with regard to this thing; devaiḥ api vicikitsitam kila = indeed doubt was entertained even by the gods; ca = and; mṛtyuḥ = O Death; yat = since; tvaṁ =
you; āttha = say; [that the reality of the Self]; na suvijñeyam = is not easily
comprehended, [therefore this thing is unknowable even to the learned]; vaktā ca
asya = and an instructor of this principle; anyaḥ = anyone else; tvādṛk = like you; na
labhyaḥ = cannot be had; na anyaḥ varaḥ = there is no other boon; kaścit =
whatsoever; which is; etasya tulya = comparable to this one [ since all the other
boons bear impermanent results].
22. (Naciketas said:) Indeed, even the gods had doubt about this, and you, O Death, say that it is not easy to understand. (Instruct me) for another teacher,
like you, is not to be had. No other boon is comparable to this at all.
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ଶତୋରୁ୍ଷିଃ ପୁତ୍ରଠପୌତ୍ରୋନ୍ ଵୃଣୀଷଵୋ ବହୂନପଶନୂ୍ ହସି୍ତହରିଣୟମଶ୍ଵୋନ୍ । ଭୂଠମମୟହଦୋର୍ତନଂ ଵୃଣୀଷଵ ସ୍ଵର୍ଂ ଚ ଜୀଵ ଶରଠଦୋ ର୍ୋଵଦଚି୍ଛସ ି॥ ୨୩॥ शतारु्यषिः पुत्रपौत्रा्वणृीष्वा बहू्पशूि ्हस्वतहहरण्र्यमश्वाि ्। भूमेमवहदार्यतिं वणृीष्व ववर्यं ि जीव शरदो र्यावहदच्छमस ॥ २३॥ spn: XXIII. Yama said: Ask for sons and grandsons who shall live a hundred years,
many cattle, elephants, gold and horses. Ask for lands of vast extent and live
thyself as many autumns as thou desirest.
sr: śatā yuṣah putra-pau trān vṛ ṇīśva ba hūn paśūn ha sti-hi raṇya m aśvān |
bhū mer ma had-ā yatanaṁ vṛṇīśva svaya ṁ ca jī va śarado yāvad icchasi || 23 ||
vṛṇīśva = you ask for; putra-pautrān = sons and grandons; śatāyuṣah = gifted with a hundred years of life; bahūn = many; paśūn = animals, such as cows etc;
hasti-hiraṇyam = elephants and gold; and aśvān = horses. Besides vṛṇīśva = ask for;
mahad-āyatanaṁ = a vast expanse, habitat, region, a kingdom - bhūmeḥ = of the
earth. [Furthermore, all this is useless if you yourself are short-lived. Therefore
he says:—], ca = and, svayaṁ = you I yourself; jīva = live, with all the senses
unimpaired; śaradaḥ = years; yāvat icchasi = as you wish to live.
23. (Yama said:) Choose sons and grandsons that shall live a hundred years, cattle in plenty, elephants, gold and horses. Choose vast expanses of land and life
for yourself as many years as you will.
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ଏତତୁ୍ତ ୟଂ ର୍ଦ ିମନୟଠସ ଵରଂ ଵୃଣୀଷଵ ଵତି୍ତଂ ଚରିଜୀଵକିୋଂ ଚ । ମହୋଭୂଠମୌ ନଚଠିକତସ୍ତଵଠମଧି କୋମୋନୋଂ ତ୍ଵୋ କୋମଭୋଜଂ କଠରୋମି ॥ ୨୪॥ एतत्तलु्रं्य र्यहद म्र्यसे वरं वणृीष्व ववत्त ंचिरजीववकां ि । महाभूमौ िचिकेतवत्वमेचध कामािां त्वा कामभाजं करोमम ॥ २४॥ spn: XXIV. If thou thinkest of any other boon equal to this, ask for wealth and long
life; be ruler over the wide earth. O Nachiketas, I shall make thee enjoyer of all
sr: e tat tulyam ya di ma nyase varaṁ vṛṇī ṣva vi ttaṁ cira-jī vikāṁ ca |
mahā -bhūmau na cike tas tvam edhi kāmā nāṁ tvā kā ma-bhā jaṁ karomi || 24 ||
naciketas = O Naciketas; yadi = if; manyase = you think that; etat tulyam = equal to this; varaṁ vṛṇīśva = please request that boon; vittaṁ = wealth; ca = and;
cira-jīvikaṁ = longevity, mahā-bhūmau = vast tracts of land; tvam = you, edhi =
become (prosper); kāmānāṁ = of all desirable things; tvā kāma-bhājam karomi = I
will make you the enjoyer.
