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Gujarat From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the Indian state. For the district in Pakistan, see Gujrat District. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat.Gujarat ગગગગગગ state Seal Clockwise from top: Gujarat High Court, Dwarka Beach, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Kankaria Lakefront, Gandhi Ashram, Salt Desert of Kutch Gandhinagar Location of Gujarat in India Coordinates 23.2167°N 72.6833°E Country India District(s) 26 Established 1 May 1960 Capital Gandhinagar Largest city Ahmedabad Governor Dr. Kamla Beniwal Chief Minister Narendra Modi Legislature (seats) Unicameral (182) Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Area 196024 km2 (75685 sq mi) ISO 3166-2 IN-GJ Website Gujarat (Gujarati: ગગગગગગ Gujǎrāt, - [ɡudʒ(ə)ɾat] ( listen)) is a state in India and its capital is Gandhinagar. Its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati speaking people of India. The state

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Gujarat From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the Indian state. For the district in Pakistan, see Gujrat District. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat.Gujarat state Seal Clockwise from top: Gujarat High Court, Dwarka Beach, Laxmi Vilas Palace, Kankaria Lakefront, Gandhi Ashram, Salt Desert of Kutch Gandhinagar Location of Gujarat in India Coordinates 23.2167N 72.6833E Country India District(s) 26 Established 1 May 1960 Capital Gandhinagar Largest city Ahmedabad Governor Dr. Kamla Beniwal Chief Minister Narendra Modi Legislature (seats) Unicameral (182) Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) Area 196024 km2 (75685 sq mi) ISO 3166-2 IN-GJ Website Gujarat (Gujarati: Gujrt, - [ud()at]( listen)) is a state in India and its capital is Gandhinagar. Its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati speaking people of India. The state encompasses major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Lothal and Dholavira. Gujarat played an important role in the economic history of India throughout the history of India.[1] It is home to major ports in India's ancient and modern history, leading it to become one of the main trade and commerce center of India. Lothal, one of the world's first ports, is located in Gujarat. Mohandas Gandhi, considered as India's "father of the nation," was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movement against the British rule.[2] Even today, Gujarat has one of the fastest growing economies in India.[3]Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origin 1.2 Ancient history 1.3 1297 CE 1614 CE 1.4 1614 CE 1947 CE

1.5 Indian independence movement 1.6 Post independence 2 Geography 2.1 Forests and Wildlife 2.2 Major Rivers 3 Economy 3.1 Industrial growth 3.2 Agriculture 4 Demographics 5 Language 6 Government and politics 6.1 Revenues of government 6.2 Districts 7 Culture of Gujarat 7.1 Religion 7.1.1 Hinduism 7.1.2 Jainism 7.1.3 Islam 7.1.4 Zoroastrianism 7.1.5 Religious traditions 7.1.6 Religious sites 7.2 Historic sites 7.3 Fairs and festivals 7.3.1 Fairs 7.3.2 Festivals 8 Major Cities 9 Education 10 Literature 11 Gujarati Films 12 Museums 13 Transportation 13.1 Air 13.1.1 International airport 13.1.2 Domestic airports 13.2 Rail 13.3 Sea 13.4 Road 13.4.1 Local transportation Bus Auto rickshaws 14 See also 15 References 16 External links [edit] History

Main article: History of Gujarat [edit] Origin See also: Gurjar Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Gurjaratra that is the land protected or ruled by the Gurjars, or from Gurjar-rashtra, the Gujjar nation.[4][5][6] The origins of the Gujjars are uncertain. The Gujjar clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna invasions of northern India. Some scholars, such as V. A. Smith, believed that the Gujjars were foreign immigrants, possibly a branch of Hephthalites ("White Huns"), however others, such as K.M.Munshi, stated them as Indian. The name of the tribe was Sanskritized to "Gurjara" .[7] [edit] Ancient history See also: Indus Valley Civilization, Maitraka, and Solanki Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. Historically, the present-day state of Gujarat has been one of the main centers of the Indus Valley Civilization. It contains major ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal, Dholavira, and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal is the site of the India's first port. Also, Dholavira, the ancient city, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. All together, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins were discovered in Gujarat.[8] The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by their commercial activities. There is a clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.[8] There was a succession of Hindu kingdoms including the era of the Gupta dynasty and Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty. Afterwards the region was ruled by the Maitrakas and then the Solankis. The 11th century history of Gujarat saw the emergence of the Muslims in the political arena of the state. The first Muslim conqueror was Mahmud of Ghazna whose conquest of Somnath effectively ended the rule of the Solankis.[8] [edit] 1297 CE 1614 CE From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the fourteenth century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire. The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat

remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas occupied eastern and central Gujarat in the eighteenth century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers. Bombay Presidency in 1909, northern portion Bombay Presidency in 1909, southern portion [edit] 1614 CE 1947 CE Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, acquiring several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The British East India Company established a factory in Surat in 1614, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay after the British acquired it from Portugal in 1668. The Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira (Kheda), Panchmahal, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials. [edit] Indian independence movement See also: Freedom fighters from Gujarat Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Mahatma Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House, Bombay, 7 April 1939. Leaders like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai, Mohanlal Pandya, Bhulabhai Desai and Ravi Shankar Vyas all hailed from Gujarat. As well, Mohammed Ali Jinnah's, Pakistan's first Governor-General, father was from an area which later became Gujarat. Gujarat was also the site of some of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagrahas in Kheda, Bardoli, Borsad and the Salt Satyagraha. [edit] Post independence After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. In 1956, Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra, and parts of Hyderabad state

