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ममममम ममममममममम Maratha Samrajya Maratha Confederacy 1 Shiva 2 Sambh 3 Rajar 4 Tarab 5 Shahu 6 Ramar 7 Shahu 8 Prata 9 Shaha 10 1848 11 Prata 12 Rajar 13 Prata 14 Raja 15 Prata 16 Udaya Political Map of South Asia around 1758 AD 1674 – 1820 Flag

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Page 1: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

मराठा साम्राज्यMaratha Samrajya

Maratha Confederacy Maharajas……

1 Shivaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680)2 Sambhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I.3 Rajaram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I.4 Tarabai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram.5 Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I.6 Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.7 Shahu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja.8 Pratapsinh (1808-1839)9 Shahaji III (1839-1848)

10 1848 to Great Britain11 Pratapsinh I (adopted)12 Rajaram III13 Pratapsinh II14 Raja Shahu (1918 - 1950)15 Pratapraje (1950-1978)16 Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)

Political Map of South Asia around 1758 AD

1674 – 1820

Flag

Page 2: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Language(s) MarathiGovernment Monarchy

Chattrapathi

Shivaji

Sambhaji

Rajaram

Tarabai

Shahu

RamarajaHistory

Area

Population

Currency

Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire's territories covered much of South Asia.

Contents

1 Brief History

Capital 1st Rajgadh & then shifted to Raigadh

 - 1674-1680

 - 1681-1689

 - 1689–1700

 - 1700–1707

 - 1707–1747

 - 1747–1777

 - Established April 21, 1674 - Ended September 21, 1820

1,000,000 km²

(386,102 sq mi)

 - 1700 est. 150,000,000 

Hon, Rupee, Paisa, Mohor

The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha

[hide]

Page 3: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

2 Chhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680)3 Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)4 Rajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707)5 Shahu (c 1707-1749)6 Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar (1650-1716)7 Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740)8 Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761)9 The Decline of the Empire10 Legacy of the Empire11 Maratha rulers11.1 The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji11.2 The Royal House of Kolhapur11.3 Peshwa12 See also13 Notes14 References

Brief History

Chhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680)

Shivaji

Chhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale, founder of the Maratha Confederacy

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 4: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Rajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707)

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

Shahu (c 1707-1749)

The extent of Maratha Empire

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009)

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

An army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

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Maratha Emperors (1674-1818)Shivaji (1674 - 1680)

Sambhaji (1680 - 1689)

Rajaram (1689 - 1700)

Queen Tarabai (1700 - 1707)

Shahu (1707 - 1749)

Ramaraja (1749 - 1777)

The Peshwas (Prime Ministers) (1712-1818)Balaji Vishwanath (1712-1719)

Bajirao (1719-1740)

Balaji Bajirao (1740-1761)

Madhavrao Ballal (1761-1772)

Narayanrao (1772-1773)

Raghunathrao (1773-1774)

Sawai Madhavrao (1774-1795)

Bajirao II (1795-1851)

Nana Sahib (1851-1857)

(Peshwa period: 1689-1708)

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.

He received military help from the great Maratha warriors - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.

But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the state Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.

Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740)

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761)

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749.

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife to Tarabai. Tarabai gave important position to Pant among senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" मराठी: आज्ञापञ who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.

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Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

Eighteenth century painting of a Maratha Soldier ( by François Balthazar Solvyns)

The Decline of the Empire

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

Even today the phrase in Marathi, "meet your Panipat", has a similar meaning as the phrase "meet your Waterloo" does in English.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.

Legacy of the Empire

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Ruins of the Raigad fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire

Often painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be summarized as below:

From its onset, Religious tolerance and religious pluralism were important pillars of the nation-state since they were fundamental beliefs of Shivaji, the founder of the empire.The Maratha Empire was unique in that it did not adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and Kshatriya Dhangar (Holkars) were the trusted generals of the Brahmin Peshwas.

The Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Their policy of religious tolerance gave equal importance to Hindu interests and acted as an important back-pressure against the expanding Mughal influence. Today's partitioned India is substantially the area of the Maratha confederacy.The empire also created a significant navy. At its height this was led by the legendary Kanhoji Angre.

Maratha rulers

The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji

See also Bhosale family ancestry

Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680)Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689)Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700)Queen TarabaiChhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji)Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram and Queen Tarabai))

The Royal House of Kolhapur

Queen Tarabai (wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji IIChhatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chhatrapati [Rajaram] from his second wife)Chhatrapati Shahu IV of Kolhapur

Peshwa

Sonopant Dabir (1640-1674)Moropant Trimbak Pingle (1674-1683)Moreshwar Pingale (1683-1689)Ramchandra Pant Amatya (1689-1708)Bahiroji Pingale (1708-1711)Parshuram Tribak Kulkarni(Pant Pratinidhi) (1711-1713)

Since its start, many people of talent were brought into the leadership of the Maratha Empire which made it one of the most socially mobile regimes. Note that the ruler of Indore was a Dhangar, a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

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Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720)Baji Rao I (1720-1740) (son of Balaji Vishwanath)Balaji Bajirao (son of Bajirao I)Peshwa Madhavrao (2nd son of Balaji Bajirao)Narayanrao Peshwa (3rd son of Balaji Bajirao)Raghunathrao Peshwa (brother of Balaji Bajirao)Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao)Chimnajee Madhavarao (26 May 1796 - 6 Dec 1796) (brother of Bajirao II, adopted by Madhavrao II's wife)Bajirao II (son of Raghunathrao)Amritrao (Brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao was later reinstated by the British.Nana Sahib Peshwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao II)

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Maharajas……

Shivaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680)Sambhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I.Rajaram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I.Tarabai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram.Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I.Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.Shahu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja.Pratapsinh (1808-1839)Shahaji III (1839-1848)1848 to Great BritainPratapsinh I (adopted)

Pratapsinh IIRaja Shahu (1918 - 1950)Pratapraje (1950-1978)Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)

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Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire's territories covered much of South Asia.Mahratta) or the Maratha

Page 11: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

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When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

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Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 13: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.