24. If you deem (any) boon like unto this, choose (that) as also wealth and long life. O Naciketas, prosper then on this vast earth. I will make you the enjoyer
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ଠର୍ ଠର୍ କୋମୋ ଦୁ ୟଭୋ ମତୟୟଠ ୋଠକ ସଵୟୋନ୍ କୋମୋଁଶ୍ଛନ୍ଦତିଃ ପ୍ରୋଥୟର୍ସ୍ଵ । ଇମୋ ରୋମୋିଃ ସରଥୋିଃ ସତୂର୍ୟୋ ନ ହୀଦୃଶୋ ମ୍ଭନୀର୍ୋ ମନୁଠଷୈୟିଃ । ଆଭିମୟତ୍ପ୍ର ତ୍ତୋଭିିଃ ପରଚିୋରର୍ସ୍ଵ ନଚଠିକଠତୋ ମରଣଂ ମୋଽନୁପ୍ରୋକ୍ଷୀିଃ ॥ ୨୫॥ रे्य रे्य कामा दलुवभा मत्र्यवलोके सवावि ्कामाँश्छ्दतिः प्राथवर्यवव । इमा रामािः सरथािः सतूर्याव ि हीदृशा लम्भिीर्या मिुष्रै्यिः । आमभमवत्प्रत्तामभिः पररिारर्यवव िचिकेतो मरणं माऽिुप्रािीिः ॥ २५॥ spn: XXV. Whatsoever objects of desire are difficult to obtain in the realm of
mortals, ask them all as thou desirest; these lovely maidens with their chariots and
musical instruments, such as are not obtainable by mortals--be served by these
whom I give to thee. O Nachiketas, do not ask regarding death. The third boon asked by Nachiketas concerning the great Hereafter was one which could be granted only to those who were freed from all mortal desires and limitations, therefore Yama first
tested Nachiketas to see whether he was ready to receive such knowledge. "Do not press me
regarding this secret," he said. "Even wise men cannot understand it and thou art a mere lad. Take,
rather, long life, wealth, whatever will give thee happiness on the mortal plane." But the boy proved
his strength and worthiness by remaining firm in his resolution to know the great secret of life and
sr: ye ye kā mā durla bhā ma rtya-lo ke sarvā n kāmāṁś cha ndataḥ prārthayasva | imā
rāmāḥ sa rathā ḥ satū ryā na hīdṛ śā la mbhanī yā manuṣyaiḥ |
ā bhir mat-prattā bhiḥ pa ricā rayasva na cike to maraṇa m mā'nuprākṣīḥ || 25 ||
ye ye = all things; that are; kāmāḥ = desirable; durlabhāḥ = difficult to get ; martya-loke = in the human world; sarvān kāmāṁ = all those desirable things ;
prārthayasva = ask for; chandataḥ = according to your choice, imāḥ = here are; the
celestial nymphs - the rāmāḥ = (lit. women) who are so called because they delight
(ramayanti) men; (and who are there); sa-rathāḥ = with chariots, sa-tūryāḥ = with
musical instruments. īdṛśāḥ = such (women); na hī lambhanīyāḥ = are not surely to be
had; manuṣyaiḥ = by mortals. ābhiḥ = by these - by these female attendants; mat
prattābhiḥ = who are offered by me; paricārayasva = get (yourself) served;
naciketaḥ = O Naciketā; maraṇam = of death; mā anuprākṣīḥ = do not inquire.
25. Whatever desires are hard to attain in this world of mortals, ask for al those desires at your will. Here are noble maidens with chariots and musical
instruments: the like of them cannot be won by men. Be served by these whom I
give to you. O Naciketas, (pray) ask not about death.
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ଠଶ୍ଵୋଭୋଵୋ ମତୟୟସୟ ର୍ଦନ୍ଠକୈତତ୍ ସଠଵୟଂଦି୍ରର୍ୋଣୋଂ ଜରର୍ଂତ ିଠତଜିଃ । ଅପି ସଵୟଂ ଜୀଵତିମ ପଠମଵ ତଠଵୈଵ ଵୋହୋସ୍ତଵ ନୃତୟଗୀଠତ ॥ ୨୬॥ श्वोभावा मत्र्यववर्य र्यद्तकैतत ् सवेंहिर्याणां जररं्यनत तेजिः । अवप सव ंजीववतमल्पमेव तवैव वाहावतव ितृ्र्यगीत े॥ २६॥ spn: XXVI. Nachiketas said: O Death, these are fleeting; they weaken the vigour
of all the senses in man. Even the longest life is short. Keep thou thy chariots,
dance and music. sr: śvo 'bhāvā martya sya ya d anta kaitat sarve ndriyā ṇāṁ ja raya nti tejaḥ | api sarvaṁ
jī vita ṁ alpam eva tavai va vā hās ta va nṛ tya-gīte || 26 ||
antaka = O Death; [who ends all, the enjoyable things you offer me are]; śva-abhāvāḥ = ephemeral, transient [whose existence ,(bhāva) is subject to the doubt
as to whether they will exist or not tomorrow (śvaḥ); jarayanti = waste away; tejaḥ
= the vigour; yat = that [there is]; sarvendriyāṇāṁ = of all the senses; martyasya =
of a human being; sarvaṁ api jīvitaṁ = all life [even, that of Brahmā is]; alpam eva =
short indeed; vāhāḥ = the vehicles etc; [and also]; nṛtya-gīte = the dances and
songs; tava eva = yours alone - let them remain yours. 26. (Naciketas said:) O Death, ephemeral areall these, and they waste away the vigour of all the senses that a person has. All life, without exception, is short
indeed. Let the vehicles be yours alone: let the dances and songs be yours.