and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by both Gujarati and Marathi nationalists for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in 1970. [edit] Geography Main article: Geography of Gujarat See also: Climate of Gujarat Geography of Gujarat. Courtesy: NASA Earth Observatory Gujarat borders with Pakistan to the north-west, bounded by the Arabian Sea to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the North was known as Anarta, the Kathiawad peninsula, "Saurastra", and the South as "Lata".[9] Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna.[10] The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,077 km. [edit] Forests and Wildlife Gir National Park Male Asiatic lion Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India . As per the India State Of Forest Report 2009, Gujarat is having 7.46 % of its' total geographical area under forest cover. As per the districts, The Dangs is having the largest area under forest cover. Gujarat has 4 National parks and 21 sanctuaries. Gujarat is the only home of Asiatic Lions. Outside Africa, Gujarat is the only present natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park in the south-west part of the state covers only part of the lions' habitat. Besides lions, the other big cat that can be found in the state is the leopard. Leopards are spread across large plains of Saurashtra and mountains of South Gujarat. Saputara Other National parks include Vansda National Park, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar and Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch. Wildlife sanctuaries include: Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Porbandar Bird Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambughoda, Khavda, Paniya, Purna, Rampura, Ratanmahal, and Surpaneshwar.

Gujarat is one unique state where you can find major mountain-ranges of India. Aravalli, Sahyadri, Vindhya and Satpura are having their presence in Gujarat. Apart from this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila etc. are situated in different parts of the Gujarat. Girnar is famous and tallest hill of Gujarat. Saputara is the only hill-station of the state. [edit] Major Rivers Sardar Sarovar Project, Gujarat, partially completed (up to E.L.121.92 m) Narmada is the biggest river of the Gujarat followed by Tapi, although Sabarmati covers the longest area in the state. Sardar Sarovar Project is being built on Narmada river. Narmada is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 1312 km. It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west - the others being the Tapi River and the Mahi River. Apart from this Vishvamitra, Dhadhar, Meshvo, Banas, Shedhi, Aji, Daman Ganga, Purna, Ambika, Bhadar etc. are other rivers of the state. [edit] Economy This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) Main article: Economy of Gujarat Gujarat has some of the largest businesses in India. Major agricultural produce of the state include cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), dates, sugar cane, milk and milk products. Industrial products include cement and petrol. 39% of India's industrial output 10% of its mineral production 80% of salt production 20% of India's exports 25% of its textile production 40% of India's pharmaceutical products 67% of petrochemical production Longest shoreline 1,670 kilometres (1,040 mi) Gandhinagar, the Capital of Gujarat State The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. Reliance Petroleum Limited, one of the group companies of Reliance Industries Limited founded by Dhirubhai Ambani, operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar, which is the world's largest grass-roots refineries. The company has also planned another SEZ (special economic zone) in Jamnagar. Gujarat ranks first nationwide in gas-based thermal electricity generation with national market share of over 8% and second nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market share of over 1%.

Over 20% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Gujarat. As per RBI report, in year 200607, 26% out of total bank finance in India was in Gujarat. [edit] Industrial growth Gujarat's major cities include Ahmedabad, Surat, Baroda(Vadodara) and Rajkot. Surat is the fastest growing city[citation needed] and Ahmedabad is the third fastest growing city in India[citation needed]. Major resources produced by the state include cotton, peanuts, dates, sugarcane, and petrol. The state is rich in calcite, gypsum, manganese, lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar and quartz sand, and successful mining of these minerals is done in their specified areas. Gujarat produces about 90% of Indias required amount of Soda Ash and gives the country about 66% of its national requirement of salt. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol Khambat and Ankaleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil and gas. The Tarapur nuclear station in Maharashtra supplies the main power. Also, on the Gulf of Khambat, 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Bhavnagar, is the Alang Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest). General Motors produces the Astra car at Halol near Vadodara. Jalalpur is a large town of Gujarat, where several small and large textile industrial units have been established. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambat, is a hub of the global diamond trade. In 2003, 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and polished in Surat.[11] During the period of 196090, Gujarat established itself as a leader in various industrial sectors including textiles, engineering, chemicals, petrochemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, dairy, cement and ceramics, and gems and jewellery, amongst others. A post-liberalization period saw Gujarat's State Domestic Product (SDP) rising at an average growth rate of 14% per annum in real terms (from 19942002). Gujarat achieved as much as 35% of augmentation in its power generation capacity during the periods 199596 and 200001. The producers (IPPs) have contributed significantly in this addition. Gujarat is one of the first few states in India to have encouraged private sector investment, some of which are already in operation. In addition, the liquid cargo (chemicals) handling port at Dahej is also set up in joint sector and made operational. At an investor's summit entitled "Vibrant Gujarat," arranged between 10 January 2007 to 13 January 2007, at Science City, Ahmedabad, the state government signed 104 Memoranda of Understandings for Special Economic Zones worth a total of Rs 2.5 lakh crore.[12] However, most of the investment was from domestic industry.[13] In the fourth Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit held at Science City, Ahmedabad, in January 2009, there were 600 foreign delegates. In all, 8668 MOUs worth Rs 12.5 lakh cr were signed, estimated to create 25 lakh new job opportunities in the state.[14] Gujarat government has a front runner in development of solar energy in the state. It has alloted 716 MW of Solar Power capacity to 34 national and international solar project

developers in 2009; against the planned 500 MW capacity under its Solar Power Policy. [15] This is expected to bring in investments of INR 12000 crore and generate employmentment for 5,000 people. [edit] Agriculture Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, Tur, and gram. Gujarat has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area.[16] Animal husbandry and dairying have played a vital role in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a cooperative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. Amul milk co-operative federation products are well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy[17]. Among livestock raised are buffalo and other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census 1997, there were 209.70 lakh livestock in Gujarat State. As per the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year 200203, the Gujarat produced 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 385 million eggs and 2.71 million kg of wool. Gujarat also contributes inputs to industries like textiles, oil, and soap. [edit] Demographics[show] Population Growth The population of the Gujarat State was 50,671,017 as per the 2001 census data. The density of population is 258 persons per km, a lower density compared to other states of the country. About 89.1% of the population of Gujarat are Hindu.[19] Muslims account for 9.1%, Jain 1.0% and Sikh 0.1% of the population.[19] . Amongst Hindus, the deity of Krishna is famously worshiped in His form of Shrinathji throughout Gujarat. Gujarat, as a heavily industrialized state of India, attracts lots of outsiders from various parts of India. [edit] Language Main article: Gujarati language Gujarati ( Gujrt?) is an Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