He received military help from the great Maratha warriors - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.

But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the state Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749.

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife to Tarabai. Tarabai gave important position to Pant among senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" मराठी: आज्ञापञ who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.

Page 14: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

Even today the phrase in Marathi, "meet your Panipat", has a similar meaning as the phrase "meet your Waterloo" does in English.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.

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Often painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be summarized as below:

From its onset, Religious tolerance and religious pluralism were important pillars of the nation-state since they were fundamental beliefs of Shivaji, the founder of the empire.The Maratha Empire was unique in that it did not adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and Kshatriya Dhangar (Holkars) were the trusted generals of the Brahmin Peshwas.

The Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Their policy of religious tolerance gave equal importance to Hindu interests and acted as an important back-pressure against the expanding Mughal influence. Today's partitioned India is substantially the area of the Maratha confederacy.The empire also created a significant navy. At its height this was led by the legendary Kanhoji Angre.

Since its start, many people of talent were brought into the leadership of the Maratha Empire which made it one of the most socially mobile regimes. Note that the ruler of Indore was a Dhangar, a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

Page 16: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Chimnajee Madhavarao (26 May 1796 - 6 Dec 1796) (brother of Bajirao II, adopted by Madhavrao II's wife)

Amritrao (Brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao was later reinstated by the British.

Page 17: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.

Page 18: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 19: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 20: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.

He received military help from the great Maratha warriors - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.

But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the state Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife to Tarabai. Tarabai gave important position to Pant among senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" मराठी: आज्ञापञ who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.

Page 21: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.

Page 22: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Often painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be summarized as below:

The Maratha Empire was unique in that it did not adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and Kshatriya Dhangar (Holkars) were the trusted generals of the Brahmin Peshwas.

The Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Their policy of religious tolerance gave equal importance to Hindu interests and acted as an important back-pressure against the expanding Mughal influence. Today's partitioned India is substantially the area of the Maratha confederacy., a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

Page 23: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 24: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 25: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc.

Page 26: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.

Page 27: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

, a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

Page 28: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 29: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.

Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 30: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

Page 31: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.

Page 32: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

, a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

Page 33: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 34: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 35: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.

Page 36: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.

Page 37: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

, a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]

Page 38: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 39: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.

in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.

Page 40: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

Page 41: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 42: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

Page 43: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

Page 44: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.

became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

Page 45: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

Page 46: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

Page 47: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

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in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

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In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

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became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

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1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

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In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

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became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.

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. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

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In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

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. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them.

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In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.

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Maratha rulersThe Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji

The Royal House of Kolhapur

Queen Tarabai (wife of Chatrapati Rajaram) Chatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chatrapati Rajaram from second wife) Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj

Peshwa

Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689) Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700) Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, Son of Chatrapati Sambhaji, ) Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chatrapati Rajaram - Queen

Tarabai)

Balaji Vishwanath Bajirao the first (brother Chimaji-appa) Balaji Bajirao (brother Raghunathrao, Cousin Sadashivrao-bhau) Peshwa Madhavrao (elder brother Vishwasrao) Narayanrao Peshwa (younger brother of Madhavrao, murdered by uncle) Raghunathrao Peshwa (uncle of Narayanrao, ousted in coup named "Barbhai" conspiracy) Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao) Bajirao the second (son of Raghunathrao) Amritrao Peshwa (brother of Bajirao the second, for a short period during Yashwantrao holkar's siege of Pune, Bajirao reinstated by British later) Nana Sahib Peashwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao the second, lived in Uttar Pradesh in exile)

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Queen Tarabai (wife of Chatrapati Rajaram) Chatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chatrapati Rajaram from second wife) Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj

Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689) Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700) Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, Son of Chatrapati Sambhaji, ) Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chatrapati Rajaram - Queen

Tarabai)

Balaji Vishwanath Bajirao the first (brother Chimaji-appa) Balaji Bajirao (brother Raghunathrao, Cousin Sadashivrao-bhau) Peshwa Madhavrao (elder brother Vishwasrao) Narayanrao Peshwa (younger brother of Madhavrao, murdered by uncle) Raghunathrao Peshwa (uncle of Narayanrao, ousted in coup named "Barbhai" conspiracy) Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao) Bajirao the second (son of Raghunathrao) Amritrao Peshwa (brother of Bajirao the second, for a short period during Yashwantrao holkar's siege of Pune, Bajirao reinstated by British later) Nana Sahib Peashwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao the second, lived in Uttar Pradesh in exile)

B17
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Bhonsle

After the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Marathas were forced to accept British rule. The four Bhonsle dynasties continued as rulers of their princely states, acknowledging British sovereignty while retaining local autonomy. The states of Nagpur, Thanjavur, and Satara came under direct British rule in the mid-nineteenth century when their rulers died without male heirs; Kolhapur continued as a princely state until India's independence in 1947, when the rulers acceded to the Indian government.

Flag of the Maratha

Bhosale/Bhonsle

Lineage: Suryavansh or Solar clanOriginal kingdom: Mainawati, Tuljapur, Raygad fort (Raigad) and BurhanpurCurrent kingdoms: Kolhapur, Satara, Nagpur Akalkot and Thanjavur.

Guru: Shankkayan, *Gotra: Kaushika, *Veda: Rigveda *Mantra: Gayatri mantra

KharadeDesaleShisode

Sawant

Maharajas of Satara

Shivaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680)Sambhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I.Rajaram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I.

The Bhosle or Bhosale (pronounced Bhoslay) were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India .

The most prominent member of the clan was Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha empire. His successors ruled as maharajas from their capital at Satara, although de facto rule of the empire passed to the Peshwas, the Marathas' hereditary chief ministers, during the reign of Shahu I.

In addition to the Bhonsle Maharajas of Satara, rulers of the Bhonsle clan established themselves at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu in the 17th century, and at Nagpur and Kolhapur in modern-day Maharashtra in the 18th century. The Bhonsle of Thanjavur were descendants of Sivaji's half-brother Venkaji, while the Bhonsle of Satara and Kolhapur were descended from Sivaji's sons, Sambhaji and Rajaram.