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ନ ଵଠିତ୍ତନ ତପୟଣୀଠର୍ୋ ମନୁଠଷୟୋ ପ୍ସ୍ୟୋମଠହ ଵତି୍ତମଦ୍ରୋକ୍ଷ୍ମ ଠଚତ୍ତ୍ଵୋ । ଜୀଵଷିୟୋଠମୋ ର୍ୋଵଦୀଶଷିୟସ ିତ୍ଵଂ ଵରସୁ୍ତ ଠମ ଵରଣୀର୍ିଃ ସ ଏଵ ॥ ୨୭॥ ि ववते्ति तपवणीर्यो मिुष्र्यो लतवर्यामहे ववत्तमिाक्ष्म िेत्त्वा । जीववष्र्यामो र्यावदीमशष्र्यमस त्वं वरवतु मे वरणीर्यिः स एव ॥ २७॥ spn: XXVII. Man cannot be satisfied by wealth. Shall we possess wealth when we
see thee (Death)? Shall we continue to live as long as thou rulest? Therefore that
boon alone is to be chosen by me.
sr: na vi ttena ta rpaṇī yo manuṣyo lapsyā mahe vittam a drākṣma cet tvā | jīvi ṣyāmo yā vad
ī śiṣyasi tvaṁ va rastu me va ranī yaḥ sa eva || 27 ||
manuṣyaḥ; = people; na tarpaṇīyaḥ = cannot be satisfied; vittena = with wealth; lapsyāmahe = should we possible hanker after; vittam = wealth; cet
adrākṣma = now that we have seen; tvā = you; jīviṣyāmaḥ = we live; yāvat = as long
as; tvam — you; īśiṣyasi — (should rather be iśiṣyase); will rule [as the God of
Death]? varaḥ tu = but the boon; me varanīyaḥ = which is worth requesting by me;
saḥ eva = is that alone.
27. One can never be contented with wealth. Shall we enjoyprosperity when we have seen you? Let me live as long as you wish. That alone is (still) the boon
chosen by me.
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ଅଜୀର୍ୟତୋମମତୃୋନୋମଠୁପତୟ ଜୀର୍ୟନମତୟୟିଃ କ୍ଵଧିଃସ୍ଥିଃ ପ୍ରଜୋନନ୍ । ଅଭିଧ୍ୟୋର୍ନ୍ ଵଣୟରତପି୍ରଠମୋଦୋନ୍ ଅତଦିୀଠଘୟ ଜୀଵଠିତ ଠକୋ ରଠମତ ॥ ୨୮॥ अजीर्यवताममतृािामुपेत्र्य जीर्यव् मत्र्यविः क्वधिःवथिः प्रजािि ्। अमभध्र्यार्यि ्वणवरनतप्रमोदाि ् अनतदीरे्घ जीववत ेको रमेत ॥ २८॥ spn: XXVIII. What man dwelling on the decaying mortal plane, having approached
the undecaying immortal one, and having reflected upon the nature of enjoyment
through beauty and sense pleasure, would delight in long life?
sr: ajī ryatām a mṛtā nām upetya jī ryan ma rtyaḥ kvadhaḥ stha ḥ prajānan | abhi dhyāyan
va rṇa-ra ti-pramodān ati -dīrghe jī vite ko rameta || 28 ||
upetya = having come near to; ajīryatām = of the undecaying, of those who do not undergo the loss of age; amṛtānām = of the immortals (gods); (and) prajānan =
knowing himself to be; jīryan martyaḥ = subject to decrepitude and death;
kvadhasthaḥ = living on the earth; kaḥ = who, [what sensible person]; abhidhyāyan =
while deliberating [on the real nature of]; varṇa-rati-pramodān = music (colour), sex
and entertainment [as transitory]; rameta = would delight; ati-dīrghe jīvite = in a
long life ?
