satyam brain fingerprinting

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  • 8/2/2019 Satyam Brain Fingerprinting


    Teacher incharge Submitted by:-

    Abhay Goel Satyam singh0809633090

  • 8/2/2019 Satyam Brain Fingerprinting


    What is Brain Fingerprinting?

    Brain Fingerprinting is a scientifictechnique to determine whether or notspecific information is stored in anindividual's brain.

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    Quick Overview

    Invented By Dr Lawrence A. Farwell. Its a patented technique of proven accuracy

    in US government tests. Ruled Admissible in one US Courtas scientificevidence.

    It has a record of 100% Accuracy.

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    How it works ?

    On seeing a previously known information, aspecific measurable brain response known as aP300 or MERMERi.e.Memory and Encoding

    Related Multifaceted ElectroencephalographicResponse, is elicited by the brain of a subject.

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    What is P300/ MERMER?

    A MERMER is a part of the brainwaveobserved in response to familiar information.

    When the brain recognizes something,

    neurons are fired synchronously, elicitingcharacteristic changes in brain activity.

    It is these changes, that investigators look forwhen trying to determine whether someone

    recognizes a particular piece of information.

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    When a person is exposed to a rare, butmeaningful information, there is increase inneuron activity which results in an increase in

    voltage, typically within 3001000msec afterthe stimulus, and that response with increasesvoltage is known as P300.

    The utility of the P300 in detection of

    deception was recognized as early as 1988,However, the P300 has only a 87.5% successrate in revealing the presence of relevantinformation in ones brain.

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    But Farwells test is based on the discoverythat the P300 is only a subcomponent of a

    more complicated response called aMERMER. The MERMER, includes the P300 and

    another longer latency, electrically negative

    subcomponent with a latency of up to twoseconds post-stimulus

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    It incorporates the followingprocedure: A sequence of words, phrases, or pictures is

    presented on a video monitor to the subject,

    wearing a special headband designed fordetecting the brain wave responses. Three types of stimuli are presented: 1.Target

    2. Irrelevant

    3. Probe

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    Target : The target stimuli are made relevantand noteworthy to all subjects.

    Irrelevant : These have no relation to thesituation under investigation.

    Probes : Probes are the stimuli that are

    relevant to the situation under investigation.

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    The targets provide a template for a responsethat will be generated when a subjectrecognizes a stimuli familiar to the situationunder investigation.

    The irrelevant provide a template, for aresponse that will be generated when asubject dont recognizes a stimuli familiar tothe situation under investigation.

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    For each probe stimulus, there areapproximately four irrelevant stimuli and onetarget stimuli.

    The targets, since they are recognized andrequire a particular response, are noteworthyfor all subjects.

    The irrelevant are not noteworthy for anysubjects.

    The probes are noteworthy only to thesubjects who have the knowledge specific to

    the situation under investigation.

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    A subject lacking specific information relevantto the situation under investigation recognizesonly two types of stimuli: Targets &Irrelevents.

    A subject with specific information relevant tothe situation under investigation, however,recognizes all three types of stimuli: TargetsIrrelevents & probes.

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    The main function of our experimental designis, to create a two-stimulus series for anindividual without the specific informationunder investigation, and a three-stimulusseries (with the same stimuli) for an individualwho possesses knowledge of the specificinformation under investigation.

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    The determination of information present inones brain consists of comparing the proberesponses to the target responses, whichcontain a P300/MERMER, as both arenoteworthy to the subject.

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    Information present

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    Results have shown this technique to becapable of producing an "information absent"or "information present" determination, with astrong statistical confidence, in approximately90% of the cases studied. All of thedeterminations were accurate. In the other10% of cases the mathematical algorithmdetermined that there was insufficientinformation to make determination

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    Instrumental Requirements

    personal computer a data acquisition board a graphics card for driving two monitors from

    one PC a four-channel EEG amplifier system software developed by the Brain

    Fingerprinting Laboratories for dataacquisition and analysis.

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    Comparisons with othertechnologies

    Fingerprints and DNA are available in only 1%of crimes. The brain and the evidencerecorded in it are always there.

    No questions are asked and no answers aregiven during Farwell Brain Fingerprinting.

    Brain Fingerprinting technology depends onlyon brain information processing, it does notdepend on the emotional response of thesubject.

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    Other Applications

    There are several other areas in which Brainfingerprinting can be used to make life easierand can aid mankind in many ways. Key fieldswhere brain fingerprinting can be used are:

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    Counter terrorism

    Aid in determining who has participated interrorist acts, directly or indirectly.

    Help to identify people who have knowledgeor training in banking, finance orcommunications and who are associated withterrorist teams and acts.

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    Medical Applications

    With early diagnosis, the progression ofAlzheimer's symptoms can often be delayedthrough medications and dietary and lifestylechanges.

    Using the very precise measurements ofcognitive functioning available with thistechnology, pharmaceutical companies will beable to determine more quickly the effects oftheir new medications.

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    Identify criminals quickly and scientifically Record of 100% accuracy Identify terrorists and members of gangs,

    criminal and intelligence organizations Reduce expenditure of money and other

    resources in law enforcement Reduce evasion of justice.

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    It would be inappropriate to generalize theresults of the present research because of thesmall sample of subjects.

    But the 100% accuracy and high confidencelevel of the results, however, provide furthersupport for results from previous researchusing brain MERMER testing.

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    Additional research is required to determine ifbrain MERMER testing is a technique whichcould tell an investigator that a particularperson possesses this detailed knowledge.

    Additionally, if research determines that brainMERMER testing is reliable enough that itcould be introduced as evidence in court, itmay be the major criminal investigative toolof the future.