telugu script book | sarvabhashin

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    telu

    Telugu

    sarvabhshin

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    Script

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    The Telugu letters and words described in this book are each

    accompanied by a pronunciation key in the International

    Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Please refer to these IPA keys for the

    exact pronunciation of a Telugu letter or word.

    The IPA is a scientific notation used for accurately transcribing

    the sounds of most human languages. More about the IPA can

    be found at http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/ and

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipa .

    The similarities described in this book between the

    pronunciations of Telugu letters and corresponding English

    letters are onlyguidelines and should be considered as such.

    http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipahttp://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/
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    k

    This letter has a sound similar to

    k in skip

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    g in go

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    These are the letters weve just seen

    k

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    p

    This letter has a sound similar to

    p in speak

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    b

    This letter has a sound similar to

    b in bat

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    These are the letters weve seen so far

    k

    p b

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    tch in catch

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    dge in badge

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    These are the letters weve seen so far

    k

    p b

    The sounds of these letters are all called consonants

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    Heres a vowel sound

    This vowel sounds similar to

    u in cut

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    Look at these letters

    k

    p b

    The sounds of these letters are made up of a consonantanda vowel

    Notice how the letters look slightly different from their original shape?

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    In short

    k

    - =

    k

    p p

    b b

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    Heres another vowel

    iThis vowelsounds similar to

    i in pin

    This vowel has a special sign of its own

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    Now look at these combo letters,

    each having the sound of a consonant plus a vowel

    ki i

    pi bi

    i i

    Again, notice the difference from the original shape of the basic letter?

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    In short

    k

    - + =

    ki

    i

    p pi

    b bi

    i

    i

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    And another vowel

    uThis vowel sounds similar to

    u in bull

    This vowel, too, has a special sign of its own

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    And some new combo letters,

    with their shape slightly changed from the original

    ku u

    pu bu

    u u

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    And again, in short

    k

    - + =

    ku

    u

    p pu

    b bu

    u

    u

    Get the idea?!

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    Notice the slightly different shapes of these letters,

    compared to the others

    pu

    u

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters weve seen thus far

    k k ki ku

    i u

    p p pi pu

    b b bi bu

    i u

    i u

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    These letters look somewhat similar

    i u

    b b bi bu

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    When two letters come one after the other

    and the first one has no vowel sound,

    that is, it is aletter,

    then the second letter is written in a mini version

    below the first one

    k k

    +

    =

    p i pi

    + =

    bu bu

    + =

    b b

    + =

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    Note that in such cases,

    any vowel or other signs originally belonging to the second letter

    are written attached to the firstletter

    k k

    + = p i pi

    + = bu bu

    + = b b

    + = Its as if the first and the second letter together

    form a new joint letter

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    Here are the mini versions

    of all the letters weve seen so far

    When the second letter has no vowel

    +

    k

    =

    k

    p p

    b b

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    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    k

    =

    k

    p p

    b b

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    When the second letter has the vowel i

    +

    ki

    =

    ki

    i i

    pi pi

    bi bi

    i i

    i i

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    And when the second letter has the vowel u

    +

    ku

    =

    ku

    u u

    pu pu

    bu bu

    u u

    u u

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    To sum up, the mini versions are special forms

    that appear after a letter having

    These mini versions can occur in the middle or at the end of a word,

    but never at the beginning

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    j

    This letter has a sound similar to

    y in yo-yo

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    r

    This letter has a sound similar to

    r in Italian Roma

    This is a rolled /r/, as in Spanish or Italian

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    l

    This letter has a sound similar to

    l in lad

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    These are the letters weve just seen

    j r

    l

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    This is how these letters look, when the sound is added

    j r

    l

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    This is how these letters look, when the i sound is added

    ji ri

    li i

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    Notice the slightly different shapes of these letters,

    compared to the others

    ji

    ri

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    Not much between these two

    li

    i

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    This is how these letters look, when the u sound is added

    ju ru

    lu u

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    Notice the slightly different shape of this letter,

    compared to the others

    u

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    j j ji ju

    r r ri ru

    l l li lu

    i u

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    These letters look very similar

    p p pi pu

    i u

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    These combo letters look somewhat similar

    j ju

    Remember thatju has an extra curl at the end

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    When the second letter has no vowel

    +

    j

    =

    j

    r r

    l l

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    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    j

    =

    j

    r r

    l l

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    When the second letter has the vowel i

    +

    ji

    =

    ji

    ri ri

    li li

    i i

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    And when the second letter has the vowel u

    +

    ju

    =

    ju

    ru ru

    lu lu

    u u

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    Note that most of the mini versions weve just seen

    look quite different from their full versions

    j

    r

    l

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    These two mini versions

    look like mirror images of each other

    k

    j

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    These mini versions look somewhat similar

    p

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    These are some actual Telugu words

    Can you read them?