28. 'What mortal, slowly decaying here below, and knowing, after having approached them, the freedom from decay enjoyed by the immortals, would delight
in a long life, after he has pondered on the pleasures which arise frommusic, sex
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ର୍ମିନ୍ନଦିଂ ଵଚିକିତି୍ସନ୍ ିମଠୃତୟୋ ର୍ତ୍ସୋମ୍ପରୋଠର୍ ମହତ ିବୂହ ିନସ୍ତତ୍ । ଠର୍ୋଽର୍ଂ ଵଠରୋ ଗୂଢମନୁପ୍ରଵଠିଷ୍ଟୋ ନୋନୟଂ ତମୋନ୍ନଚଠିକତୋ ଵୃଣୀଠତ ॥ ୨୯॥ र्यस्वमस््िदं ववचिककत्सस््त मतृ्र्यो र्यत्साम्परारे्य महनत र्ब्ूहह िवतत ्। र्योऽर्य ंवरो गूढमिुप्रववष्टो िा्र्य ंतवमा्िचिकेता वणृीत े॥ २९॥ spn: XXIX. O Death, that regarding which there is doubt, of the great Hereafter,
tell us. Nachiketas asks for no other boon than that which penetrates this hidden
secret. sr: yasmi nnidam vi ciki tsanti mṛtyo yat sā ṁparā ye ma hati brūhi nas tat | yo'ya ṁ varo
gū ḍam a nupraviṣṭo nānya ṁ tasmān na cike to vṛṇīte || 29 ||
mṛtyu - O Death; [stop trying to allure me with ephemeral things and] brūhi naḥ = tell us; tat = that, which I requested; yasmin = about which; [people] idam
vicikitsanti = entertain doubt; sāmparāye = in the context of the great departure;
yat = which [knowledge]; mahati = is calculated to lead to a great result; ayaṁ varaḥ
= this boon; yaḥ = which is; gūḍam anupraviṣṭaḥ = has entered into an inaccessible
recess [has become extremely inscrutable]; tasmāt = apart from that boon; nānyaṁ
= no other; naciketā vṛṇīte = does Naciketas request.
29. Tell us that about which they doubt, O Death, what there is in the great passing--‐on. No other than this boon which penetrates the mystery, does
॥ ଇତ ିକୋ ଠକୋପନଷିଦ ିପ୍ରଥମୋଧ୍ୟୋଠର୍ ପ୍ରଥମୋ ଵଲ୍ଲୀ ॥ ॥ इनत काठकोपनिषहद प्रथमाध्र्यारे्य प्रथमा वल्ली ॥ Thus ends Kathopanishad chapter one Valli one.
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Part I Canto(Valli) II (1.2) 1.2.1
ଅନୟଠଚ୍ଛ େଠର୍ୋଽନୟଦୁଠତୈଵ ଠପ୍ରର୍- ଠସ୍ତ ଉଠଭ ନୋନୋଠଥୟ ପୁରୁଷଁ ସନିୀତିଃ । ତଠର୍ୋିଃ ଠଶ୍ରର୍ ଆଦଦୋନସୟ ସୋଧୁ ଭଵତ ିହୀର୍ଠତଽଥୟୋଦୟ ଉ ଠପ୍ରଠର୍ୋ ଵୃଣୀଠତ ॥ ୧॥ अ्र्यच्रेर्योऽ्र्यदतैुव पे्रर्य- वत ेउभे िािाथे पुरुष ँमसिीतिः । तर्योिः शे्रर्य आददािवर्य साधु भवनत हीर्यतऽेथावद्र्य उ पे्रर्यो वणृीत े॥ १॥ spn: I. Yama said: The good is one thing and the pleasant another. These two,
having different ends, bind a man. It is well with him who chooses the good. He who
chooses the pleasant misses the true end.
sr: THE TWO WAYS, Yama's Teaching After testing Naciketas and knowing his fitness for receiving Brahma-knowledge,
Yama explains the great secret to him.
anya c chreyo 'nyad u taiva preyaste u bhe nā nārthe pu rusagu ṁ sinītah | tayo ḥ śreya ā dadā nasya sādhu bhavati hī yate 'rthād ya u preyo vṛṇīte || 1 ||
śreyaḥ = the preferable, the Moral Good, the supreme goal (freedom from suffering); anyat eva (it) is certainly different; tathā = similarly; uta = too; preyaḥ = the more pleasant; anyat eva = (is) different indeed; te ubhe = both of them; nānā arthe = serving divergent purposes; sinītaḥ = bind; puruṣam = a person: tayoḥ = of the two; ādadānasya = one who chooses [only]: śeyaḥ = the preferable, sādhu bhavati = well-being, good comes; yaḥ u = the one that; preyaḥ
vṛṇīte — selects the pleasurable; hīyate = gets alienated; arthāt = from this
objective, from the human goal; [i.e. falls from the eternal supreme purpose].