There are about 46.1 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan," and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India". Owing to its apparent youth with respect to its written history, the Gujarati script follows the Nagari writing system. Nagari is a derivative of the Devanagari script, with one notable difference being that the horizontal line is not utilised. Gujarati script also has a few other variations in terms of certain consonants and employs a slightly different set of symbols for numbers. Gujarati has also been the language spoken by two of South Asia`s greatest and most prominent leaders: the Father of the Indian Nation, Mahatma Gandhi and the Founder of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Majority of the population in State do speak Gujarati. Although, people from Kutch region of Gujarat also speak in Kutchi language. Religionwise, 71% of Hindus in Gujarat speak Gujarati while the other 29% speak Hindi. Almost 88% of the Muslims speak Gujarati while the other 12% speak Urdu. Almost all of the Jains speak Gujarati, a few speak Marwari as well. Parsi Zoroastrians also speak Gujarati as their native language. Marathi is spoken by a large number of people in Vadodara and Surat . Apart from this, English, Sindhi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Oriya, Malayalam etc. is also being spoken but in small amount . [edit] Government and politics Main article: Politics of Gujarat Further information: Chief Ministers of GujaratGujarat state symbols Animal Asiatic lion Bird Greater flamingo Dance Garba Flower galgota Language Gujarati Song Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat Sport Tree mango (amba ) Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled castes and 26 for scheduled tribes. The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A governor is appointed by the President of India, and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly. The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister.

After gaining independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress party (INC) ruled the Bombay state (which included present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra). Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in 1960. During and after India's State of Emergency of 19751977, public support for the Congress Party eroded, but it continued to hold government until 1995. In the 1995 Assembly elections, the Congress lost to the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Keshubhai Patel came to power. His government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela, who has won most of the subsequent polls. In 2001, following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi. The BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Narendra Modi has since served as Chief Minister of the state. On 1 June 2007, Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister of Gujarat.[20][21] On 23 December 2007, the BJP won the state elections in Gujarat and Narendra Modi became the chief minister for the third time in a row. [edit] Revenues of government This is a chart of trend of own tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Gujarat assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian rupees.Year Own tax revenues 2000 104,818 2005 138,964 [edit] Districts Districts of Gujarat Main article: List of districts of Gujarat On 1960-05-01, Gujarat was created out of the 17 northern districts of former State of Bombay. These districts were further subdivided later on. There are 26 administrative districts in the state (as of 2007).Ahmedabad Amreli Anand Banaskantha Bharuch Bhavnagar Dahod Dang Gandhinagar Jamnagar Junagadh Kheda Kutch Mehsana Narmada Navsari

Panchmahal Patan Porbandar Rajkot Sabarkantha Surat Surendranagar Tapi Vadodara Valsad [edit] Culture of Gujarat Main article: Culture of Gujarat [edit] Religion [edit] Hinduism Gujarat was a part of the Harappan civilization. Gujarat is home to Hindu saints of all castes. Sant Dhudhalinath and Sant Girnari Velnathji were Adivasis, Sant Bhojo Nachabkha and Madhavagar were Shudras, Mahatma Gandhi and Lala Bhagat were Vaish, Sant Kilha was a Kshatriya[22], and Lakulisa and Chakradhara were Brahmins. Many Hindu religious traditions developed in Gujarat. For example, Pasupata Saivism was established in Gujarat. Gujarat is the birth-place of Lord Shiva's avatar, Lakulisa (Staff-God). He established the Pasupata Shaivite tradition (one of the six major schools of Shaivism) in 2 A.D. or 3 A.D. According to some traditions, he was born in Kayarohana or Kayavatara in Saurashtra while other traditions hold that it was Karavana, in the modern-day town of Dabhoi Taluka near Baroda,[23] another that it was Ulkapuri (modern Avakhal)[24] and another that it was in Braoch or Bharuch.[25] From Gujarat it spread north to Kashmir,[26] South to Tamil Nadu,[27] East to Nepal[28] (where the Pashupatinath Temple stills exists popularly.) Bhakti movement The Bhakti movement was very popular in Gujarat where devotees of both Islam and Hinduism focused worship of God, trying to rid any separations based on faith in God. Swami Chakradhara was another major figure of the Bhakti movement, born in Gujarat in 1194 A.D.[29], and he is believed to be the avatar of Vishnu. Chakradhara Maharaja established the Manhubhava Vaishnavite sect, which spread to Maharashtra as well. The sect still exists today in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Sant Kilha was another Vaishnavite saint of Gujarat born to a Subedar (army man) father. [22] He was the disciple of Krishnasdas (of Jaipur) and became his successor at the seat of Galta Kilha's branch became known as the "Tapasa branch."[30] Besides Ram