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    Here are their pronunciations and meanings

    juk1 ri bbu

    youth (adjective) church stink, stench

    blli urru ui

    lizard snore, growl White Fig, ficus virens

    puu bir1

    flower loudly

    prirj1 kukkpll1

    service puppy

    Some pronunciation keys above have been marked with a superscript 1

    In these keys,

    is a short or lazily pronounced version ofand is a short or lazily pronounced version ofi

    For now, just assume

    =

    = i

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    s

    This letter has a sound similar to

    s in sit

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    sh in ship

    Some people pronounce this letter similar to

    s in sit

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    h in hat

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    These are the letters weve just seen

    s

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

    s

    si i i

    su u u

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    s s si su

    i u

    i u

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    These letters look somewhat similar

    p p pi pu

    s s si su

    i u

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    These sets of letters look particularly similar

    p p pi pu

    i u

    Notice the difference in shapes

    between pu and u though

    pu u

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    When the second letter has no vowel

    +

    s

    =

    s

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    When the second letter has the vowel

    +s

    =

    s

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    When the second letter has the vowel i

    +si

    =

    si

    i i

    i i

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    And when the second letter has the vowel u

    +su

    =

    su

    u u

    u u

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    Some actual Telugu words with these letters weve just seen

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    How many correct?

    sri i

    OK, all right moon

    iuu kku

    infant right, privilege

    iri rs

    Hijri, the Islamic calendar short

    siri ups

    shy disgust

    1 is a short or lazily pronounced version ofu

    For now, just assume = u

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    n

    This letter has a sound similar to

    n in tenth

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    touches the back of your front teeth

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    m

    This letter has a sound similar to

    m in mother

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    These are the basic letters

    weve just seen

    n m

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

    n m

    n i mi

    n u mu

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    n n n i n u

    m m mi mu

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    These sets of letters look very similar

    s s si su

    n n n i n u

    As do these

    i u

    m m mi mu

    Notice the difference in shapes

    between u and mu though

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    All these look somewhat similar

    p p pi pu

    i u

    i u

    m m mi mu

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    When the second letter has no vowel

    +

    n =

    n

    m m

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +n

    =

    n

    m m

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    When the second letter has the vowel i

    +n i

    =

    n i

    mi mi

    And when the second letter has the vowel u

    +n u

    =

    n u

    mu mu

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    Note that most of the mini versions weve just seen

    look quite different from their full versions

    n

    m

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    Some Telugu words with these letters weve just seen

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    Heres how you pronounce them, and what they mean

    mn mu mn su

    we (including listener) mind

    pn n u in n i

    tooth tiny

    brm rmmu

    Brahma, a Hindu god skin

    miksr pun rn m

    mixer, blender rebirth

    ukrrmu bn mu

    Venus (planet) plural

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    Remember the mini version rule? Lets extend it slightly.

    When two or more letters come one after the other

    and all before the lasthave no vowel sound,

    that is, they are allletters,

    then all letters after the first one

    are written in their respective mini versions

    below the first one

    l k j lkj

    + + = i i

    +

    +

    =

    m b ru mbru

    + + = m p s mps

    + + =

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    Again, remember that

    any vowel or other signs originally belonging to the lastletter

    are written attached to the firstletter

    l k j lkj

    + + = i i

    + + = m b ru mbru

    + + = m p s mps

    + + =

    So, all these letters in question together

    form a new joint letter

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    Heres a new vowel, along with its sign

    e

    This vowel sounds similar to

    e in pen

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    Now look at these combo letters,

    each having the sound of a consonant plus the e vowel

    ke e

    pe be

    e e

    je re

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    And some more combo letters, with this new vowel

    le e

    se e

    e

    n e me

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    Dont get confused between and

    ke k e

    pe p be b

    e e

    je j re r

    le l e

    se s e

    n e n me m

    e

    The two signs face in opposite directions!