Colour of throne, canopy, sign (Nishan), and Horse (Varu): Bhagwa (Ochre), *Heraldic sign (Nishan): Rudra on flagpoleClan goddess: Jagdamba Bhavani, Tulja Bhavani, chittoud Bhavani, *Clan godd: Eklingji, Bada Mahadeo of shikhar shingnapur Satara, Saptashrungi Nivasini Devi in Nasik district near Vani *Clan object (Devak): Five Leaf,

Surnames:Aher, Awatar, Ubale, Aadhale, Bhondve, Desale, Dhole, Kacchawah, Kalse, Kanse, Kanase, Kadoo, Kharade, Ghorpade, Chavle, Devaskar, Deokar, Dhorne, Nakashe, Polhar, Fhale, Bansode, Badhe, Borde, Matale, Navsare, Mahajan. Ranbagul, Eaw, Lokhande, Widhate, Wiradh, Watekar, Pedgaonkar, Shisode, Sawant, Bhosale, Hivrale, Sarupye, kotwal(Total 37)

[edit] Notable Bhosale Subclans

Ghorpade

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Tarabai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram.Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I.Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.Shahu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja.Pratapsinh (1808-1839)Shahaji III (1839-1848)1848 to Great BritainPratapsinh I (adopted)Rajaram IIIPratapsinh IIRaja Shahu (1918 - 1950)Pratapraje (1950-1978)Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)

1855 to Great Britain

British rule (1940-1942)

1948 to India

[edit] Maharajas of Thanjavur

Venkaji (1674-1686)Shahji (1686-1711)Sarabhoji I (1711-1727)Tukoji (1727-1735)Bava Sahib (1735-1736)Maharani Sujana Bai (1736-1738)Sawai Shahji (1738)Sayaji (1738-1739)Pratap Singh (1739-1763)Tusalji (1763-1787)Amar Singh (1787-1798)Sarabhoji II (1798-1824)Shivaji (1824-1855)

[edit] Maharajas of Kolhapur

Shivaji I (1700-1712)Shambhoji (1712-1760)Sivaji II (1760-1812) (adopted from the family of Khanwilkar)Shambhu (1812-1821)Shahoji I (1821-1837)Shivaji III (1837-1866)Rajaram I (1866-1870) (adopted from the family of Patankar)Shivaji IV (1870-1883)Shahu IV (1883-1922) (adopted from the family of Ghatge)Rajaram II (1922-1940)

Shivaji V (1942-1947)Shahoji II (1947-1949), titular Maharaja 1949-1983 (adopted from the family of Pawar)

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After the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Marathas were forced to accept British rule. The four Bhonsle dynasties continued as rulers of their princely states, acknowledging British sovereignty while retaining local autonomy. The states of Nagpur, Thanjavur, and Satara came under direct British rule in the mid-nineteenth century when their rulers died without male heirs; Kolhapur continued as a princely state until India's independence in 1947, when the rulers acceded to the Indian government.

, while the Bhonsle of Satara and Kolhapur were descended from Sivaji's sons, Sambhaji and Rajaram.

:Aher, Awatar, Ubale, Aadhale, Bhondve, Desale, Dhole, Kacchawah, Kalse, Kanse, Kanase, Kadoo, Kharade, Ghorpade, Chavle, Devaskar, Deokar, Dhorne, Nakashe, Polhar, Fhale, Bansode, Badhe, Borde, Matale, Navsare, Mahajan. Ranbagul, Eaw, Lokhande, Widhate, Wiradh, Watekar, Pedgaonkar, Shisode, Sawant, Bhosale, Hivrale, Sarupye, kotwal(Total 37)

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After the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Marathas were forced to accept British rule. The four Bhonsle dynasties continued as rulers of their princely states, acknowledging British sovereignty while retaining local autonomy. The states of Nagpur, Thanjavur, and Satara came under direct British rule in the mid-nineteenth century when their rulers died without male heirs; Kolhapur continued as a princely state until India's independence in 1947, when the rulers acceded to the Indian government.

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Shrimant Shivaji Shahaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

Chatrapati Shivaji was the famous Maratha king who had the utmost courage to stand against the vast ocean of Mughal rule, single-handedly. Although his original name was Shivaji Bhosle, his subjects lovingly gave him the title of 'Chatrapati' or the 'Chief of the Kshatriyas' for his undaunted ability to protect them all under the safe shelter of his leadership. Born on 19th February 1630 at the Shivneri Fort to a valiant Maratha regent Shahaji Raje and a dedicated mother Jijabai, Shivaji was a descendent of the 96 Maratha Clans who were well known as brave fighters or 'Kshatriyas'. A young boy of 16 is not known to win battles, but his mother's teachings, father's struggle and a pride in the motherland gave the young Shivaji his first achievement as an able warrior and leader with the seizure of the Torna Fort which was initially under the Bijapur Kingdom. With this recognition, there was no looking back. His major breakthrough came with Battle of Pratapgarh against Afzal Khan, the general of the Sultanate of Bijapur, which made him a hero of the Marathas overnight. He won it through sheer planning, speed and excellent generalship. This was followed by many other battles against the Sultanate of Bijapur, in warfares such as Battle of Kolhapur, Battle of Pavan Khind, Battle of Vishaalgad and others.Chatrapati Shivaji is most famous for his valor to challenge the mighty Mughal Empire, at the time ruled by Aurangzeb.