Bhakti (devotion to Lord Rama), he was also inclined towards yog-saghana and this is why he was made acharya of the Galta Gaddi.[31] He is said to be the founder of the Khati sect.[32] Jalarama, a devotee of Lord Rama is another popular figure. Jalarama's birthday is still celebrated by Gujarati (in Gujarat and abroad) as Jalaram Jayanti. [edit] Jainism Gujarat is a stronghold for the Jain community . Jainism preaches non-violence to all living creatures and vegetarianism. The Jains have heavily influenced the cuisine of Gujarat with the famous Gujarati thali containing small vegetarian dishes along with roti and chaas. Morality in business is an important feature of Jain culture. The bania (traders) caste, predominant in Gujarat, comprises followers from both the Jaina and Vaishnava traditions. Intermarriages between the two traditions are common. [edit] Islam Gujarat was one of the first regions in India where the Muslims migrated to after the Partition of India. King Arjun of Gujarat permitted Muslim traders from Ormuz to build a mosque within his realm. The Sufi saints are very popular in Gujarat. Shaykh Makhu was a Sufi saint of the Shattari lineage.[33] "Since Gujarat is situated on the western border of India, there was a direct interaction with people of Arabia and Persia. Many Gujarati Saints and Sufis became famous. Among them names of Sheikh Ganjul Lim (1381), Syed Burhanuddin (1411) and Sheikh Wajihuddin Gujarati are well known.[34] [edit] Zoroastrianism Following the fall of the Sassanid Empire in 651, many Zoroastrians migrated, including several groups who settled in Gujarat. The descendants of those refugees are today known as the Parsis and Irani. The year of arrival on the subcontinent cannot be precisely established, and Parsi legend and tradition assigns various dates to the event. They originally settled along coastal Gujarat in villages like Sanjan in Valsad district, along the Gujarat-Maharashtra border. The Qissa-i Sanjan is a poem discussing the Zoroastrians' landing in Sanjan through the generosity of Rana Jada and being allowed to practice their customs. Parsis are generally more affluent than other Indians and are stereotypically viewed as among the most Anglicised and "Westernised" of the various minority groups[35]. They have also played an instrumental role in economic development with several of the bestknown business conglomerates of India run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the Tata, Godrej, and Wadia families. Similarities with Hinduism is seen in Zoroastrianism in beliefs that the cow is very sacred. In the 9th chapter of the Vendidad of the Avesta, the purificatory power of cow

urine is dilated upon.[36] It is declared to be a panacea for all bodily and moral evils. It is drunk as well as applied externally.[36] Urine of the bull, called "nirang" is brought to the house of an orthodox Parsi every morning and is (like cow milk) applied to the face, hands, and feet.[36] There were several Zoroastrian organizations formed to educate the Parsis on their heritage. Rahnumai Maznayasnam Sabha was established in 1851 by English-educated Parsis like Naoroji Furdunji with funds supplied by K.N.Kama. Much attention focused on the improved of women in society; the purdah was abolished, the age of marriage raised, and education promoted.[35] [edit] Religious traditions In Gujarat, there have been several great religious figures. Sant Dadu Dayal (15541603), a saint-poet and a major Bhakti figure from Ahmedabad treated equally both Rama and Allah as names of God and became popular in Northern India. He wrote, "The illusion of Allah and Rama hath been dispelled by my mind; since I see Thee in all"[37] Gujarat is also the home of Mahatma Gandhi, who preached the unity between all religions and became a worldwide figure for peaceful struggle against tyranny. Modhera Sun Temple Somnath Temple Dwarkadheesh temple [edit] Religious sites Dwarakadheesh temple in Dwarka is one of the important temples dedicated to Krishna. On the tip of the Arabian Sea, it was home to Krishna. The Rann of Kutchch covers a large portion of western Gujarat, and is world-famous for its rare ecosystem, fossils, wildlife and terrain. Palitana Temples are a complex of Jain temples situated 51 km south west of Bhavnagar. There are 863 temples from the base to the peak of the Shatrunjaya hill, where the Palitana temples are located. Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) or symbols of the God Shiva. It is mentioned in the Rig Veda. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". The Somnath Temple is known as 'the Shrine Eternal', as the temple has been destroyed six times, but was rebuilt on each occasion. Modhera Sun Temple is famous for its rare position as specifically and uniquely designed for the worship of the Sun, Lord Surya. While the main temple is beautifully and

intricately designed with complex architecture, painting, and sculptures, there is a central pond. Surrounding it stand 108 small temples for each of the Sun God's 108 names. Shankheshwar Jain Temples are dedicated to the 23rd Tirthankar, Lord Parshvanath. It is believed that this idol was revealed by Lord Krishna himself, by the teachings of Neminath the 22nd Tirthankar. It is near Ahmedabad. Patan houses 84 magnificent Jain Temples built by Samrat Kumarpal, who was a staunch disciple of Acharya Hemachandra, a Jain monk and scholar. Girnar is an epitome of communal harmony & amicable relations among Jains and Hindus. This high-rising steep hill houses shrines of both major religions. One dedicated to Neminath or Arisht Nemi, the 22nd tirthankara, where he is believed to attain nirvana, and another dedicated to Guru Dattatreya, a Hindu deity. Ambaji: This temple is dedicated to goddess Ambaji. It is situated on the Arasur Hill and can be approached by road from Abu Road in Rajasthan, as well as from all other important places in Gujarat. A folk drama called 'Bhavai' is performed in the courtyards of the temple. Dakor: This temple town dedicated to Lord Krishna is situated about 90 km from Ahmedabad. The temple of Ranchodrai has the idol of Lord Krishna, which is believed to have been brought from Dwarka by a devotee named Bodana. Becharaji temple: This temple is another important seat of Mother Goddess at Becharaji in Mehsana district. This temple is thronged by Hindu devotees, especially childless women. Chotila : This place is in Surendranagar district where there is a famous temple of Goddess Chamunda situated. Sidi Saiyyed Mosque: The Sidi Sayed Mosque in Ahmedabad is one such famous and ancient mosque of the city. The Mosque in the year 1411 A.D. The elegant mosque was built by Sidi Sayed, a slave of Sultan Ahmed Shah. The mosque is famous all over the country because of its fantastic architecture and exquisite jali work (perforated stone lattices). Rani Rupmati's Mosque: Rani Rupmati was the Hindu wife of Sultan Mehmed Beghara. Rani Rupmati mosque was built between 1430 to 1440 A.D., having three domes supported by pillars, with the central dome slightly elevated. It is located at Ahmedabad. The mosque has richly carved minarets, balcony windows, and jali. Its three domes are linked together by a flat roof. Muuk-Khana is a special attraction of this mosque. Kutbi Mazar: A colossal monument raised in the memory of Syedna Qutubuddin Shaheed, the high priest of the Bohra community.

