sanatana dharma

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  • Sanatana DharmaThe Eternal Religion(aka: Hinduism)Foundations

  • utyEt icsNatural L wTranscendental ealizationCos ic OrderSoci l Welfare

  • The roots of HinduismHarappan Civilization:Indus river valley archeological ruinsAt least 4500 years oldThe Great Pool

  • Ancient Images still a part of Hinduism todayLingamsPrefiguring Shiva(from the Harappan civilization)

  • The roots of HinduismThe Aryan Invasion Theory:Outside invaders enter India from the northwestBeginning 4000 years agoBringing theirculture & religionwith themA hotly debated theory!

  • The Vedic TraditionElements presumed to be of Aryan influence that continue to be a part of Hinduism today:Sanskrit languageVedic texts (composed in Sanskrit)Patriarchal ruleSocial class distinctions (caste) & the role of the priests (Brahmins)Rituals & the Fire Sacrifice

  • The VedasFirst written around 1500 BCE but composed and transmitted orally long before thenHeard (shruti) by ancient sagesFour parts, developed over time:Samhitas: hymns of praise in worship of deities (Rig Veda is oldest)Brahmanas: directions for priestly performance of ritualsAranyakas: forest books written by hermitsUpanishads: metaphysical teachings of spiritual masters (Vedanta: the end of the Vedas) (composed 600-400 BCE)

  • The Fire SacrificeBurnt offerings made to the gods through Agni (ignite), the god of fireperformed by the brahmin (priest), Maintaining the cosmic orderthrough recreation of the original sacrifice made by the gods to create this universePurusha: the primal being dismembered by the gods out of which all was created

    (Rig Veda 10.90)

  • Philosophy of the UpanishadsSpiritual instruction, focused on inner experience, as a path to realization and immortalityBrahman: The transcendent, all pervading, infinite and everlasting Ultimate RealityAtman: that Reality as it is found within ourselves our soul is one with the soul of the universe

  • Reincarnation

    Samsara: continual cycle of birth-life-death-rebirthInto any life form human or animalOnly human rebirth affords the soul the opportunity to advance toward the goal of liberation from this cycle = moksha

  • KarmaConsequences of our actionsIn this life and beyond carried over to our future livesThe law of cause and effect:Past actions affect our present lifePresent actions affect our future lifeGood deeds good karma good experiencesBad deeds bad karma bad experiencesKarma keeps samsara going

  • Yoga - The Paths to MokshaMoksha: ultimate goal is to eliminate karma so as to be liberated from Samsara the limitations of space, time and matterYoga: The path to Union with the divineFour options:Raja Yoga the path of meditationJnana Yoga the path of knowledgeKarma Yoga the path of selfless actionBhakti Yoga the path of loving devotion to god

  • Review ActivitiesThe Vedic TraditionUpanishadic MetaphysicsYoga

    Access these and other review activities at:http://www.nvcc.edu/home/lshulman/religions/Hinduism/index.html

  • IDENTIFY these terms The people who invaded India bringing their Vedic sacrificial religion with them The cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth as well as the realm of space and time wherein this takes place Release (liberation) from this cycle The true essence of the human self, identified with Brahman The impersonal Ultimate Reality in Hindu philosophy Aryans

    Atman

    Brahman

    Moksha

    Samsara

  • The oldest of Indian sacred texts is:UpanishadsRig VedaAdi GranthBhagavad Gita

  • Do you know the difference between... Brahma

    Brahman

    Brahmin

    BrahmanaThe creator god of the Hindu pantheonThe priestly caste of Hindu society Collection of early sacred textsThe impersonal ultimate reality of Hindu metaphysical philosophy

  • MATCH the yogas:KarmaJnanaRajaBhaktiThe path of knowledgeThe path of devotionThe path of meditationThe path of selfless action