Although Emperor Aurangzeb tried to capture all the forts and territories under Shivaji he could not achieve much success due to Shivaji's clever leadership qualities and guerrilla tactics. But a temporary pause was put in Shivaji's successful ventures by the brave Hindu General Jai Singh, sent by the emperor. Upon this, Shivaji decided to negotiate with the Mughal Emperor and what followed is popularly known in history as Shivaji's trip to and astonishing escape from Agra, where he was kept a prisoner by Aurangzeb. Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Shivaji BhosleChhatrapati

Reign 1664 - 1680Coronation June 6, 1674Full name Shivaji Shahaji Bhosle

Titles Kshatriya Kulavantas,GoBramhan PratipalakBorn February 19, 1630

Birthplace Shivneri Fort, near Pune, IndiaDied April 3, 1680 (aged 50)

Raigad FortSuccessor Sambhaji

Wives

Sai baiSoyarabaiPutalabaiKashibai

SagunabaiManjulabai

Sakavaarbai

OffspringSambhaji, Rajaram, and six daughters

Father ShahajiMother Jijabai

Place of death

Gunvantibai[1][2]

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Hinduism

Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

[edit] Early life[edit] Birth

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. In the meanwhile entire Jadhavrao family including Lakhuji and his three sons were murdered in Nizam's court while they had come there to join his forces. Unsettled by this incident Shahaji Raje decided to part himself from Nizamshahi and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom.

[edit] Foundation of empire

Chhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle, founder of the Maratha Empire.

Religious beliefs

Shivaji Bhosle (Born:February 19, 1630, Died: April 3, 1680), commonly known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Shivaji was the youngest son of Shahaji and Jijabai Bhosle. Shivaji's birth date was a matter of controversy but recently a consensus has been reached and is deemed to be 19 February 1630.

Shahaji Bhosle - Shivaji's father - was the eldest son of Maloji Bhosale of Verul (present day Ellora, Maharastra). Maloji Bhosale's was deeply insulted by

After this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the year of 1636.

Shahaji appointed young Shivaji, under the care of his mother Jijabai to manage the Pune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in administration. This council included

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Shivaji Statue in Mumbai

His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.

Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.

[edit] Confrontation with the Regional Sultanates

At the age of 17 Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom, in 1645.By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region.

[edit] Battle of Pratapgarh/ Pratapgad

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

Wagh nakh

In the ensuing battle of Pratapgarh in the dense forests, which was fought on November 30, 1659, Shivaji's armies attacked Bijapur's (Afzal Khan's) forces and engaged them in swift flanking maneuvers.

Immediately after slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji galloped up the slope towards the fortress with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the cover of the densely covered valley, to immediately attack Afzal Khan's forces.

Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.

The Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar pursued the retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join up with the part of their reserve forces stationed in the nearby village of Wai. They were engaged in battle before they could regroup and were defeated prior to reaching Wai.

This great and complete victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.

Her piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers,

Shahaji's vision, and Jijabai's teachings and motivation, and the able training by military commanders such as Gomaji Naik Pansambal and

By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (led by

Main article: Battle of Pratapgarh

Shivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy,

Meanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain),

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Subsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an elite Pashtun army comprised mainly of Afghani mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun army was decimated by the Maratha troops. The intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional surrender of Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.

The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire.

[edit] Battle of Kolhapur

Main article: Battle of Kolhapur

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

This victory alarmed the mighty Mughal empire who now derisively called Shivaji "Mountain Rat" . Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat.

[edit] Battle of Pavan Khind

Main article: Battle of Vishalgarh

At that time Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivaji, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

In the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to attack until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishaal Gaad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle.

Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshahi through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom. Also, as the terms of peace, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi Johar.

Ghod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande and the soldiers who selflessly fought and died to save their king and country. A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his courageous men.

This remained the situation until the death of Shahaji. Henceforth the Marathas became a formal and recognized power in the Deccan.

[edit] Clash with the Mughals

[edit] Shaista Khan

In January, 1660, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with a large army to defeat Shivaji. He was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636. Within three years Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by Shaista Khan and his army numbering over 100,000.

Shaista Khan, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

Within twenty-four hours of this daring attack, Amir-ul-Umra, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his very personal and ignoble defeat in Pune.[4]

[edit] Surat and Mirza Raja Jai Singh

In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan.

In 1660, Adil Shah, once again sent Siddi Johar an accomplished general to put down Shivaji. He ordered his large army north to Kolhapur, Maharashtra to confront and defeat Shivaji once and for all.

Sensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a brave Sardar along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at

After overpowering and slaying the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaking through a wall. Chimanji and Netaji Palkar first entered to provide cover to Shivaji MAharaj.

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Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb

[edit] Trip To Agra and Escape

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

Dr. Ajit Joshi in a book Agryahun Sutka, concluded that Shivaji likely disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entourage.[citation needed]

[edit] Preparing for War

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

[edit] Battle of Sinhagad

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

When Shivaji reached the fort after the victory, he was deeply bereaved by the loss of his good friend Tanaji. He sadly commented "Gadh ala puhn sinha gela" (The fort was conquered but the lion was lost). Thereafter Kondana fort was renamed Sinhagad (Lion Fort) to honor Tanaji Malusare's bravery and sacrifice.

[edit] Coronation

He was bestowed with the Jaanva, (in Hindi the Janeu the sacred thread), with the Vedas and was bathed in an abisheka. Shivaji had insisted on an Indrabhishek ritual, which had fallen into disuse since the 9th century.

Shivaji then was conferred with the title of "shakkarta". He started his own calendar. A few days later a second ceremony was carried out, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.

[edit] Rule

Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.

He laid the foundations of the modern Marathi identity and infused it with strong martial and moral traditions.

Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and citizens.

He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.

After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji.

Kondana fort, on the outskirts of Pune, was still under Mughal control. Uday Bhan Rathod, the fort keeper, led an army of about 1500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana.

Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard(known as

As the advance party reached the top, they threw ropes for others to climb. Meanwhile Tanaji's brother

Shivaji was formally crowned Chhatrapati (Chief, or King of Kshatriyas), on June 6, 1674 at Raigad fort, and given the title

Shivaji was an able and competent administrator and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (

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Toward the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong, and was able to effectively keep the Mughal forces in check and on the defensive while expanding his kingdom southward to Gingee, Tamil Nadu.

Shivaji's kingdom served as a Hindu bulwark against Islamic powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.

[edit] Character

During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.

Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.