1. (Yama said): There are two paths; the good and the pleasant. Different indeed are their purposes but both of them bind one. Of these two, it is well for
one who takes hold of the good; but one who chooses the pleasant, loses the very
object of human life.
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ଠଶ୍ରର୍ଶ୍ଚ ଠପ୍ରର୍ଶ୍ଚ ମନୁଷୟଠମତିଃ ଠତୌ ସମ୍ପରୀତୟ ଵଵିନିକି୍ତ ଧୀରିଃ । ଠଶ୍ରଠର୍ୋ ହ ିଧୀଠରୋଽଭି ଠପ୍ରର୍ଠସୋ ଵୃଣୀଠତ ଠପ୍ରଠର୍ୋ ମଠନ୍ଦୋ ଠର୍ୋଗଠକ୍ଷମୋଦ୍ ଵୃଣୀଠତ ॥ ୨॥ शे्रर्यश्ि पे्रर्यश्ि मिुष्र्यमेतिः तौ सम्परीत्र्य वववविस्क्त धीरिः । शे्रर्यो हह धीरोऽमभ पे्रर्यसो वणृीते पे्रर्यो म्दो र्योगिेमाद्वणृीत े॥ २॥ spn: II. The good and the pleasant approach man; the wise examines both and
discriminates between them; the wise prefers the good to the pleasant, but the
foolish man chooses the pleasant through love of bodily pleasure.
sr: śreya ś ca preyaś ca ma nuṣya m etas tau sa ṁparī tya vi vina kti dhīrah |
śreyo hi dhī ro'bhi preyaso vṛṇīte preyo ma ndo yoga -kṣemād vṛṇīte || 2 ||
śreyaḥ ca preyaḥ ca = the preferable and the pleasurable; manuṣyam etaḥ = approach people; [as though they are a couple. Therefore just as a swan separates
milk from water, similarly]; dhīraḥ = the intelligent one; samparītya = having pondered fully, having considered their importance and unimportance; vivinakti =
separates; tau = those two. [And having distinguished]; abhivṛṇīte = selects; śreyaḥ
hi = the electable indeed; preyasaḥ = in preference to the delectable; mandaḥ =
simple-mind; vṛṇīte = selects; yoga-kṣemāt = material well-being, one adopts a
materialist view of life for the sake of nourishing and protecting of the body and
2. Both the good and the pleasant approach one. The wise one, pondering over them, discriminates. The wise chooses the good in preference to the pleasant.
The simple--‐minded for the sake of material wellbeing, prefers the pleasant.
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ସ ତ୍ଵଂ ପି୍ରର୍ୋନ୍ ପି୍ରର୍ରୂପୋଂଶ୍ଚ କୋମୋନ୍ ଅଭିଧ୍ୟୋର୍ନ୍ନଚଠିକଠତୋଽତୟରୋକ୍ଷୀିଃ । ଠନୈତୋଂ ସଙୃ୍ୋଂ ଵତି୍ତମର୍ୀମଵୋଠପ୍ତୋ ର୍ସୟୋଂ ମଜ୍ଜନ୍ ିବହଠଵୋ ମନୁଷୟୋିଃ ॥ ୩॥ स त्व ंवप्रर्यास््प्रर्यरूपांश्ि कामाि ् अमभध्र्यार्य्िचिकेतोऽत्र्यस्रािीिः । िैतां सङृ्ककां ववत्तमर्यीमवाततो र्यवर्यां मज्जस््त बहवो मिुष्र्यािः ॥ ३॥ spn: III. O Nachiketas after wise reflection thou hast renounced the pleasant and
all pleasing forms. Thou hast not accepted this garland of great value for which
many mortals perish.
sr: sa tvam pri yān pri ya rū pāguṁś ca kāmān abhi dhyāyan na cike to’tyasrākṣīḥ | nai tāguṁ
sṛ kāṁ vi ttamayī m avāpto yasyā ṁ majjanti ba havo manuṣyāḥ || 3 ||
naciketaḥ = O Naciketas; saḥ tvam = you, such as you are [though tempted by me again and again]; abhidhyāyan = having considered the defects such as
impermanence and unsubstantiality of; kāmān = desirable things; ca = and; priyān =
dear ones such as spouse, offspring etc; priya-rūpāṁ = producers of delight, such
as nymphs etc.; atyasrākṣīḥ = you have rejected; na avāptaḥ = you have not
accepted; etāṁ = this; sṛṅkāṁ = course; vittamayīm = abounding in wealth; yasyām =
by which; bahavaḥ = many; manuṣyāḥ = mortals; majjanti = sink, come to grief.
3. 'You, O Nachiketas, after pondering all pleasures that are or seem
delightful, have rejected them all. You have not gone onto the road that leads to
wealth, in which many mortals have perished.