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    Heres a few words with our new vowel

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    And heres how you say them, and what they mean

    rekk erri

    wing centipede

    kn n e kupp

    maiden bottle

    eu pue

    increase skull

    rise elu

    granary holiday

    jemen bellmu

    Yemen, an Arab country jaggery

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    Heres another vowel, along with its sign

    o

    This vowel sounds similar to

    o in or

    but shorter in length

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    Now look at these combo letters,

    each having the sound of a consonant plus the o vowel

    ko o

    po bo

    o o

    jo ro

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    And some more combo letters, with this new vowel

    lo o

    so o

    o

    n o mo

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    Some letters have a rebellious streak in them,

    refusing to conform to the mainstream

    On these letters, the sign for o

    is made up of the sign for e

    plus the sign for u

    jo

    mo

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    In other words

    ju je jo

    mu me mo

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    Others are masters of camouflage

    p po

    o

    s so

    n n o

    Look for patterns in the shapes

    of these various combo letters

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    And some new words with our new vowel

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    Here are their pronunciations and meanings

    mokk jokk

    shoot, young plant of

    pojji ojji

    hearth pit, ditch

    ou on n

    enter millet

    n oppi sobu

    pain beauty

    kobbri ojlu

    copra grace

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    t

    This letter has a sound similar to

    t in Spanish toro

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    touches the back of your front teeth

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    d

    This letter has a sound similar to

    d in Spanish diez

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    touches the back of your front teeth

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    These are the basic letters

    weve just seen

    t d

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

    t d

    t i d i

    tu d u

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    te d e

    to d o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    t t t i tu te to

    d d d i d u d e d o

    Notice the slightly different shape of

    d i

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    Lets just take the simplest example

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    t

    =

    t

    d d

    Note that the mini version oft

    Looks quite different from its full version

    t

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    Can you read these Telugu words?

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    Howd you fare?

    di ped d

    direction big

    d on n e telu

    plate made of dry leaves Telugu

    d u itt mu

    study, reading mind

    toru bd mu

    red, scarlet noise, sound

    mutjmu jkt i

    pearl person

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    t in ash tray

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    curls right back and touches the roof of your mouth

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    d in rushed

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    curls right back and touches the roof of your mouth

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    Sometimes, this letter also has a sound similar to

    tt in the American pronunciation ofbetter

    dd in the American pronunciation ofladder

    r in Spanishpero

    but with the tongue curled further back

    and flapping against the roof of the mouth

    This particular sound occurs

    only when the letter appears in certain positions in a word,

    and will be marked as such in the pronunciation key

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    These are the basic letters

    weve just seen

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

    i i

    u u

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    e e

    o o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    i u e o

    i u e o

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    Lets just take the simplest example

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    =

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    These sets of letters look similar

    d d d i d u d e d o

    i u e o

    Watch out for d i andi

    Their mini versions too are similar

    d

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    And some Telugu words with these new letters

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    All correct?

    ekk pu

    hoof anthill

    oll bi

    hollow child

    t u re

    measles ladle

    pu t i

    fall moisture

    moim med u

    pimple, acne brain

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    Remember this letter?

    k

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    kh

    It has a sound similar to

    ck-h in brick-house

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    Remember this letter?

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    It has a sound similar to

    ggh in egghead

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    Remember this letter?

    p

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    p

    It has a sound similar to

    ph in uphold

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    Remember this letter?

    b

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    b

    It has a sound similar to

    bh in clubhouse

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    Remember this letter?

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    It has a sound similar to

    ch-h in church-house

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    Remember this letter?

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    It has a sound similar to

    dgeh in badgeholder

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    These are the basic letters weve just seen

    kh

    p b

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for

    kh

    p b

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for i

    khi i

    pi bi

    i i

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for u

    khu u

    pu bu

    u

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for e

    khe e

    pe be

    e e

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for o

    kho o

    po bo

    o o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    kh kh kh i khu khe kho

    i u e o

    p p pi pu pe po

    b b bi bu be bo

    And the list goes on

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    And

    i u e o

    i

    u e o

    ...done!