Shivaji did not believe in being treated as a royalty, in fact he mingled freely with his subjects to spend time with them to better understand their thoughts, issues and challenges. It is reported that he enjoyed simple meals of crushed onion and ‘bhakris’ - a type of Indian peasant bread with his foot soldiers (mavlas). This reflected his 'down to earth' character.

Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.

[edit] Revolution in military organisation

M.V. Dhurandhar's painting of Shivaji.

All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Soveriegn.Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in the field and supported four months in war.Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry were his innovations and they excelled in commando tactics;The introduction of an centralized intelligence department, a potent navy, and regular chain-of-command;Introduction of field craft viz. Guerrilla warfare, commando actions, swift flanking attacks;Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji;Militarisation of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence

[edit] Father of Indian Navy

Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, "Ganimi Kava" a term used for such a warefare, (though the term "commando" is modern).

A standing army belonging to the state called paga;

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[edit] Forts

Main article: Shivaji's Forts

Pratap Gad

Shivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Ghats.Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor should deliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sar-i-naubat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks balance.

[edit] Promotion of Sanskrit

The house of Shivaji was one of the Indian royal families who were well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted it. The root can be traced from Shahaji who supported Jayram Pindye and many like him. Shivaji's seal was prepared by him.

3. Vijayapuradhishwar prathtarmanya bhujchachayay: One whose help was sought by Adilshahi King of Vijaypur[citation needed]

[edit] Religion

Shivaji realized the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi’s fleet

Shivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared. His Rajpurohit Keshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

After his death Sambhaji, who was himself a Sanskrit scholar (his verse - Budhbhushanam), continued it. His grandson Shahu spent his entire childhood in Mughal captivity, which affected his taste. But even he showered gifts on learned Brahmins. Serfoji II from the Thanjavur branch of the

Sambhaji issued one danapatra (donation plaque) which is in Sanskrit composed by himself in which he writes about his father as:

1. Yavanarambha gritat mlechakshaydiksha: It means - Shivaji had taken a sacred oath and was on mission to defeat invaders2. Dillindraman pradhvanspatu: One who has defeated the Mughal Emperor of Delhi

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Shivaji made available to Ramdas a fort named Parali Fort to establish his permanent monastery there. The fort was subsequently renamed as "Sajjangad"(Fort of Decent/Holy ones).

He also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.)

His Mavala army's war cry was 'Haar Haar Mahadev' (Hail Lord Shiva).

He commanded the respect and fealty of the muslims under his command by his fair treatment of his friends as well as enemies.

Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought back converts like Netaji Palkar & Bajaji in to Hinduism. He prohibited slavery in his kingdom.

Shivaji applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[20] There are many instances in folklore, which describes Shivaji's respect for women, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.

Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

[edit] Southern expedition

Towards the end of 1676, Shivaji defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Gingee near Bijapur, Karnataka, modern-day Tamilnadu. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war.

[edit] Death and succession

Ruins of the Raigad Fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire.

A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

The indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.

Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar.

Sir Jadunath Sarkar, a noted Indian historian and scholar, estimated that about 500,000 Mughal soldiers and 200,000 Marathas died during this decades long epic struggle for dominance of the Indian sub-continent.

As per legend, the family deity of the Bhosle's, goddess Bhavani gave a divine sword to Shivaji.

Chhatrapati Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect for Warkari saints like Tukaram and Sufi Muslim

Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion.[19] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

Shivaji had respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam.[20] Shivaji used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint

"Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone."

It is said that he died due to contracting a disease Bloody Flux,[citation needed] Intestinal anthrax

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[edit] Legacy

A statue of Shivaji in the Birla Mandir, Delhi

Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later.He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history.

School texts in Maharashtra describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity.

A sectarian political party, the Shiv Sena, claims to draw inspiration from Shivaji.

The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji.

Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar wrote 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes), a play based on the complex relationship between Shivaji and Sambhaji. Shahir like Tulsidas and Agandas had written heroic ballads on him. Kavi Bhushan has composed in Hindi, a famous work 'Shivraj Bhushan'.

Star Pravah- the Marathi channel of Star India Network now has a multi-crore TV serial Raja ShivChhatrapati on the life of Shivaji. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hour episodes.

Mee Shivaji Raje Bhosle Boltoy is a yet-to-be launched Marathi film which tries to convey how Shivaji would have responded to the problems faced by the 'Marathi manoos' today. Mahesh Manjrekar plays Shivaji in the film.

Some of Shivaji's close associates were also his primary army chieftains, and have entered folklore along with him. These include:

The School of Naval Engineering of the Indian Navy is named as INS Shivaji.

[edit] Literature and Movies

Main Article: List of movies on Shivaji

Shivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahir (ballad composer), poets and orators. In Marathi,

Sriman yogi is a novel written on Shivaji's life by Ranjit Desai. Raja Shivachhatrapati is a biography authored by Babasaheb Purandare on his life which was later brought out as Jaanata Raja (

[edit] Associates

Antaji Konde-Deshmukh

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Rango Narayan OrpeSarpotdar

Baji JedheBaji PasalkarBaji Prabhu DeshpandeBalaji Avji ChitreBapuji Mudgal DeshpandeChimanaji DeshpandeDhanajirao JadhavraoFirangoji NarsalaFullaji Prabhu DeshpandeGangadhar PantGomaji NaikHaider Ali KohariHambirrao MohiteHiroji FarjadJiva MahalaKanhoji Jedhe DeshmukhKeso Narayan DeshpandeKondaji FarjandLay Patil KoliMurarbaji DeshpandeNanaji DeshpandeNeelkanthrao SurnaikNetaji PalkarPrataprao Gujar

Sambhaji KavjiSantaji GhorpadeSuryaji KakadeTanaji MalusareYesaji Kank

Under Shivaji, many men of talent and enterprise rose into prominence. They carried forward his mission and ensured the defeat of the Mughals in the War of 27 years. These include

[edit] Accounts of contemporary foreign travellers

Many foreign travellers who visited India during Shivaji's time wrote about him.