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ଦୂରଠମଠତ ଵପିରୀଠତ ଵଷିୂଚୀ ଅଵଦିୟୋ ର୍ୋ ଚ ଵଠିଦୟତ ିଜ୍ଞୋତୋ । ଵଦିୟୋଭୀପ୍ସ୍ନିଂ ନଚଠିକତସଂ ମଠନୟ ନ ତ୍ଵୋ କୋମୋ ବହଠଵୋଽଠ ୋ ୁପନ୍ ॥୪॥ दरूमेत ेववपरीत ेववषूिी अववद्र्या र्या ि ववद्रे्यनत ज्ञाता । ववद्र्याभीस्तसिं िचिकेतसं म्रे्य ि त्वा कामा बहवोऽलोलुप्त ॥ ४॥ spn: IV. Wide apart are these two,--ignorance and what is known as wisdom, leading
in opposite directions. I believe Nachiketas to be one who longs for wisdom, since
many tempting objects have not turned thee aside. With this second part, the Ruler of Death begins his instructions regarding the great Hereafter. There are two paths,--one leading Godward, the other leading to worldly pleasure. He
who follows one inevitably goes away from the other; because, like light and darkness they conflict.
One leads to the imperishable spiritual realm; the other to the perishable physical realm. Both
confront a man at every step of life. The discerning man distinguishing between the two, chooses
the Real and Eternal, and he alone attains the highest, while the ignorant man, preferring that
which brings him immediate and tangible results, misses the true purpose of his existence. Although
Yama put before Nachiketas many temptations to test his sincerity and earnestness, he judging
them at their real value, refused them all, saying "I have come from the mortal realm, shall I ask
for what is mortal? I desire only that which is eternal." Then Death said to him: "I now see that
thou art a sincere desirer of Truth. I offered thee vast wealth, long life and every form of
pleasure which tempts and deludes men; but thou hast proved thy worthiness by rejecting them all."
sr: dūra m ete vi parī te viṣūcī avi dyā yā ca vi dyeti jñātā | vidyā bhīpsinaṁ na cike tasam manye na tvā kā mā baha vo lolupanta || 4 ||
ete = these two; dūram = widely, by a great distance; viparīte = contradictory, mutually exclusive; viṣūcī = have divergent courses; yā ca = that
which; jñātā = is fully ascertained, known by the learned; avidyā iti = ignorance (the
pleasurable); yā ca = and that which is; vidyā iti = as knowledge (the preferable).
manye = I consider; you had; naciketasam = Naciketas; vidyābhīpsinaṁ = as desirous
of knowing; bahavaḥ = many; kāmā = enjoyable things, na lolupantaḥ = did not tempt;
tvā = you; 4. Wide apart and leading to divergent ends are these; ignorance (avidya) and what is known as wisdom (vidya). I know you O Naciketas, to be eager
for wisdom for (even) many desirable pleasures did not distract you.
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ଅଵଦିୟୋର୍ୋମନ୍ଠର ଵତୟମୋନୋିଃ ସ୍ଵର୍ଂ ଧୀରୋିଃ ପଣି୍ଡତଂମନୟମୋନୋିଃ । ଦନ୍ଦ୍ରମୟମୋଣୋିଃ ପରରି୍ନ୍ ିମଢୂୋ ଅଠନ୍ଠନୈଵ ନୀର୍ମୋନୋ ର୍ଥୋନ୍ୋିଃ ॥ ୫॥ अववद्र्यार्याम्तरे वतवमािािः ववर्यं धीरािः पस्ण्ितंम्र्यमािािः । द्िम्र्यमाणािः पररर्यस््त मूढा अ्धेिैव िीर्यमािा र्यथा्धािः ॥ ५॥ spn: V. Fools dwelling in ignorance, yet imagining themselves wise and learned, go
round and round in crooked ways, like the blind led by the blind. sr: avi dyāyām a ntare va rtamā nāḥ sva yaṁ dhī rāḥ pa ṇḍita ṁ manyamānāḥ |
dandra myamā ṇāḥ pa riya nti mūḍhāḥ andhe naiva nī yamā nā yathā'ndhāḥ || 5 ||
vartamānāḥ = living; avidyāyām antare = in the midst of ignorance - being entangled in hundreds of fetters, forged by craving for sons, cattle, etc.;
manyamānāḥ = considering; svayam = we ourselves are; dhīrāḥ = intelligent; paṇḍitam
= versed in the Scriptures; those; mūḍhāḥ = senseless, non-discriminating people;
pariyanti = go round and round; dandramyamāṇāḥ = wise in their own esteem or by
following closely the various crooked courses, being afflicted by old age, death,
disease, etc.; just as many; andhāḥ = blind people; nīyamānāḥ = being led; andhena
eva = by the blind indeed, on an uneven road, come to great calamity.
