thirumanthiram - saiva siddhanta philosophy-tamil

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Dr. S. Sundarabalu Visiting Professor ,ICCR’s Tamil Chair Institute of Oriental Studies, Dept. of Indology Jagiellonian University, Krakow-Poland India-9715769995


  • 1.Thirumanthiram -Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy- Tamil Dr. S. Sundarabalu Visiting Professor ,ICCRs Tamil Chair Institute of Oriental Studies, Dept. of Indology Jagiellonian University, Krakow- Poland

2. The lingam (also, linga, ling, Shiva linga, Shiv ling, Sanskrit , liga, meaning "mark", "sign", or "inference") is a representation of the Hindu deity Shiva used for worship in temples. In traditional Indian society, the linga is rather seen as a symbol of the energy and potentiality of the God. The lingam is often represented alongside the yoni, a symbol of the goddess or of Shakti, female creative energy. The union of lingam and yoni represents the "indivisible two-in-oneness of male and female, the passive space and active time from which all life originates". 3. 6 4. CN I CN III CN VII CN IX CN XI CN II CN IV CN VI CN VIII CN X CN XII CN V Parts of Cranial Nerves 5/23/2014 5. 5/23/2014 6. 5/23/2014 7. 5/23/2014 8. 7. Crown Center Top of head towards back; Connection to divinity, spirit, bliss; Drive to transcend. 6. Third Eye Slightly above midpoint between eyes; Intuition, metaphysical wisdom, stillness; Drive to know. 5. Throat Chakra Center of throat; Self-expression, speaking truth; Drive to communicate. 4. Heart Chakra Center of chest at breastbone; Love, compassion, beauty, joy, balance; Drive to connect. 3. Navel Chakra Just below navel; Personal power, self-definition, boundaries; Drive to act successfully. 2. Sacral Chakra Internal reproductive organs; Sensuality, creativity, abundance, passion; Drive to create. 1. Root Chakra Tailbone; 5/23/2014 9. Medical Logo 10. 13 Touch Skin Illusion na Taste Tongue Arrogan ce ma Sight Eye God ci Smell Nose Power va Ear Sound Soul ya 11. SAIVA SIDDHANTA TEXTS 12. Saivism The word Hinduism is a common name which denotes many Indian religions, including Saivism. It is not a religion by itself. Saivism or Saiva religion is the dominant religion of the Hindu fold. Saiva Siddhanta (Saiva Siththaantham in Tamil) is the philosophy of Saiva religion which considers Lord Siva as its primary deity. Siddhanta means the final conclusion (reached after taking into consideration all other important views). It is the popular philosophical system of the Tamils of South India, based on Saiva Agamas, Upanishds, ancient Tamil works, Thirumurais and Meykanda Sastra works. 13. Who am I? Is there a God? What are the natures of God, Soul and the cosmos? What is my relationship with God and the worldly things? What is the reason for happenings in life over which one has no control? Such questions often arise in any philosophical system. Saiva Siddhanta gives plausible answers 14. Eternal Entities Saiva Siddhanta believes in the three eternal entities of God, Soul and Bondage (materials of bondage). These are called Pati, Pasu and Pasam respectively in Siddhanta philosophy. Pati means Lord (of the souls) who is God. Pasam means bondage. Pasu means that which is under bondage. All things known and perceived are included in these three categories. According to Saiva Siddhanta God is one, Souls are many and Pasam consists of three impurities (malams) called Anava (anavam), Karma (kanmam) and Maya (mayai). Like Pati who 15. Existence of God and other eternal entities is established by various epistemological means. Logical arguments, based on sense perception, inference and scripture are important means of proving their existence. Anything that has a beginning, existence and decay is made by someone. It has a maker. Our physical body including the mental and psychological equipments, the world and the worldly things had a beginning. They exist for a certain period of time and then decay. They, therefore, have a maker who is God. Existence of God is thus established by inference. The existence of other entities is also established similarly by various means. 16. God: Siva (Sivam) is the name given to their God by the Saivites. Siva means One who is perfect and /or auspicious. His inherent nature is wisdom. He is with infinite love to benefit the souls. It is His Grace which is part of Him. Like the sun and its light, He remains inseparable with his Sakthy which is Grace. Sakthy literally means power or energy. He is omnipresent. The Tamil word for God, Kadavul, meaning One who resides outside and inside, 17. Soul: According to Saiva Siddhanta, Souls are many. No two persons or beings are alike. We may therefore, conclude that every living being has a soul of its own. Anma and uyir are other names for soul. Soul has the capabilities to know, act and desire. These are called its gnana sakthy, kriya sakthy and iccha sakthy respectively. These capabilities are impaired by the associated entity calledanava. Soul has a dependant nature and behaves like the one on which it depends. When it depends on the worldly things, it behaves like them. When it depends on God, it behaves like a divine being. This nature of dependency is called in Tamil as Sarnthathan Vannamathal. 