The Abbe Carre was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

[edit] References

1. ^ Chhatrapati Shivaji. p. 18. ISBN 8128808265. http://books.google.com/books?id=HsBPTc3hcekC. 2. ^ Shivaji the Great. p. 193. ISBN 8190200003. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5mIVt_Zd-0C. 3. ^ The Presidential Armies of India. W.H. Allen. p. 47. http://books.google.com/books?id=YX9JAAAAMAAJ. 4. ^ a b "Itihaas - Shivaji assumes the title of Chattrapati". Sify Corporation. http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13374092. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. 5. ^ Shivaji and Indian Nationalism. Central Pub. House. p. 130. http://books.google.com/books?id=lAAeAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 6. ^ Setumadhavarao S. Pagadi. (1993). SHIVAJI. NATIONAL BOOK TRUST. p. 21. ISBN 8123706472. http://books.google.com/books?id=UVFuAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 7. ^ Shivaji and His Times. Longmans, Green and co. p. 20. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. 8. ^ a b c "Gazetter of the Bombay Presidency - Poona - MUSALMANS 1294-1760 - Nizamshahi". http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/Poona-II/history_Musalmans.html#. 

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Vishwas Patil - Sambhaji, Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-7

Sriman Yogi

Vishwas Patil, Panipat - a book on the battle of Panipat.Ranjit Desai, Swami - a book on Madhavrao Peshwa

9. ^ "Shivaji Maharaj’s birth date is in debate". http://punekar.in/site/2008/11/05/shivaji-maharajs-birth-date-is-in-debate/. 10. ^ "JIJABAI - Her Parent's House Reduced To Ashes". http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/greatpersonalities/jijabai/page10.htm. 11. ^ SHIVAJI THE FOUNDER OF MARATHA SWARAJ. B. I. S. M. Puraskrita Grantha Mala. 12. ^ Kamat, K. L.. "Short Bio: Maratha King Shivaji". Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/maharashtra/shivaji.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 13. ^ [1]14. ^ 'Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great'. Manudevi Prakashan. 2005. 15. ^ edited by Om Prakash. (2001). Encyclopaedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications. p. 274. ISBN 8126109386. http://books.google.com/books?id=o5vHbY3VPyEC. 16. ^ Shivaji and His Times. Longmans, Green and co. p. 294. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. 17. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.609,63418. ^ Patil, Vishwas - "Sambhaji", Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-719. ^ Mughal Rule in India By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett,ISBN 8171565514, 978817156551120. ^ a b c Zakaria, Rafique, "Communal Rage in Secular India", Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003)21. ^ Central Chronicle Letter D. Pande. Retrieved on 2007-03-0722. ^ Book Review IMC India. Retrieved on 2007-03-0723. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=4bMIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=SHIVAJI+%E2%80%93+Father+Of+The+Indian+Navy#PPA145,M1. 

[edit] Further reading

Shivchatrapati- Ek Magowa by Dr Jysingrao Bhausaheb Pawar.Apte, B.K. (editor), Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974-75)Duff, Grant, History of Marhattas, Oxford University Press, London Link - http://books.google.com/books?id=FKQ9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=subject:%22Maratha+(Indic+people)%22#PRA1-PR21,M1.V.D.Katamble, Shivaji the Great, Pune : Balwant Printers - English Translation of popular Marathi book "Shrimanyogi".Kasar, D.B., Rigveda to Raigarh - Making of Shivaji the Great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)

Purandare B. M. (author), Raja Shivachhatrapati, he is the most popular and most enigmatic historian of Maratha times, especially that of Shivaji. He is revered throughout Maharashtra as "Shivashahir".

Joshi, Ajit, Agryahun Sutka, Marathi, Pune: Shivapratap Prakashan (1997)More, Vasantrao, James Laine: A research scholar or a barbarian?, Marathi, Shivsangram Prakashan (2004), KolhapurLaine, James, Shivaji: Hindu king in Islamic India, London: Oxford University Press 2003.Parulekar, Shyamrao, Yashogatha Vijaya durg, Vijay Durg (1982)Jyotirao Phule, Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle Yanche Powade, Marathi, (1869)Sarkar, Jadunath, Shivaji and his times, CalcuttaZakaria, Rafique, Communal Rage in Secular India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003)Work of D. G. GodseRajendra Ghorpade Mouni maharaj guru of raje shivajiMahesh Tendulkar, Runzunjar Senapati Santaji Ghorpade - a book on Santaji Ghorpade.

[edit] See also

ChhatrapatiMarathasMaratha EmpireBhosle family ancestryMarathi peopleList of people known as The GreatMaratha clan systemMarathawada

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Shrimant Shivaji Shahaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

Chatrapati Shivaji was the famous Maratha king who had the utmost courage to stand against the vast ocean of Mughal rule, single-handedly. Although his original name was Shivaji Bhosle, his subjects lovingly gave him the title of 'Chatrapati' or the 'Chief of the Kshatriyas' for his undaunted ability to protect them all under the safe shelter of his leadership. Born on 19th February 1630 at the Shivneri Fort to a valiant Maratha regent Shahaji Raje and a dedicated mother Jijabai, Shivaji was a descendent of the 96 Maratha Clans who were well known as brave fighters or 'Kshatriyas'. A young boy of 16 is not known to win battles, but his mother's teachings, father's struggle and a pride in the motherland gave the young Shivaji his first achievement as an able warrior and leader with the seizure of the Torna Fort which was initially under the Bijapur Kingdom. With this recognition, there was no looking back. His major breakthrough came with Battle of Pratapgarh against Afzal Khan, the general of the Sultanate of Bijapur, which made him a hero of the Marathas overnight. He won it through sheer planning, speed and excellent generalship. This was followed by many other battles against the Sultanate of Bijapur, in warfares such as Battle of Kolhapur, Battle of Pavan Khind, Battle of Vishaalgad and others.Chatrapati Shivaji is most famous for his valor to challenge the mighty Mughal Empire, at the time ruled by Aurangzeb.