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    All of these puff-of-air letters

    have a little pendulum at the bottom

    kh

    p b

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    In some cases, this pendulum is the only thing

    that differentiates these puff-of-air letters

    from the ones with no puff of air

    p p

    b b

    These two combo letters have one more difference

    other than the pendulum,

    namely the tick at the upper right

    b b

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    These sets of letters lookvery similar

    i u e o

    p p pi pu pe po

    p p pi pu pe po

    i u e o

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    Notice how i looks slightly different

    from other combo letters for i

    i

    pi pi i

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    Also notice how u and o look slightly different from the rest

    u o

    u o

    pu po

    pu po

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    In fact, o and o

    are part of the rebel club we saw earlier

    ju je jo

    mu me mo

    u e o

    u e o

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    These sets of letters looksimilar

    r r ri ru re ro

    j j ji ju je jo

    i u e o

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    These combo letters look somewhat similar

    ru j

    Remember that u has an extra curl at the end

    u

    and that o looks like u with ansign

    u o

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    Lets just take the simplest example

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    kh

    =

    kh

    p p

    b b

    More to come

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    And here are the remaining ones

    +

    =

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    Some Telugu words with the new letters weve just seen

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    Full marks?

    plmu ri likht

    fruit stream, rivulet written, in writing

    trmu bkt i mukhj

    umbrella devotion main

    id rmu pilm lmu

    pore, opening movie sublimity

    sbjt llri kmu

    politeness, manners cymbal unit

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    Remember this letter?

    t

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    th

    It has a sound similar to

    th-h in bath-house

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    Remember this letter?

    d

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    d

    It has a sound similar to

    dh in adhere

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    These are thebasic letters weve just seen

    th d

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

    th d

    th i d i

    th u d u

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    th e d e

    th o d o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    th th th i th u th e to

    d d d i d u d e d o

    Note the slightly different shape of these letters from other i letters

    th i d i

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    th

    =

    th

    d d

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    These sets of letters look similar

    d d d i d u d e d o

    i u e o

    t th t i tu th e th o

    d d d i d u d e d o

    Watch out for i and its slightly different shape from other i letters

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    All their mini versions too look similar

    d

    t

    d

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    The pendulum strikes again

    th d

    For d , this is the only thing differentiating it from d

    d d

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    These words arent too difficult

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    Here you go

    t ith i sth it i

    date according to the lunar calendar status, condition

    d n i bud d i

    tone, note intelligence

    d rumu t th jmu

    Earths pole truth, fact

    pd d t i mitn mu

    practice, method the sign Gemini

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    Remember this letter?

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    It has a sound similar to

    th in penthouse

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    Remember this letter?

    The letter below is pronounced just like the one above,

    except that the letter below is pronounced with a little puff of air

    It has a sound similar to

    dh in madhouse

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    These are the letters weve just seen

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    e e

    o o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    i u e o

    i u e o

    Note the slightly different shape of these letters from other i letters

    i i

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    =

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    These sets of letters look similar

    d d d i d u d e d o

    i u e o

    t th t i tu th e th o

    d d d i d u d e d o

    i u e o

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    As do all their mini versions

    d

    t

    d

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    These sets of letters too look similar

    r r ri ru re ro

    i u e o

    But their mini versions dont!

    r

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    Both these sets of letters have a dot in the middle

    t th t i tu th e th o

    i u e o

    As do their mini versions

    t

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    Here are some Telugu words that have in various forms

    mu

    obstinacy, stubbornness

    pn mu

    reading, learning

    kn mu

    difficult

    Unfortunately, many words that use and also use letters and signs that we havent seen yet

    So well come across more words with

    as we go on

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    l in hold

    l in boulder

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    curls right back and touches the roof of your mouth

    It sounds similar to

    l

    but with the tongue curled further back

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    sh in ash tray

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    curls right back and touches the roof of your mouth

    In everyday speech, its mostly pronounced the same as

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    These are the letters weve just seen

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

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    And this is how they are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    e e

    o o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    i u e o

    i u e o

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    And here are their mini versions

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    =

    has a special mini form

    when it comes after k

    k

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    Sometimes,the sequenceand its combo letters

    are written

    that is, with the mini version

    i u e o

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    Camouflage at its very best

    i u e o

    p p pi pu pe po

    p p pi pu pe po

    i u e o

    i u e o

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    i falls into the latter category below

    i

    pi pi i i

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    Also notice how the vowel signs for u and o

    have slightly different shapes in these combo letter sets

    u pu pu

    u u

    po po o

    o o

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    Here are all their mini versions

    p p

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    Here we go again

    ,

    ,

    ,

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    Piece of cake?