Shah Alam Roza: Shah Alam Roza is the mosque and tomb of Saint Shah Alam. Here the brass doors are set in carved marble frames. The floor is tiled of black and white marble. Its dome and minars shows great architectural work of the sultanate era. [edit] Historic sites Dholavira's sophisticated water reservoir. Lothal is the site of the ancient ruins of the first Indian port, dating from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. Dholavira, the ancient city, locally known as Kotada Timba, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on the Khadir island in the Kutch district of Gujarat the island is surrounded by water in the monsoon season. The site was occupied from about 3000 BC for about a millennium, declining slowly after about 2100, briefly abandoned and then reoccupied, finally, by villagers among its ruins, until about 1450. Gola Dhoro, dating from 25002000 BCE, was recently discovered near the village of Bagasra. Shell bangles, copper, and beads were found there.[38] [edit] Fairs and festivals [edit] Fairs Around more than 1000 festivals are celebrated in Gujaratthe state is known as the land of fairs and festivals. Some of these fairs and festivals are as follows: Bhavnath Mahadev Mela (February) The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple, situated at the foot of Mount Girnar in the city of Junagadh, is the site of the Bhavnath Mahadev fair held for five days in February, during the festival of Mahashivratri. The Mahapuja of Lord Shiva takes place at midnight in this temple on the 14th day of the dark half of the month of Magh. When the puja (prayer ceremony) starts, Naga Bavas (naked sages) living nearby move towards the fair seated on elephants, holding flags and blowing conch shells. It is firmly believed that Lord Shiva himself visits the shrine on this occasion. Visitors are served free meals by the organizers. Special stalls sell idols, rosaries, or holy beads (brought by vendors from Ayodhya and Mathura), utensils of brass and copper, sweets and fruits. The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple is surrounded by many equally ancient and holy places. Dangs Darbar (March) Dangs Darbar is the name of the annual fair held every year in Ahwa, the most important town in the Dangs a few days before Holi. The Dangs is one of the most delightful districts of Gujarat and is located high in the Saputara hills, the original home of the adivasis, the tribal population of Gujarat. The name "Darbar" dates back to the time of the British, when a darbar of Rajas and Naiks of neighbouring area used to assemble there. Today it is called Jamabandi Darbar, and the District Collector officiates at it. Thousands

of tribal people flock to Ahwa from all over the district, dressed in bright colours, sounding the Shehnai, and beating their drums. Folk dances, dramas, and songs enliven the air during the festival. Chitra Vichitra Mela (March) This fair, one of the largest purely Adivasi (tribal) fairs, is attended by around 60,000 to 70,000 tribal people. It takes place every year in the village of Gunbhakhari in Sabarkantha district, very near the borders of Rajasthan. It is held a fortnight after Holi, the festival of colours. The site of the fair is attractive as the temple overlooks the rivers Sabarmati, Akul, and Vyakul. The name of the fair is derived from Chitravirya and Vichitraviraya, the sons of King Shantanu, who are believed to have lived there and been cured of diseases which afflicted them. The fair attracts large numbers of Bhils (tribals) who come from all the surrounding districts using every imaginable form of transport. The Garasis and Bhil tribals dress in their customary colourful costumes. The costume of the men generally consists of a blue shirt, dhoti, and a red or saffron turban. Women don ghaghras (embroidered skirts), which have a circumference of as much as 20 yards (18 m), and are covered from head to foot with ornate and heavy silver jewellery. They use liquid kumkum (vermilion) to colour their cheeks and lips a brilliant red, while their eyes are outlined with kajal (kohl). Every group that comes to the fair carries its own drum making the atmosphere come alive with the incessant beat of numerous drums. The women sing folk songs, and everyone dances. The dancing and drumming continue for hours until everyone is exhausted. Over a hundred stalls hold food and drink and sweets of various kinds. Silver ornaments can be bought, and household articles, as well. Here, as in other fairs, there is a giant wheel and a merry-go-round which never ceases to spin. Sanskruti kunj Fair The Sanskruti kunj Festival shows the different cultures of the states of India. It is organised in the winter sesion in the capital city, Gandhinagar. All the competitors of India come during this fair and show their state's culture & dance. [edit] Festivals Other than those festivals observed throughout India, there are festivities specific to Gujarat. Navaratri celebrations in Ahmedabad. Makar Sankranti and Kite Flying Festival (14 January) The Kite Flying Festival takes place in mid January and marks the time when the Suns direct rays reach the Tropic of Capricorn after the winter solstice. It is celebrated with lots of folk music and dance as well as kite flying. People of Gujarat gather on terraces to fly kites of various colours to celebrate Makar Sankranti or Uttrayana, the welcome to the sun after the cold winter months. Glass strengthened threads of the Indian fighter kites