5. Abiding in the midst of ignorance, wise in their own esteem,
thinkingthemselves to be learned, fools wander painfully about like blind led by the
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ନ ସୋମ୍ପରୋର୍ିଃ ପ୍ରତଭିୋତ ିବୋ ଂ ପ୍ରମୋଦୟନ୍ଂ ଵତି୍ତଠମୋଠହନ ମଢୂମ୍ । ଅର୍ଂ ଠ ୋଠକୋ ନୋସି୍ତ ପର ଇତ ିମୋନୀ ପୁନିଃ ପୁନଵୟଶମୋପଦୟଠତ ଠମ ॥୬॥ ि साम्परार्यिः प्रनतभानत बाल ं प्रमाद्र्य्तं ववत्तमोहेि मूढम ्। अर्य ंलोको िास्वत पर इनत मािी पुििः पुिववशमापद्र्यते मे ॥ ६॥ spn: VI. The Hereafter never rises before the thoughtless child (the ignorant),
deluded by the glamour of wealth. "This world alone is, there is none other":
thinking thus, he falls under my sway again and again. There are many in the world, who, puffed up with intellectual conceit, believe that they are capable of guiding others. But although they may possess a certain amount of worldly wisdom, they
are devoid of deeper understanding; therefore all that they say merely increases doubt and
confusion in the minds of those who hear them. Hence they are likened to blind men leading the
The Hereafter does not shine before those who are lacking in the power of discrimination and are easily carried away therefore by the charm of fleeting objects. As children are tempted by
toys, so they are tempted by pleasure, power, name and fame. To them these seem the only
realities. Being thus attached to perishable things, they come many times under the dominion of
death. There is one part of us which must die; there is another part which never dies. When a man
can identify himself with his undying nature, which is one with God, then he overcomes death. sr: na sā ṁparāyaḥ pra tibhā ti bālaṁ pramā dyantaṁ vi tta-mohe na mūḍham | a yaṁ loko
nā sti pa ra i ti mānī puna ḥ punarvaśam ā dyate me || 6 ||
sāmparāyaḥ = is the other world, and also any particular scriptural means leading to the attainment of that other world. And this (means) na pratibhāti =
does not become revealed to, ie. does not become serviceable to; bālam = a boy, a
non-discriminating one; (who is) pramādyantaṁ = blundering; mūḍham = confounded,
being totally immersed in ignorance: vitta-mohena = because of the delusion caused by wealth. ayaṁ lokaḥ = there is only this world that which is visible and abounds
with sex, food, drink, etc.; na para asti = there is no other world; iti mānī =
constantly thinking thus; (he) being born, punaḥ punaḥ = again and again; ādyate =
becomes subject to; vaśam me = my control; that is, one remains involved in a
succession of suffering in the form of birth, death, etc.
6. What lies beyond [death] is not apparent to the blundering simple--‐minded
being deluded by the glamour of wealth. Thinking this world alone exists, there
being no other, he falls again and again under my sway.
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ଶ୍ରଵଣୋର୍ୋପି ବହୁଭିଠର୍ୟୋ ନ ଭୟିଃ ଶଣୃଵଠନ୍ୋଽପି ବହଠଵୋ ର୍ଂ ନ ଵଦୁିୟିଃ । ଆଶ୍ଚଠର୍ୟୋ ଵକ୍ତୋ କୁଶଠ ୋଽସୟ ବ୍ଧୋ ଆଶ୍ଚଠର୍ୟୋ ଜ୍ଞୋତୋ କୁଶ ୋନୁଶଷି୍ଟିଃ ॥ ୭॥ श्रवणार्यावप बहुमभर्यो ि लभ्र्यिः शणृ्व्तोऽवप बहवो रं्य ि ववद्रु्यिः । आश्िर्यो वक्ता कुशलोऽवर्य लब्धा आश्िर्यो ज्ञाता कुशलािुमशष्टिः ॥ ७॥ spn: VII. He about whom many are not even able to hear, whom many cannot
comprehend even after hearing: wonderful is the teacher, wonderful is he who can
receive when taught by an able teacher. Throughout the Vedic Scriptures it is declared that no one can impart spiritual knowledge unless he has realization. What is meant by realization? It means knowledge based on direct
perception. In India often the best teachers have no learning, but their character is so shining that
every one learns merely by coming in contact with them. In one of the Scriptures we read: Under a
banyan tree sat a youthful teacher and beside him an aged disciple. The mind of the disciple was full
of doubts and questions, but although the teacher continued silent, gradually every doubt vanished
from the disciple's mind. This signifies that the conveying of spiritual teaching does not depend
upon words only. It is the life, the illumination, which counts. Such God-enlightened men, however,
cannot easily be found; but even with such a teacher, the knowledge of the Self cannot be gained
unless the heart of the disciple is open and ready for the Truth. Hence Yama says both teacher and
taught must be wonderful.
