Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

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Maratha Samrajya Maratha Confederacy16741820

Maharajas1 2 3 4

Flag

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Shivaji I (leader from 1 Sambhaji I (1680-1689 Rajaram (1689-1700). Y Tarabai (regent 1700-1 Shahu I (1708-1749). S Ramaraja (1749-1777). Shahu II (1777-1808). S Pratapsinh (1808-1839 Shahaji III (1839-1848) 1848 to Great Britain Pratapsinh I (adopted) Rajaram III Pratapsinh II Raja Shahu (1918 - 19 Pratapraje (1950-1978) Udayanraje Bhonsle (1

Political Map of South Asia around 1758 AD

Capital

1st Rajgadh & then shifted to Raigadh Marathi Monarchy - 1674-1680 - 1681-1689 -16891700 -17001707 -17071747 -17471777 History Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram Tarabai Shahu Ramaraja April 21, 1674 September 21, 1820 1,000,00 0 km (386,10 2 sq mi)

Language(s) Government Chattrapathi

- Established - Ended Area

Population - 1700 est. 150,000, 000 Hon, Rupee, Paisa, Mohor

Currency

The Maratha Empire (Marathi: Marh Smrjya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha

Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire's territo

Contents[hide] 1 Brief History 2 Chhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680) 3 Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)

4 Rajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707) 5 Shahu (c 1707-1749) 6 Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar (1650-1716) 7 Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740) 8 Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) 9 The Decline of the Empire 10 Legacy of the Empire 11 Maratha rulers 11.1 The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji 11.2 The Royal House of Kolhapur 11.3 Peshwa 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

Brief History

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king S

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third B

Chhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680)Shivaji

Chhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale, founder of the Maratha Confederacy

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, whe

Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable so material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009) Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Mara

Rajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707)

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under sie Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent

Shahu (c 1707-1749)

The extent of Maratha Empire

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, kn

An army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to d

Maratha Emperors (1674-1818)Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram(1674 - 1680) (1680 - 1689) (1689 - 1700)

Queen Tarabai

(1700 - 1707) (1707 - 1749) (1749 - 1777)

Shahu Ramaraja

The Peshwas (Prime Ministers) (1712-1818) Balaji Vishwanath Bajirao Balaji Bajirao Madhavrao Ballal Narayanrao Raghunathrao Sawai Madhavrao Bajirao II Nana Sahib(1712-1719) (1719-1740) (1740-1761) (1761-1772) (1772-1773) (1773-1774) (1774-1795) (1795-1851) (1851-1857)

(Peshwa period: 1689-1708)Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pan

He received military help from the great Maratha warriors - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions h

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife to Tarab

But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arr Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740)

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one o

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general w Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761)

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the

Eighteenth century painting of a Maratha Soldier ( by Franois Balthazar Solvyns)

The Decline of the Empire

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowl Even today the phrase in Marathi, "meet your Panipat", has a similar meaning as the phrase "meet your Waterloo" does

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was create

Legacy of the Empire

Ruins of the Raigad fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire

Often painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It brought

From its onset, Religious tolerance and religious pluralism were important pillars of the nation-state since they were fund

The Maratha Empire was unique in that it did not adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the pri Since its start, many people of talent were brought into the leadership of the Maratha Empire which made it one of the m The empire also created a significant navy. At its height this was led by the legendary Kanhoji Angre.

The Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Their policy of religious tolerance gave equal importance to Hindu interest

Maratha rulersThe Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji

See also Bhosale family ancestryChhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689) Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700) Queen Tarabai Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji) Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram and Queen Tarabai))

The Royal House of KolhapurQueen Tarabai (wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji II Chhatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chhatrapati [Rajaram] from his second wife) Chhatrapati Shahu IV of Kolhapur

PeshwaSonopant Dabir (1640-1674) Moropant Trimbak Pingle (1674-1683) Moreshwar Pingale (1683-1689) Ramchandra Pant Amatya (1689-1708) Bahiroji Pingale (1708-1711) Parshuram Tribak Kulkarni(Pant Pratinidhi) (1711-1713) Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720) Baji Rao I (1720-1740) (son of Balaji Vishwanath) Balaji Bajirao (son of Bajirao I) Peshwa Madhavrao (2nd son of Balaji Bajirao) Narayanrao Peshwa (3rd son of Balaji Bajirao) Raghunathrao Peshwa (brother of Balaji Bajirao) Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao) Chimnajee Madhavarao (26 May 1796 - 6 Dec 1796) (brother of Bajirao II, adopted by Madhavrao II's wife)

Bajirao II (son of Raghunathrao) Nana Sahib Peshwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao II)

Amritrao (Brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao wa

Maharajas

aji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680) bhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I. ram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I. bai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram. hu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I. araja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Sha hu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja. apsinh (1808-1839) haji III (1839-1848) to Great Britain apsinh I (adopted)

apsinh II Shahu (1918 - 1950) apraje (1950-1978) yanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)

ahratta) or the Maratha

18. At its peak, the empire's territories covered much of South Asia.

peror Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, lea

Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas.

rtion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into

e by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable

r among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's

live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped hi

moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His wido

sition on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious af

Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but

ended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna.

hi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Sha

s of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas fro

umat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, b

aji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chatrapa

ered this post to his wife to Tarabai. Tarabai gave important position to Pant among senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnya

traps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the state Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra

hwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually cause

Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 u

e period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749.

d improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the w

cluded Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Bat

rase "meet your Waterloo" does in English.

frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Ma

ssion struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1

eshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes

"Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state

evolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be sum

nation-state since they were fundamental beliefs of Shivaji, the founder of the empire.

Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and Kshatriya Dhangar (Holkars) were the trusted genera mpire which made it one of the most socially mobile regimes. Note that the ruler of Indore was a Dhangar , a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior

qual importance to Hindu interests and acted as an important back-pressure against the expanding Mughal influence. Today's partitioned Ind

anhoji Angre.

by Madhavrao II's wife)

olkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao was later reinstated by the British.

adopted son of Shahu I.

s its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year lon

d reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardars

ns. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marath

lf crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore.

e Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangze

he same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was reje

e Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this w

a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Ma

and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa

to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an an

as one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

any challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity o shadow king in absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.

n of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" : who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and adminis

ji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.

ecognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was a

ati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like hi...