18. The most respected shaivite scriptures in thamiz the thirumuRais , were composed almost in the first millenium developed the in the thamiz people the spiritual nourishment. Based on these holy texts and developed on the fertility they made in the thought process gave rise to many philosophers dwelling in the highly complex question of the Supreme, soul and surroundings and their inter- relationship. Among them four are quite significant and are referred to as sandhAnak kuravargaL. The texts which are explanatory/ commentory texts of shiava sidhdhantha, that were written in this period of 12th to 14th century are called santhAna nulgal or meykaNda nUlgaL. 19. While the rest of the thirumuRais are singing the glory of Lord shiva, the nineth thirumuRai thirumanthiram is the one that deals in detail about the philosophy and yoga. These santhAna texts are absolutely dedicated for philosophical discussions. These texts analyse the various factors, logics and experiences, refute and support the various philosophies on the ground of raising and answering questions. These are excellent food for thought and are Shaiva sidhdhanthic philosophical tutorials. May the Nameless, Formless Supreme pashupati, Which transcedes everything bless us, the seekers !! Tamil Shaivite Literature taalapuraanam and etc : 705 14 chaaththiram (shaastram)- guidelines or philosophical treatises 20. Saiva Siddhanta Texts Author 1. (thiruvundhiyAr) thiruviyalUr uyya vandha dhEva nAyanAr 2. (thirukkaLiRRup padiyAr) thirukkadavUr uyya vandha dhEvar 3. (shiva gnAna bodham) meykaNda sivam 4. (chivanyAna chiththiyAr) aruNandi chivAchchAriyAr 5. (irupA irupaqthu) 6. (chivap pirakAcham) umApati shivAchchAriyAr 7. (thiruvarut payan) 8. (vinA veNpA) 9. (pORRip paqRodai) 10. (kodikkavi) 11. (nenychuvidu thUdhu) 12. (uNmai neRi viLakkam) 13. ( chaNkaRpa nirAkaraNam ) 14. (uNmai viLakkam) manavAchakaN The Core Saiva Siddhanta Texts - santhAna nulgaL / meykaNda nulgaL - 21. -Sivagnana Bodham 1. , , . I. As the (seen) universe, spoken of as he, she and it, undergoes three changes (origin, development, and decay), this must be an entity created (by an efficient cause.) This entity owing to its conjunction with Anava Mala has to emanate from Hara to whom it returns during Samharam. Hence, the learned say that Hara is the first cause. 22. 2. . II. He is one with the souls (Abetha). He is different from them (Betha). He is one and different from them (Bethabetha). He stands in Samavaya union with His Gnana Sakti and causes the souls to undergo the processes of evolution (births) and return (Samharam) by including their good and bad acts (Karma). 23. 3. , , , , , , . III. It rejects every portion of the body as not being itself; It says my body; it is conscious of dreams; it exists in sleep without feeling pleasure or pain or movements; it knows from others; This is the soul which exists in the body formed as a machine from Maya. 24. Tirumantiram Tirumular (Tamil: ) was a Tamil Shaivite mystic and writer, considered one of the sixty-three Nayanars and one of the 18 Siddhars. His main work, the Tirumantiram(also sometimes written Tirumanthiram, Tirumandhiram, etc.), which consists of over 3000 verses, forms a part of the key text of the Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta, the Tirumurai. Legend has it that Tirumlar was a travelling Shaiva saint and scholar from Kailash who used his yogic powers to transmigrate into the body of a southern cowherd, Mlan. He would wake up from a state of intense meditation once a year and compose one verse until he completed the Thirumandiram. 25. The Nayanar is said to have been one of the eight students of Tirunandi Devar. Tirumlar, desiring to see Agastya Rishi in the Pothia Hills, left Kailasa and journeyed southwards. On his way, he visited many Saivite shrines. When he came to Tiruvavaduthurai, he took a bath in the Kaveri River then went to the Temple. Upon leaving the Temple and walking along the banks of the Kaveri, he noticed a herd of cows crying because their herder had died. Wanting to pacify the grief stricken cows, the Nayanar entered the body of the cowherd after safely depositing his own body in the trunk of a tree. Mlan, the cowherd, was a resident of Sattanur and drove the cows back into the village in the evening. Mlans wife was expecting the return of her husband but when she approached him, he would not allow her to touch him, but said: Oh lady, I am not your husband. 26. The cowherd's wife complained to the village elders about her husbands conduct. They examined him and after they came to the conclusion that he was a great Yogi who had attained spiritual eminence, instructed the lady to have no further contact with him. The next day, Tirumular followed the cows, but could not find his body in the trunk of the tree, where he had left it. It was