    k mn i

    art man

    mi iju

    , again pupil, disciple

    eu kmu

    , to go difficulty

    pemu rmu

    , plate, saucer rain

    n ktrmu lkmi

    star, constellation Lakshmi, a Hindu goddess

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    ng in sing

    It is not pronounced like the

    ng in finger

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    ni in onion

    gne in French montagne

    in Spanish Espaa

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    This letter has a sound similar to

    n in wander

    To pronounce this letter, the tip of your tongue

    curls right back and touches the roof of your mouth

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    These are the letters weve just seen

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    This is how these basic letters are modified

    to make the combo letters for , i and u

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    And this is how they are modified

    to make the combo letters for e and o

    e e

    e

    o o o

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    These are all the various basic and combo letters

    weve just seen

    i u e o

    i u e o

    i u e o

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    Here are the mini versions

    of the letters weve just seen

    Lets just take the simplest example

    When the second letter has the vowel

    +

    =

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    These sets of letters look similar

    i u e o

    i u e o

    As do their mini versions

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    looks somewhat like an upside down

    The other letters in the respective sets are more distinct, though

    i u e o

    i u e o

    Their mini versions too are somewhat like mirror images

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    This letter combo

    is usually pronounced

    n

    That is, as if it were

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    Do you notice any similarity in how these letters sound?

    k kh

    To pronounce all these letters,

    your tongue touches the back of the roof of your mouth,

    called the velum

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    And what about in these letters?

    To pronounce all these letters,

    your tongue touches the middle part of the roof of the mouth,

    called thepalate

    Try saying them out loud and concentrate on the position of your tongue

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    Some more similar-sounding letters, which weve already seen

    To pronounce all these letters,

    the tip of your tongue curls back and touches the roof of your mouth

    Try saying them out loud and concentrate on the position of your tongue

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    Yet another bunch of similar-sounding letters

    t th

    d d

    n

    To pronounce all these letters,

    the tip of your tongue touches your front teeth

    Try saying them out loud and concentrate on the position of your tongue

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    And finally, the last batch of similar sounding letters

    p p

    b b

    m

    To pronounce all these letters,

    your lips touch each other

    Try saying them out loud and concentrate on the position of your tongue

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    This sign is a shortcut sign

    for the following letters

    n m

    Its pronunciation depends on what letter comes after it.

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    Have a look at these words and their pronunciations

    khmu

    conch

    mmu

    delight, good fortune

    nlmu

    fickle, playful

    snj

    Sanjaya, a male name

    More to come

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    k hj

    from the throat, guttural

    pt

    scholarly

    jn t rmu

    machine, device

    nn d n

    Nandana, a male name

    smpn n

    wealthy, prosperous

    smbn d mu

    relation, connection

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    Lets look at it in a little more detail.

    In these words, is like a shortcut for khmu mmu

    In these words, is like a shortcut for

    k hj pt

    In these words, is like a shortcut forn jn t rmu n n d n

    In these words, is like a shortcut formsmpn n smbn d mu

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    No, we didnt forget

    In these words, is like a shortcut for nl snj

    However, its pronunciation is not exactly like

    Instead, it sounds more like a normal n, like the

    n in name

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    We can see a pattern over here.

    If occurs before the following letters then its pronunciation isk kh

    n

    t th d d

    n p p b b

    m

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    Before all other letters, and at the end of a word,

    its pronunciation is usually

    msmjkt smrke

    joint, united protection

    smln smtsrmu

    attached, included year

    mmu ms

    clan, lineage swan

    simmu khm

    lion sword

    The odd exception might exist,

    but these would usually be rare or obscure words

    So dont worry As far as our nasal shortcut sign is concerned,

    youre good to go!

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    Great.

    Now, an obvious question.

    What if a word starts with a vowel?

    How do we write it then?