are matched against each other in the air the kite fighter who cuts the other thread is the victor. At night, kites with Chinese lanterns are flown and held aloft. Food such as Undhiya, sugar cane juice and local sweets is typically served to celebrate the day. Dance Festival Modhera (January) Resting on a knoll in the village of Modhera are the ruins of the 11th century Sun Temple. The outer walls of the temple are covered with sculptures in which the figures of Surya, the sun god, are prominent. The Sun Temple is the site of an annual festival of Indian classical dances organized by the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat. The idea is to present classical dance forms in an atmosphere they were originally presented in. The Kutch Mahotsav (FebruaryMarch) The Kutch Festival or the Rann festival is celebrated at the time of the Shiv Ratri in February/ March. The centre of the festival is Bhuj in Kutch. It has crafts, fairs and folk dances and music and cultural shows, all organized by the Gujarat Tourism. Tours are also conducted out to the ruins of Dhola Vera, a city that was once a part of the Indus Valley civilization. Bhadra Purnima (September) The full moon of Bhadrapad is one of the four most important festival days of the year when farmers and agriculturists come to Ambaji, a place that derives its name from Goddess Ambaji, whose shrine is located there. On this occasion, a large fair is organized on full moon days. In the evening, performances of Bhavai, the folk drama of the state, is held and Garba programmes are organized. The devout attend readings of the Saptashati, the seven hundred verses in praise of the goddess, and visit the temple for a darshan (worship) of her. The Ambaji shrine is the principal shrine of the goddess in Gujarat, and its origins are still unknown. The Temple of Ambaji is recognized as one of the original Shakti Pithas (religious texts) where, according to the ancient Scriptures, the heart of the goddess Ambaji fell to earth when her body was dismembered. A triangular Vishwa Yantra, inscribed with figures and the syllable 'Shree' in the centre, represents the deity. There is no idol, which testifies the temple's antiquity. Idol worship became popular much later. [edit] Major Cities Ahmedabad Clockwise from top: Skyline at Ashram Road, Sidi Saiyyed ni Jali, Kankaria Lakefront, Ellis Bridge, Dilli Darwaja, Hatheesing Temple Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara and Rajkot are major cities of the Gujarat. Ahmedabad (Gujarati: Amdvd) is the seventh largest metropolitan city in India and largest in Gujarat, with a population of approximately 5.2 million.[39] Located on the banks of the River Sabarmati, the city is the administrative centre of Ahmedabad district and was

the capital of Gujarat from 1960 to 1970; the capital was shifted to Gandhinagar thereafter. In colloquial Gujarati, the city is commonly called Amdavad. Ahmedabad was founded in 1411 by Sultan Ahmed Shah to serve as the capital of the Gujarat Sultanate, and was named after him. Under the British rule, a military cantonment was established and the city infrastructure was modernized and expanded. Though incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad remained the most important city in the Gujarat region. The city established itself as the home of a booming textile industry, which earned it the nickname the "Manchester of the East."[40][41] The city was at the forefront of the Indian independence movement in the first half of the 20th century.[42] It was the centre of many campaigns of civil disobedience to promote workers' rights civil rights and political independence. With the creation of the state of Gujarat in 1960, Ahmedabad gained prominence as commercial capital of the state. The city is witnessing a major construction boom and population increase. A rising centre of education, information technology and scientific industries, Ahmedabad remains the cultural and commercial heart of Gujarat and much of western India. Surat (Gujarati: , Hindi: ) formerly known as Suryapur, is the Commercial Capital City of Gujarat, also India's ninth largest metropolitan city. The city proper is the one of the most populous cities in the world. Surat is the administrative capital of Surat district and Surat Metropolitan Region. Surat Fort The city is situated on the left bank of the Tapti River, 14 miles from its mouth. The Population of Surat with its twin city Navsari is above 6.2 million as of 2010. A moat divides the older parts of the city, with its narrow streets and handsome houses, and the newer suburbs. The city is largely recognized for its textile and diamond businesses. It is also known as the diamond capital of the world and the textile capital of India[43]. 92% of the world's diamonds are cut and polished in Surat[43]. Surat is also the Third cleanest city in India after Chandigarh and Mysore. Surat was once the largest city in India[43]. It has one of the highest GDP growth rates in India at 11.5% as of 2008[43]. Surat was the primary port of India during the Mughal period, a distinction it lost to Bombay during the British Raj.[43] Nyay Mandir in the heart of Vadodara Vadodara (Gujarati: (helpinfo)Vaodr), formerly Baroda (Gujarati: Baro), is the third most-populated city in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is one of four cities in the state with a population of over 1 million,[44] the other being Rajkot and the two cities listed above, although it has a massive population of over 3 million. It is also known as the Sayaji Nagari (Sayaji's City after its famous ruler, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III) or Sanskari Nagari (The City of Culture, a reference to its status as the Cultural Capital of Gujarat). Vadodara or Baroda, formerly the capital

city of the Gaekwar State, is situated on the banks of the Vishwamitri, a river whose name derived from the great saint Rishi Vishwamitra. It is located southeast of Ahmedabad. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District. Laxmi Vilas Palace at Vadodara Vadodara is home to almost 1.6 million people[39] (as of 2005), the beautiful Lakshmi Vilas Palace and the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (M.S.U.) which is the largest university in Gujarat. Its famous for various faculties and departments, including the Fine Arts, Performing Arts, Technology, Management, Psychology, Social Work, Law and Medicine streams. It has a high literacy rate by Indian standards of 78% (2001). Major industries include petrochemicals, engineering, pharmaceuticals, plastics and Forex. Famous companies such as ABB, Reliance Industries, Larsen and Toubro, IPCL, ONGC and Sun Pharmaceuticals all have a strong presence in this city, also it has presence of IT multi-national companies. Rajkot (Gujarati: Rjkot (listen) (helpinfo)) is the 4th largest city in the state of Gujarat, India. Rajkot is the 28th urban agglomeration in India, with a population more than 1.43 million as on 2008.[39][45] Rajkot is ranked 22nd in The world's fastest growing cities and urban areas from 2006 to 2020.[46] Watson Museum At Rajkot Rajkot is a city of Gujarat state in India and administrative headquarters of the Rajkot District, located on the banks of the Aji River and Niari River. Rajkot was the capital of the then Saurashtra state from 15 April 1948 to 31 October 1956 before merging in bilingual Bombay State on 1 November 1956. Rajkot was merged into Gujarat State from bilingual Bombay state on May 1, 1960. Apart from this, Bhuj, Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Jamnagar are also cities with big urban population. [edit] Education Main articles: List of educational institutions in Gujarat and Education in Gujarat Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSHSEB) are in charge of the schools run by the Government of Gujarat. However, most of the private schools in Gujarat are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board. Gujarat has 13 universities and four agricultural universities. Gujarat is also known for many national level institutions. The Space Applications Centre (SAC) is an institution for space research and satellite communication in Ahmedabad, India, under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Dr. Vikram