sr: śravaṇā yāpi ba hubhi r yo na labhyaḥ śṛ ṇvanto 'pi ba havo yaṁ na vidyuḥ | āśca ryo
vaktā ku śalo'sya labdhā āśca ryo jñātā ku śalā nu-śiṣṭaḥ || 7 ||
yaḥ = that which [the Self that]; na labhyaḥ = is not attainable; bahubhiḥ = by many; śravaṇāya api = even by hearing; yaṁ = which [the Self]; bahavaḥ = many
(others); śṛṇvantaḥ api = even while hearing; na vidyuḥ = do not know; asya vaktā =
Its expounder; (is) āścaryaḥ = wonderful, a rare one; [even after hearing of the
Self]; kuśalaḥ = one who is proficient, skilful; [becomes the] labdhā = attainer. For
āścaryaḥ = a wonder is the, jñātā = knower; kuśalānu-śiṣṭaḥ = being instructed by a
7. That (paramātman) which cannot even be heard of by many, whom many, upon even hearing do not comprehend, very rare is one who can teach and skilful is
one who understands (It) and rare is he who knows Him, when instructed by the
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ନ ନଠରଣୋଵଠରଣ ଠପ୍ରୋକ୍ତ ଏଷ ସଵୁଠିଜ୍ଞଠର୍ୋ ବହୁଧୋ ଚନି୍ୟମୋନିଃ । ଅନନୟଠପ୍ରୋଠକ୍ତ ଗତରିତ୍ର ନୋସି୍ତ ଅଣୀର୍ୋନ୍ ହୟତକୟୟମଣୁପ୍ରମୋଣୋତ୍ ॥ ୮॥ ि िरेणावरेण प्रोक्त एष सुववज्ञेर्यो बहुधा चि्त्र्यमाििः । अि्र्यप्रोक्ते गनतरत्र िास्वत अणीर्याि ्ह्र्यतक्र्यवमणुप्रमाणात ्॥ ८॥ spn: VIII. When taught by a man of inferior understanding, this Atman cannot be
truly known, even though frequently thought upon. There is no way (to know It)
unless it is taught by another (an illumined teacher), for it is subtler than the
subtle and beyond argument. sr: na nareṇā varena prokta eṣa su vijñeyo bahudhā cintyamānaḥ |
ana nya-pro kte gatir a tra nāsty a ṇīyān hy a tarkyam a ṇupra māṇāt || 8 ||
eṣaḥ = the Self; [when] proktaḥ = spoken of; avarena nareṇa = by an inferior man, ie. by a person of worldly understanding; na hi suvjñeyaḥ = is not certainly
liable to be adequately understood [for It is]; bahudhā, variously - such as "It
exists", it does not exist", "It is the doer", It is not the doer"; cintyamānaḥ =
deliberated on - by the disputants. [The Self] ananya-prokte = when taught by a
teacher who sees clearly, who is Self-realised: atra = here, with regard to the
Self; na asti = there does not remain; gatiḥ = cogitation [upon it for it is]; atarkyam
= not subject to being argued about; [because it is]; aṇīyān = more subtle, aṇu-
pramāṇāt = than an atom.
8. That [Atman] cannot be truly understood when taught by an inferior person, as It is conceived of in many ways. When taught by one who is fully Self-
-‐realised, there is no further disputation with regard to it.For it cannot be known
by argument, being subtler than an atom.
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ଠନୈଷୋ ତଠକୟଣ ମତରିୋପଠନର୍ୋ ଠପ୍ରୋକ୍ତୋଠନୟଠନୈଵ ସଜୁ୍ଞୋନୋର୍ ଠପ୍ରଷ୍ । ର୍ୋଂ ତ୍ଵମୋପିଃ ସତୟଧତୃବିୟତୋସ ି ତ୍ଵୋଦୃ ଙ ଠନୋ ଭୂର୍ୋନ୍ନଚଠିକତିଃ ପ୍ରଷ୍ଟୋ ॥ ୯॥ िैषा तकेण मनतरापिेर्या प्रोक्ता्रे्यिैव सुज्ञािार्य पे्रष्ठ । र्यां त्वमापिः सत्र्यधनृतबवतामस त्वादृङ्किो भूर्या्िचिकेतिः प्रष्टा ॥ ९॥ spn: IX. O Dearest, this Atman cannot be attained by argument; It is truly known
only when taught by another (a wise teacher). O Nachiketas, thou hast attained It.
Thou art fixed in Truth. May we ever, find a questioner like thee. Knowledge of the Atman or Self cannot be attained when it is taught by those who themselves lack in real understanding of It; and who therefore, having no definite conviction of
their own, differ among themselves as to its nature and existence. Only he who has been able