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Gujarat From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the Indian state. For the district in Pakistan, see Gujrat District. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat.Gujarat state Seal Clockwise from top: Gujarat High Court, Dwarka Beach, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Kankaria Lakefront, Gandhi Ashram, Salt Desert of Kutch Gandhinagar Location of Gujarat in India Coordinates 23.2167N 72.6833E Country India District(s) 26 Established 1 May 1960 Capital Gandhinagar Largest city Ahmedabad Governor Dr. Kamla Beniwal Chief Minister Narendra Modi Legislature (seats) Unicameral (182) Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Area 196024 km2 (75685 sq mi) ISO 3166-2 IN-GJ Website Gujarat (Gujarati: Gujrt, - [ud()at]( listen)) is a state in India and its capital is Gandhinagar. Its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati speaking people of India. The state encompasses major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Lothal and Dholavira. Gujarat played an important role in the economic history of India throughout the history of India.[1] It is home to major ports in India's ancient and modern history, leading it to become one of the main trade and commerce center of India. Lothal, one of the world's first ports, is located in Gujarat. Mohandas Gandhi, considered as India's "father of the nation," was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British rule.[2] Even today, Gujarat has one of the fastest growing economies in India.[3]Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origin 1.2 Ancient history 1.3 1297 CE 1614 CE 1.4 1614 CE 1947 CE

1.5 Indian independence movement 1.6 Post independence 2 Geography 2.1 Forests and Wildlife 2.2 Major Rivers 3 Economy 3.1 Industrial growth 3.2 Agriculture 4 Demographics 5 Language 6 Government and politics 6.1 Revenues of government 6.2 Districts 7 Culture of Gujarat 7.1 Religion 7.1.1 Hinduism 7.1.2 Jainism 7.1.3 Islam 7.1.4 Zoroastrianism 7.1.5 Religious traditions 7.1.6 Religious sites 7.2 Historic sites 7.3 Fairs and festivals 7.3.1 Fairs 7.3.2 Festivals 8 Major Cities 9 Education 10 Literature 11 Gujarati Films 12 Museums 13 Transportation 13.1 Air 13.1.1 International airport 13.1.2 Domestic airports 13.2 Rail 13.3 Sea 13.4 Road 13.4.1 Local transportation Bus Auto rickshaws 14 See also 15 References 16 External links [edit] History

Main article: History of Gujarat [edit] Origin See also: Gurjar Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Gurjaratra that is the land protected or ruled by the Gurjars, or from Gurjar-rashtra, the Gujjar nation.[4][5][6] The origins of the Gujjars are uncertain. The Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gujjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns"), however others, such as K.M.Munshi, stated them as Indian. The name of the tribe was Sanskritized to "Gurjara" .[7] [edit] Ancient history See also: Indus Valley Civilization, Maitraka, and Solanki Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. Historically, the present-day state of Gujarat has been one of the main centers of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains major ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal is the site of the India's first port. Also, Dholavira, the ancient city, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. All together, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins were discovered in Gujarat.[8] The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by their commercial activities. There is a clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.[8] There was a succession of Hindu kingdoms including the era of the Gupta dynasty and Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty. Afterwards the region was ruled by the Maitrakas and then the Solankis. The 11th century history of Gujarat saw the emergence of the Muslims in the political arena of the state. The first Muslim conqueror was Mahmud of Ghazna whose conquest of Somnath effectively ended the rule of the Solankis.[8] [edit] 1297 CE 1614 CE From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the fourteenth century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire. The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat

remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas occupied eastern and central Gujarat in the eighteenth century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers. Bombay Presidency in 1909, northern portion Bombay Presidency in 1909, southern portion [edit] 1614 CE 1947 CE Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, acquiring several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The British East India Company established a factory in Surat in 1614, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay after the British acquired it from Portugal in 1668. The Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials. [edit] Indian independence movement See also: Freedom fighters from Gujarat Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Mahatma Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House, Bombay, 7 April 1939. Leaders like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai, Mohanlal Pandya, Bhulabhai Desai and Ravi Shankar Vyas all hailed from Gujarat. As well, Mohammed Ali Jinnah's, Pakistan's first Governor-General, father was from an area which later became Gujarat. Gujarat was also the site of some of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagrahas in Kheda, Bardoli, Borsad and the Salt Satyagraha. [edit] Post independence After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. In 1956, Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra, and parts of Hyderabad state

and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by both Gujarati and Marathi nationalists for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in 1970. [edit] Geography Main article: Geography of Gujarat See also: Climate of Gujarat Geography of Gujarat. Courtesy: NASA Earth Observatory Gujarat borders with Pakistan to the north-west, bounded by the Arabian Sea to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the North was known as Anarta, the Kathiawad peninsula, "Saurastra", and the South as "Lata".[9] Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna.[10] The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,077 km. [edit] Forests and Wildlife Gir National Park Male Asiatic lion Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India . As per the India State Of Forest Report 2009, Gujarat is having 7.46 % of its' total geographical area under forest cover. As per the districts, The Dangs is having the largest area under forest cover. Gujarat has 4 National parks and 21 sanctuaries. Gujarat is the only home of Asiatic Lions. Outside Africa, Gujarat is the only present natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park in the south-west part of the state covers only part of the lions' habitat. Besides lions, the other big cat that can be found in the state is the leopard. Leopards are spread across large plains of Saurashtra and mountains of South Gujarat. Saputara Other National parks include Vansda National Park, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar and Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch. Wildlife sanctuaries include: Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Porbandar Bird Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambu

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