Sarabhai, a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory, a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmadabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.[citation needed] The clock tower in Gujarat University, Ahmedabad Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute has been established under Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Govt. of India at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India on 10 April 1954, with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis, electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields. B.K. School of Business Management is ranked 6th in terms of financial Management. K. S. School of Business Management is also an MBA College in Gujarat University providing a unique five year's integrated MBA Cource. The National Institute of Design (NID) in Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multidisciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. In addition, Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA) is one of the leading sectoral institution in rural management. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management. It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology located in Surat is one of the best engineering colleges in India. It is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology created by the central government and is a deemed university. It has students from all over India and some foreign students as well. Also, there is Nirma University ranked 14th in selffinanced engineering colleges in India. Gujarat Science City[47], is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre, and dancing musical fountains among others. Apart from that, Mudra Institute of Communication Ahmedabad (MICA) is one of the most famous institutes for mass communication and is well-renowned across India. IIT Indian institute of technology was established at Gandhinagar in the year 2008. IIT Gandhinagar is mentored by IIT Bombay. IIT'S first batch started on 1 August 2008, at a temporary building of government college, Chandkheda, Gandhinagar.The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) has been established by the Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat in 2003 and is registered as a Society.ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar in a sprawling and picturesque area on the banks of Sabarmati river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of earthquake potential. The ISR is the only

institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier International institute in few years time. [edit] Literature Main article: Gujarati literature Govardhanram Tripathi Gujarati literature's history may be traced to 1000 AD.Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Mirabai, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Gandhiji, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Shah . Kavi Kant and Kalapi are famous Gujarati poets. Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are Ahmedabad based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Kavi Nanalal, Sundaram, Aanand Shankar Dhruv, Khabardar, Balwantray Thakore, Suresh Dalal, Harindra Dave, Jyotindra Dave, Tarak Mehta, Harkisan Mehta, Chandrakant Bakshi, Ashvini Bhatt, Vinod Bhatt, Kanti Bhatt, Makarand Dave, Gunvant Shah and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers. A huge contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans. Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai is a folk musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta and Sanjay Leela Bhansali explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai, Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature. [edit] Gujarati Films Main article: Gujarati cinema Gujarati cinema show times Gujarati film industry is one of the largest regional and vernacular film industry of India.It all started in year 1932 when first Gujarati film "Narsinh Mehta" was released. "Bhavni Bhavai" released in the year 1980 was directed by Ketan Mehta. It boasted of superlative performances, fine camerawork and won awards like - National Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, National Film Award for Best Art Direction for Meera Lakhia and another award at the Nantes festival in France. In 1992," Hun Hunshi Hunshilal", directed by Sanjiv Shah was sought to be post-modern. Other notable films are "Lohi Ni Sagai", "Manvini Bhavai", "Meru Malan", etc. Recently "Little

Zizou", a 2009 film in Hindi, Gujarati, and English, written and directed by Sooni Taraporevala won "Silver Lotus Award" or "Rajat Kamal" in 'National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare' category at 56th National Film Awards. Many famous actors have worked in Gujarati film industry like Sanjeev Kumar, Rajendra Kumar, Bindu, Asha Parekh, Kiran Kumar, Upendra Trivedi, Arvind Trivedi, Aruna Irani, Mallika Sarabhai, Asrani, Naresh Kanodia, Sneh Lata, Jayshree T. Paresh Rawal, Niraj Vora, Dilip Joshi, etc. [edit] Museums Gujarat's museums are run by the state's Department of Museums located at the principal state museum, Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery. Other famous museums include: "The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya" The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya in Ahmedabad is run by a public trust established in 1951. The museum's new premises were built in 1963. The museum's main objective was to house the personal memorabilia of Mahatma Gandhi. Consequently, the exhibits on view depict the vivid and historic events of Gandhiji's life. There are books, manuscripts, and photostat copies of his correspondence, photographs of Gandhiji with his wife Kasturba and other ashram associates, life size oil paintings, and actual relics like his writing desk. "Calico Museum of Textiles" The Calico Museum of Textiles at Ahmedabad, India, is the premier textile museum of the country, and one of the most celebrated institutions of its kind in the world for its distinguished and comprehensive collection of textiles and artifacts. Ahmedabad Tourism "The Vadodara Museum" The Vadodara Museum in Vadodara, located in the popular Sayaji Bagh, the museum houses a collection which belonged to the former maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad. Indian rulers during the Raj often collected all kinds of European art and other knick knacks. Largely being the personal collection of the maharaja, the exhibits span across centuries and continents, as well as diverse art forms. There are Greek and Roman sculpture with European paintings of earlier periods. The Asian section has items from Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China, and Japan made of wood, ivory, bronze and pottery. "Maharaja Fatehsingh Museum" The impressive Laxmi Vilas Palace, in the Indo Saracenic style of architecture, was once the residence of the Gaekwad family. Maharaja Fatehsingh Museum in Vadodara, located in the sprawling grounds of the palace complex, is a multi purpose museum and houses the Gaekwad family's rich collection of an treasures. "The Gandhi Museum" The Gandhi Museum in Bhavnagar showcases a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi are on view at the Gandhi Museum. These recreate the

significant events of Gandhiji's life. Also displayed are documents, letters, and his personal relics. The collection of audio-visual material includes microfilms, a voice library, prayers, and lecture records. "The Watson Museum" The statue of Queen Victoria, unveiled by the Lord Curzon in 1897 AD at Watson Museum The'Watson Museum' in Rajkot, is a museum of human history and culture. Its collections precious objects of colonial period of India and History of Rajkot. It is amongst the largest and most comprehensive museum in State of Gujarat. Watson Museum is considered to be the finest amongst 7 such museums located across Saurashtra (region) and run by the State Government because it holds invaluable articles and state-of-the-art facilities like photography, guide service, reference library and sales counter of the museum's publication. Other museums include: Kite Museum in Ahmedabad, The Lady Wilson Museums Dharampur, Valsad. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Museum,Surat. [edit] Transportation [edit] Air Gujarat has ten airports, the most of any Indian state as per the list of airports in India. All are domestic airports except Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport in Ahmedabad, which also offers international flights. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad [edit] International airport Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport (Ahmedabad) Many domestic as well as international flights operate from here. Fedara (Ahmedabad) Proposed International Airport near Fedara village of Bhl region. [edit] Domestic airports Bhavnagar Airport Bhavnagar Airport, 9 km from the city of Bhavnagar. Bhuj Airport In the Bhuj city of Gujarat. This airport has been recently been named Shyamji Krishna Verma, Bhuj Airport. Jamnagar Airport 10 km from the City of Jamnagar. Kandla Airport (Gandhidham) situated at Kandla, near Gandhidham, in Kutch district.

