andhra pradesh - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Download Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Post on 28-Dec-2015

198 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

TRANSCRIPT

  • 5/1/2014 Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh 1/25

    Andhra Pradesh

    State of India

    Clockwise from top left: Tirupathi, Prakasam Barrage,

    Lepakshi Nandi (bull)

    Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India, Egg bowl of Asia

    Location of Andhra Pradesh in India

    Andhra PradeshFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Andhra Pradesh (http://www.mid-day.com/articles/andhra-pradesh-first-year-intermediate-results-to-be-declared-today/15258089) (/ndr prd/; Telugu: ) , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on thecountry's southeastern coast. It is India's fourth-largeststate by area and fifth-largest by population. AndhraPradesh is bordered by Maharashtra in the northwest,Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north, the Bay ofBengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south andKarnataka to the west.

    Andhra Pradesh has the second longest coastline (of972 km (604 mi)) among all the states of India, after

    Gujrat.[3] The small enclave (30 square kilometres(12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies inthe Godavari delta to the northeast of the state. Thestate comprises three regions: Coastal Andhra,Telangana and Rayalaseema. Its capital and largestcity is Hyderabad.

    The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu[4]

    and the co-official language is Urdu. The Minister ofTourism and Culture has issued declaration of Telugu

    language as Classical Language.[5] Other languagesoften spoken in the state include Hindi, Marathi,

    Tamil, Kannada and Oriya.[6]

    Contents

    1 History1.1 Early history

    1.2 Modern history

    1.3 State reorganisation

    2 Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh

    3 Geography and climate

    4 Demographics

    4.1 Population statistics

    4.2 Religions

    5 Administration

    5.1 Politics6 Natural Resources

    6.1 Mineral Wealth

    6.2 Power Generation

    7 Economy

    Coordinates: 17.366N 78.476E

  • 5/1/2014 Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh 2/25

    Map of Andhra Pradesh

    Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17.366N 78.476E

    Country India

    Region South India

    Established 1 November 1956

    Capital Hyderabad

    Largest city Hyderabad

    Districts 23 total

    Government

    Body Government of India,Government of Andhra Pradesh

    Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan

    Chief Minister (President's Rule)

    Legislature Bicameral (294 + 90 seats)

    High Court Andhra Pradesh High Court

    Area

    Total 275,045 km2 (106,195 sq mi)

    Area rank 4th

    Population (2011)[1]

    Total 84,655,533

    Rank 5th

    Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)

    Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)

    UN/LOCODE AP

    ISO 3166 code IN-AP

    Vehicleregistration

    AP

    HDI 0.473 (low)

    HDI rank 15th(2011)

    Literacy 67.77% (2011)

    Official language Telugu

    Website ap.gov.in (http://www.ap.gov.in)

    Symbols

    Emblem Kalasham

    7 Economy

    7.1 Agriculture

    7.2 Industrial Sector8 Transportion

    8.1 Roadways

    8.2 Railways

    8.3 Airports

    8.4 Seaports

    9 Tourism

    9.1 Nature Tourism

    9.2 Tourist Destinations

    9.3 Religious Tourism

    10 Culture10.1 Arts and Crafts

    10.2 Literature

    10.3 Dance, Music and Festivals10.4 Artifacts

    10.5 Cuisine11 Cinema12 Sports

    13 Education and research13.1 Space Research

    14 Newspapers and journals15 See also

    16 References17 External links

    History

    Main article: History of Andhra Pradesh

    Early history

    The first historical records appear in the Buddhist textAnguttara Nikaya Andhra was mentioned in theSanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE)and Mahabharata (400 BCE).It is mentioned thatAndhras were Aryans who migrated to south of

    Vindhya mountains . [7] The Natya Shastra written byBharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions about the

    Andhra people.[8] The roots of the Telugu languagehave been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur

    district[9] and from others dating to the rule of Renati

    Cholas in the 5th century CE.[10]

  • 5/1/2014 Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh 3/25

    Language Telugu[2]

    Song Maa Telugu Thallikiby Sri SankarambadiSundaraachari

    Dance Kuchipudi

    Animal Blackbuck

    Bird Indian Roller

    Flower Water lily

    Tree Neem

    Sport Kabaddi

    Rock-cut Buddha statue at

    Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle,

    Visakhapatnam

    Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer whovisited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322297BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortifiedtowns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry,and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal thatAndhras established their huts or tents near the

    Godavari River at that time.[11]

    Inscriptions shows that there was an early kingdom incoastal Andhra (Guntur District) ruled first byKuberaka and then by his son Varun, withPratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present dayAmaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to theancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following hisenlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar

    Mansions' (Kalachakra)".[12][13]

    The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th centuryBCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE, theSatavahanas became independent. After the decline of theSatavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, AnandaGotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and

    Cholas ruled the land.[14]

    Scholars have suggested that the Prajpramit Sutras, the earliest

    Mahayana Sutras,[15][16] developed among the Mahsghika along

    the Krishna River in Andhra country.[17] A.K. Warder holds that "theMahyna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the

    Andhra country."[18] Anthony Barber and Sree Padma note that"historians of Buddhist thought have been aware for quite some timethat such pivotally important Mahayana Buddhist thinkers as Ngrjuna, Dignaga, Candrakrti, Aryadeva, and

    Bhavaviveka, among many others, formulated their theories while living in Buddhist communities in Andhra."[19]

    They note that the ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and

    Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[20] Sri Singha, Savari, Maitripa andVirupa lived and taught in the Andhra region for some portion of their lives or were in some cases permanent

    residents.[21] Ronald Davidson calls the Krishna River valley "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost

    a thousand years."[22]

    During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit.[23] Telugu wasmade the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital cityof Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was alsoVengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under theSatavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around

    1022 CE.[24]

    The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to theemergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of theRashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by theKakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer

  • 5/1/2014 Andhra Pradesh - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradesh 4/25

    A pillar at Ahobilam temple in

    Kurnool District of Andhra

    Pradesh

    Kondaveedu

    Kakatiya sculpture at

    Warangal

    the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner.Reddy dynasty started fromhere they ruled more than 100 years after them. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the DelhiSultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years

    Modern history

    Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradeshand India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of

    Warangal.[25] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south Indiaby Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over theAndhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th

    century to the end of the 17th century.[26] Although Hyderabad was foundedless than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near thecity that could date back to 500 BCE. Approximately over 1000 years agothis region was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 CE, and fell under Delhisultanate from (13101345), when the central sultanate became weak theBahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluqand established an independent state in Deccan within the Delhi Sultanatessouthern provinces and ruled until 1518 CE. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor ofGolconda, declared independence from the Bahmani Dynasty and proclaimedhimself Sultan of Golconda in that year, and he founded the Qutb Shahi

    dynasty.[27]

    Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan

View more >