    Theres a slightly different way of doing this

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    If a word starts with a vowel,

    we use the following letters, instead of vowel signs

    i u

    e o

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    and have a slightly different pronunciation

    e

    This letter has a sound similar to

    ye in yes

    o

    This letter has a sound similar to

    wo in wont

    but slightly shorter in length

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    Our nasal shortcut sign works equally well

    with these independent vowel letters

    Of course, the pronunciation of the sign will vary,

    depending on what letter follows

    Some examples will make this clear

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    Here are some words that use independent vowel letters

    rth m

    meaning urm

    ring(ornament)

    krm

    letter, alphabet uuto be, to

    exist

    n t m

    end iu

    give

    rkku

    bodyguarden md i

    eight illu

    house ekk

    where

    ikk

    here ou

    oath

    i

    asafoetidaoki

    one ut t r

    north oe

    camel

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    Speaking of vowels, here are some more

    This sign has a sound similar to

    a in father

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    i

    This sign has a sound similar to

    ee in bee

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    u

    This sign has a sound similar to

    oo in tool

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    e

    This sign has a sound similar to

    in French fiance

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    o

    This sign has a sound similar to

    o in Italian Roma

    This sign is written aftera letter

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    This is how the signs for , i, u, e and o are written

    k ki

    ku ke

    ko

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    Here are all the vowels weve seen so far,

    attached to the letter k

    k k

    ki ki

    ku ku

    ke ke

    ko ko

    Note how the vowels on the right

    are longer versions of the ones on the left

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    In some cases, the long vowel sign

    is simply the short vowel sign with an added

    ki ki

    ke ke

    ko ko

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    Elementary, my dear Watson

    p p s n

    p p s n

    po po o so n o o

    Watch out for

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    Here are some Telugu words with the new signs weve just seen

    ,

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    And some more

    J

    And were done!

    For now at least

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    How many correct?

    t t

    grandfather k

    Dacca,Bangladesh

    pri

    animal rm

    garland

    mjm

    literature n m,nn m

    knowledge

    min ufish niuwater ,

    ii

    splendour mbirm

    seriousness

    prit i

    love rin sSrinivasa,

    a Hindu god

    purt ifullness,

    completion duidust

    unjm

    emptiness,

    nothingness

    murkhfoolish

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    muurt m

    auspicious

    occasion

    beuru

    Bangalore

    peru

    name n en u

    I

    d em

    country ed m

    denominator

    et u

    cause, reason ketrm

    area

    opi

    cap n oucurrency

    note

    soku

    to touch, strike

    jom

    yoga

    poo

    photograph ommburnt

    offering

    Phew!

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    At the beginning of a word, these vowels are written like this

    i u

    e o

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    Here are all the independent vowels weve seen so far,

    along with their corresponding vowel signs

    i i

    u u

    e e e e

    o o o o

    We already know that does not have any vowel sign of its own

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    All these pairs look similar

    in that the one on the right is a slightly modified version

    of the one on the left

    u u

    e e

    o o

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    Remember, uhas one horn at the topand uhas two

    u u

    These letters below too have a common element,

    namely the horizontal stroke with the curl at the right

    i u

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    These two letters look very similar

    i

    These letters all have a common basic shape

    o o

    b b

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    Some Telugu words beginning with the new vowel letters

    weve just seen

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    You should have got all of these right!

    desire,hope

    n d rprd e

    Andhra Pradesh, a statein India

    i

    housefly irj

    envy

    u

    juice, sap urj

    Indian pickle

    eu

    seven ekn m

    singular o

    boat o hj

    labial, from the lips

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    And even more vowel signs

    j

    This sign has a sound similar to

    i in fight

    More precisely, it sounds like i in fight

    when pronounced in a Scottish accent

    It looks like a combination of

    e

    and

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    w

    This sign has a sound similar to

    ow in cow

    More precisely, it sounds like owin cow

    when pronounced in a Scottish accent

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    This is how the signs for j and w are written

    kj kw

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    Notice the similarity in the shapes of these combo letters

    ke ke kj

    k ku kw

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    At the beginning of a word, these vowels are written like this

    j

    w

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    These letters look similar

    e e j

    As do these

    o o w

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    Here are some Telugu words with the new letters weve just seen

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    And their pronunciations and meanings

    kj

    hand rijlmSrisailam, a town in Andhra Pradesh

    jd rbd

    Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh wd

    howdah,a seat fixed on the back of an elephant

    pwr

    powder swn d rjm

    beauty jd u

    five wd m

    medicine jrjm

    wealth, splendour wtjm

    appropriateness

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    A few letters and signs still remain!