Keshod Airport (Junagadh) Keshod Airport is found 3 km from Keshod city in Junagadh District. Porbandar Airport is situated 5 km from the city of Porbandar. Rajkot Airport 4 km from the city of Rajkot. Surat Airport This domestic airport of Gujarat was recently inaugurated in Surat, on Magdalla Road. Vadodara Airport Another domestic airport can be found near Vadodara city in Gujarat. Zalawad Airport Future airport for Surendranagar area. Mehsana Airport Meshana Airport is about 2 km from Meshsana city [edit] Rail Main page: Railway stations in Gujarat Gujarat comes under the Western Railways zone of the Indian Railways. Vadodara Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat as it is situated on the Mumbai Delhi Western Railway Mainline. Other important railway stations are Surat Railway Station, Ahmedabad Railway Station and Rajkot Railway Station. Indian Railways is planning DelhiMumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state. [edit] Sea Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India. Other important ports in Gujarat are the Port of Navlakhi, Port of Magdalla and the privately owned Mundra Port. [edit] Road Main article: List of National Highways in Gujarat [edit] Local transportation [edit] Bus Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing the bus services within the state of Gujarat and also with the neighboring states. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number of services provided by GSRTC. Mofussil Services It connects major cities, smaller towns and villages within Gujarat. Intercity Bus Services It also connects major cities Ahmedabad, Vadodara (Baroda) and Rajkot. Interstate Bus Services It connects various cities of Gujarat with the neighboring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. City Services GSRTC also provides city bus services at Surat, Baroda, Rajkot, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, within the state of Gujarat. Parcel Services This service is used for transporting goods.

Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places. [edit] Auto rickshaws Auto rickshaw is an important and frequently used mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting CNG Auto rickshaws to reduce pollution. Autorickshaw Ahmedabad BRTS Ahmedabad BRTS [edit] See also Gujarat portal

Gandhinagar Capital of Gujarat List of people from Gujarat Parsi 2002 Gujarat violence 2001 Gujarat earthquake Vibrant Gujarat [edit] References ^ Introduction to Gujarat ^ ^ ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal, Anthropological Survey of India (2003). Gujarat, Part 1. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 81-7991-104-7,ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. ^ Gujrat Government. "Gujrat state official site". "The State took its name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars, who ruled the area during the 700s and 800s." ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhratya Itihsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64. "." ^ Bhandarkar, Devadatta Ramakrishna (1989). Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture. Asian Educational Services. pp. 64. ISBN 8120604571. ^ a b c ^ P. Page xvii Historical and Cultural Chronology of Gujarat edited by Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar ^ P. 391 The Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism By Benjamin Walker ^ "Uncommon Brilliance". Time. 12 April 2004. Retrieved 4 May 2010. ^ The Hindu Business Line : `Vibrant Gujarat' signs 104 MoUs worth Rs 2.5 lakh cr ^ Vibrant Gujarat sees one foreign investor, the Business Standard ^ ^ ^

^ ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. ^ a b Indian Census ^ Modi becomes longest serving CM of Gujarat ^ ^ a b P. 78 The Aryan Path By Sophia Wadia, Indian Institute of World Culture ^ Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy ^ Dyczkowskihe P. 23 Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaul Tradition ^ Farquhar, P. 146, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India ^ Bamzai, P. 202, Culture and Political History of Kashmir ^ Shah, P. xi, Studies in Jaina Art and Iconography and Allied Subjects in Honour of Dr. U ^ "Pashupata Saivism" Hinduism Today, March 1994 ^ P. 113 Social Life in Maharashtra Under the Peshwas By Sudha Vishwanath Desai ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 1 By Sahitya Akademi ^ P. 107 History of Rajasthani Literature By Hiralal Maheshwari ^ P. 453 The Modern Review By Ramananda Chatterjee ^ P. 306 Sufis & Saints' Bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality, & Sacred Power in Islam By Scott Kugle, Scott Alan Kugle ^ P. 169 Islam and Indian Culture By Mohammad Shujaat, Shujaat Muhammad ^ a b P. 282 A New Look at Modern Indian History By B.L. Grover, S. Grover ^ a b c Bhandarkar, P. 72 Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture ^ P. 400 History of Medieval India By S. Chand ^ Gola Dhoro archaeological site ^ a b c "Population Finder". Census of India. Retrieved 2008-07-24. ^ Engineer, Ashgar Ali (2003). The Gujarat Carnage. Orient Longman. p. 196. ISBN 8125024964. ^ "Profile of the City Ahmedabad" (PDF). Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Ahmedabad, Urban Development Authority and CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-22. ^ A. Srivathsan (2006-06-23). "Manchester of the east". Young World (The Hindu). Retrieved 2006-07-30. ^ a b c d e "Uncommon Brilliance". Time Magazine. 2004-04-12. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ^ "Urban Development, Gujarat". Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 2007-06-14. ^ World Gazetter: Largest cities in India, Retrieved on January 4, 2008 ^ City Mayors World's fastest growing urban areas (1), Retrieved on December 13, 2007 ^ [edit] External linksFind more about Gujarat on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Textbooks from Wikibooks

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