    This sign has a sound similar to

    a in cat

    Heres an example of this vowel sign

    in combination withk

    k

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    Unfortunately, our new sign looks exactly like

    the mini version of j

    plus the vowel sign

    Fortunately, this sign is pronounced with the sound

    only in English words borrowed into Telugu

    So the pronunciation is usually clear from the context

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    At the beginning of a word, this sign is written like this

    Again, it looks exactly like

    j

    But remember that it occurs only in borrowed English words

    So youll know from the context

    when to use which pronunciation

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    Like you read earlier, this sign is used in Telugu

    only to write words borrowed from English

    that have the a sound in cat

    s

    gas

    bri

    battery

    knsr

    cancer

    kss bk

    Axis Bank, a bank in India

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    r

    This sign has a sound similar to

    rhu in rhubarb

    This sign is written belowa letter

    Note that this sign behaves like a vowel sign

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    This is how the sign for r is written

    kr

    Notice how these letter combos look similar

    kr kr

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    At the beginning of a word, this sign is written like this

    r

    Dont confuse it with this letter combo

    bu

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    Some Telugu words which use this sign or its independent letter

    kri rm ri

    agriculture debt sage, seer

    rkm kru

    tree Krishna, a Hindu god

    rd jm mt rbumi

    heart motherland

    rsth rd d rmm

    of the household old-age home

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    Another letter with a r sound

    r

    This letter has a sound similar to

    r in Italian Roma

    This is a rolled /r/, as in Spanish or Italian

    That is, its pronunciation is exactly the same as

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    These letters look somewhat similar

    r

    These are the various vowel combos formed from our new letter

    r r ri ri ru ru

    re re rj ro ro rw

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    Here are some words with this letter

    r erri

    shelf centipede

    rekk reu

    wing king, lord

    rmpm urrm

    hacksaw horse

    kukkurt i ereru

    greed various

    These words are today normally spelled with r

    However, you might still come across this letter every now and then

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    Remember this letter?

    This letter has another sound

    ts

    This sound is similar to

    ts in Betsy

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    These alternative pronunciations exist

    only before certain vowel sounds

    ts ts ts tsu tsu tso tso

    z z z zu zu zo zo

    In some cases, you might notice these alternative pronunciations

    being marked with this sign on top

    Like so

    ts z

    But more often than not,

    you'll find them written simply as and

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    Some words with these alternative pronunciations

    tsl zu

    much, very delay

    tsokk zon n

    shirt millet

    tsukk rozu

    dot, drop day, date

    tsd u zud m

    study, reading gambling

    rtsts bez

    meeting place Vijayawada, a city in Andhra Pradesh

    Dont worry

    Youll be OK even if you pronounce these with a and

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    One last sign

    This sign has a sound similar to

    h in hat

    but with a little twist (well see how on the next page)

    Note that this sign too behaves like a vowel sign

    Likethis sign can be added onto another vowel sign

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    This is how this new sign combines with basic letters

    and is pronounced

    k k

    kii kii

    kuu kuu kee kji

    koo kwu

    It never combines with the signs e and o

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    Likethis new sign can also combine with independent vowel letters

    ii ii

    uu uu ee ji

    oo wu

    It never combines with the letters eand o

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    Got it?

    In a nutshell, the sign is pronounced

    followed by a somewhat shortened repetition

    of the vowel just before it

    k

    kwu wu

    Like so

    pun prt

    again at dawn

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    When this sign occurs in the middle of a word,

    it's often pronounced as a doubling of the next letter

    d ukkhm n tkkrm

    sadness conscience

    Not to fret

    This sign occurs very rarely in Telugu,

    only in some words borrowed from Sanskrit

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    Remember

    has two circles

    and our nasal shortcut letter

    has only one

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    Lets end with numerals and punctuation

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    Punctuation marks are similar to English

    In some old Telugu texts, you might find these punctuation marks

    full stop end of verse

    Try your hand at these

    3,737 ,

    0.611 .1.2% .%

    54,789.01 ,.

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    Here is a well-known piece of writing, in its Telugu version

    .

    .

    prtpt t st mlijmn mn lellrn u n mt

    stn trln u smun lun u n d ru. ru ied n n t kkr

    smpn n le prsprmu brt rbmto

    rt mpljn u.

    This is Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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    This is the Telugu alphabet

    The names of the letters are the sounds of the letters themselves

    i i u u r e e j o o w k kh

    t th d d n

    p p b b m

    j r bi r l

    s ts dz, z

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    And these are the vowel and other signs, and their Telugu names

    i i u u r

    e e j o o w

    n usrmu srmu lpllk

    Good luck!

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