Although Emperor Aurangzeb tried to capture all the forts and territories under Shivaji he could not achieve much success due to Shivaji's clever leadership qualities and guerrilla tactics. But a temporary pause was put in Shivaji's successful ventures by the brave Hindu General Jai Singh, sent by the emperor. Upon this, Shivaji decided to negotiate with the Mughal Emperor and what followed is popularly known in history as Shivaji's trip to and astonishing escape from Agra, where he was kept a prisoner by Aurangzeb. Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. In the meanwhile entire Jadhavrao family including Lakhuji and his three sons were murdered in Nizam's court while they had come there to join his forces. Unsettled by this incident Shahaji Raje decided to part himself from Nizamshahi and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Marathi: छत्रपती शि�वाजीराजे भोसले) The Great King of INDIA and Great INSPIRATION OF world is called as Great Shivaji Maharaj.laid the foundations of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was younger of the two sons of Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai. His father, Shahaji was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various times the Bijapur Sultanate, Deccan sultanates and the Mughals.

Shivaji was the youngest son of Shahaji and Jijabai Bhosle. Shivaji's birth date was a matter of controversy but recently a consensus has been reached and is deemed to be 19 February 1630. [7][8][9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

of Verul (present day Ellora, Maharastra). Maloji Bhosale's was deeply insulted by Lakhuji Jadhavrao, a sardar in Nizamshahi, due his refusal to allow his daughter Jijabai's (Shivaji's mother) marriage to his son - Shahaji. This lead Maloji's to aggressive conquests to obtain a higher station and an important role under Nizamshahi, something that eventually lead him to achieving the title of

After this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the year of 1636.

Shahaji appointed young Shivaji, under the care of his mother Jijabai to manage the Pune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in administration. This council included Shamrao Nilkanth

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His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.

Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.

At the age of 17 Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom, in 1645.By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region.

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

In the ensuing battle of Pratapgarh in the dense forests, which was fought on November 30, 1659, Shivaji's armies attacked Bijapur's (Afzal Khan's) forces and engaged them in swift flanking maneuvers.

Immediately after slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji galloped up the slope towards the fortress with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the cover of the densely covered valley, to immediately attack Afzal Khan's forces.

Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.

The Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar pursued the retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join up with the part of their reserve forces stationed in the nearby village of Wai. They were engaged in battle before they could regroup and were defeated prior to reaching Wai.

This great and complete victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.

Her piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers,

Shahaji's vision, and Jijabai's teachings and motivation, and the able training by military commanders such as Gomaji Naik Pansambal and Baji Pasalkar were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Shivaji along with his mavla friends took a blood oath to fight against the Mughal empire at Rohideshwara temple. And young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic as he was, wasted no time in setting off on a path of freedom and glory.

By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (led by

Shivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy,

Meanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain),

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Subsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an elite Pashtun army comprised mainly of Afghani mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun army was decimated by the Maratha troops. The intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional surrender of Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.

The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire.

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

This victory alarmed the mighty Mughal empire who now derisively called Shivaji "Mountain Rat" . Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat.

At that time Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivaji, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

In the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to attack until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishaal Gaad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle.

Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshahi through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom. Also, as the terms of peace, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi Johar.

Ghod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande and the soldiers who selflessly fought and died to save their king and country. A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his courageous men.

This remained the situation until the death of Shahaji. Henceforth the Marathas became a formal and recognized power in the Deccan.

In January, 1660, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with a large army to defeat Shivaji. He was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636. Within three years Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by Shaista Khan and his army numbering over 100,000.

Shaista Khan, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

Within twenty-four hours of this daring attack, Amir-ul-Umra, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his very personal and ignoble defeat in Pune.[4]

In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan.

an accomplished general to put down Shivaji. He ordered his large army north to Kolhapur, Maharashtra to confront and defeat Shivaji once and for all.

Sensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a brave Sardar along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at

After overpowering and slaying the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaking through a wall. Chimanji and Netaji Palkar first entered to provide cover to Shivaji MAharaj.Babaji Deshpande another man provided protection to Shivaji maharaj from back side as he entered just after him. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Khan and severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers with his sword as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death; lost his son, many of his guards and soldiers in the raid.

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Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

Dr. Ajit Joshi in a book Agryahun Sutka, concluded that Shivaji likely disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entourage.[citation needed]

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

When Shivaji reached the fort after the victory, he was deeply bereaved by the loss of his good friend Tanaji. He sadly commented "Gadh ala puhn sinha gela" (The fort was conquered but the lion was lost). Thereafter Kondana fort was renamed Sinhagad (Lion Fort) to honor Tanaji Malusare's bravery and sacrifice.

He was bestowed with the Jaanva, (in Hindi the Janeu the sacred thread), with the Vedas and was bathed in an abisheka. Shivaji had insisted on an Indrabhishek ritual, which had fallen into disuse since the 9th century.

Shivaji then was conferred with the title of "shakkarta". He started his own calendar. A few days later a second ceremony was carried out, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.

Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.

He laid the foundations of the modern Marathi identity and infused it with strong martial and moral traditions.

Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and citizens.

He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.

After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji.

Uday Bhan Rathod, the fort keeper, led an army of about 1500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana.

Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard(known as

As the advance party reached the top, they threw ropes for others to climb. Meanwhile Tanaji's brother Suryaji moved close to the gates of the fort, namely Kalyan Darwaja, with another 300 Mavalas. The gates were soon opened and once inside, all his soldiers joined Tanaji in the surprise attack.

(Chief, or King of Kshatriyas), on June 6, 1674 at Raigad fort, and given the title Kshatriya Kulavantas Sinhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Pandit Gaga Bhatt

Shivaji was an able and competent administrator and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence.[12] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch

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Toward the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong, and was able to effectively keep the Mughal forces in check and on the defensive while expanding his kingdom southward to Gingee, Tamil Nadu.

Shivaji's kingdom served as a Hindu bulwark against Islamic powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.

During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.

Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.

Shivaji did not believe in being treated as a royalty, in fact he mingled freely with his subjects to spend time with them to better understand their thoughts, issues and challenges. It is reported that he enjoyed simple meals of crushed onion and ‘bhakris’ - a type of Indian peasant bread with his foot soldiers (mavlas). This reflected his 'down to earth' character.

Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.

Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in the field and supported four months in war.Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry were his innovations and they excelled in commando tactics;The introduction of an centralized intelligence department, a potent navy, and regular chain-of-command;

Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji;Militarisation of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence

Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, "Ganimi Kava" a term used for such a warefare, (though the term "commando" is modern).

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Shivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Ghats.Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor should deliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sar-i-naubat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks balance.

The house of Shivaji was one of the Indian royal families who were well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted it. The root can be traced from Shahaji who supported Jayram Pindye and many like him. Shivaji's seal was prepared by him.

3. Vijayapuradhishwar prathtarmanya bhujchachayay: One whose help was sought by Adilshahi King of Vijaypur[citation needed]

Shivaji realized the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi’s fleet [15][16] he had realized the tactical advantage of having a strong navy and decided to purse this idea. Shivaji was concerned about the growing dominance of British India naval forces over Indian waters and start building his navy forces to tackle this issue. For this very reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.

Shivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared. His Rajpurohit Keshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

After his death Sambhaji, who was himself a Sanskrit scholar (his verse - Budhbhushanam), continued it. His grandson Shahu spent his entire childhood in Mughal captivity, which affected his taste. But even he showered gifts on learned Brahmins. Serfoji II from the Thanjavur branch of the

(donation plaque) which is in Sanskrit composed by himself in which he writes about his father as:

: It means - Shivaji had taken a sacred oath and was on mission to defeat invaders

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Shivaji made available to Ramdas a fort named Parali Fort to establish his permanent monastery there. The fort was subsequently renamed as "Sajjangad"(Fort of Decent/Holy ones).

He also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.)

He commanded the respect and fealty of the muslims under his command by his fair treatment of his friends as well as enemies.

Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought back converts like Netaji Palkar & Bajaji in to Hinduism. He prohibited slavery in his kingdom.

Shivaji applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[20] There are many instances in folklore, which describes Shivaji's respect for women, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.

Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

Towards the end of 1676, Shivaji defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Gingee near Bijapur, Karnataka, modern-day Tamilnadu. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war.

A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

The indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.

Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar.

Sir Jadunath Sarkar, a noted Indian historian and scholar, estimated that about 500,000 Mughal soldiers and 200,000 Marathas died during this decades long epic struggle for dominance of the Indian sub-continent.

Chhatrapati Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect for Warkari saints like Tukaram and Sufi Muslim pir Shaikh Yacub Baba Avaliya of Konkan .[18]

19] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

20] Shivaji used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint Baba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another great Sufi saint, Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, and sought his blessings. He called

"Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone."

Intestinal anthrax.[citation needed] The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and wife Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyarabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king.but before the death of shivaji maharaj he went to mughal prince & against maratha empire.

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Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later.He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history.

School texts in Maharashtra describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity.

The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji.

Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar wrote 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes), a play based on the complex relationship between Shivaji and Sambhaji. Shahir like Tulsidas and Agandas had written heroic ballads on him. Kavi Bhushan has composed in Hindi, a famous work 'Shivraj Bhushan'.

Star Pravah- the Marathi channel of Star India Network now has a multi-crore TV serial Raja ShivChhatrapati on the life of Shivaji. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hour episodes.

Mee Shivaji Raje Bhosle Boltoy is a yet-to-be launched Marathi film which tries to convey how Shivaji would have responded to the problems faced by the 'Marathi manoos' today. Mahesh Manjrekar plays Shivaji in the film.

Some of Shivaji's close associates were also his primary army chieftains, and have entered folklore along with him. These include:

Shivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahir (ballad composer), poets and orators. In Marathi, Bhalaji Pendharkar directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala pan sinh gela' and many more movies specially in Marathi were made on his and his associates' life.

Sriman yogi is a novel written on Shivaji's life by Ranjit Desai. Raja Shivachhatrapati is a biography authored by Babasaheb Purandare on his life which was later brought out as Jaanata Raja ( जाणता राजा), a musical tale of Shivaji's life. Kusumagraj has composed a famous poem on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar' Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat'. performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar.

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Under Shivaji, many men of talent and enterprise rose into prominence. They carried forward his mission and ensured the defeat of the Mughals in the War of 27 years. These include Ramchandrapant amtya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav,

was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as Voyage des Indes Orienteles mele de plusiers histories curieuses at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

. p. 18. ISBN 8128808265. http://books.google.com/books?id=HsBPTc3hcekC. . p. 193. ISBN 8190200003. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5mIVt_Zd-0C. 

. W.H. Allen. p. 47. http://books.google.com/books?id=YX9JAAAAMAAJ.  "Itihaas - Shivaji assumes the title of Chattrapati". Sify Corporation. http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13374092. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. 

. Central Pub. House. p. 130. http://books.google.com/books?id=lAAeAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. . NATIONAL BOOK TRUST. p. 21. ISBN 8123706472. http://books.google.com/books?id=UVFuAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 

. Longmans, Green and co. p. 20. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ.  "Gazetter of the Bombay Presidency - Poona - MUSALMANS 1294-1760 - Nizamshahi". http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/Poona-II/history_Musalmans.html#. 

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"Shivaji Maharaj’s birth date is in debate". http://punekar.in/site/2008/11/05/shivaji-maharajs-birth-date-is-in-debate/.  "JIJABAI - Her Parent's House Reduced To Ashes". http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/greatpersonalities/jijabai/page10.htm. 

Kamat, K. L.. "Short Bio: Maratha King Shivaji". Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/maharashtra/shivaji.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 

Encyclopaedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications. p. 274. ISBN 8126109386. http://books.google.com/books?id=o5vHbY3VPyEC. . Longmans, Green and co. p. 294. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. 

, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.609,634

Mughal Rule in India By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett,ISBN 8171565514, 9788171565511 Zakaria, Rafique, "Communal Rage in Secular India", Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003)

. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=4bMIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=SHIVAJI+%E2%80%93+Father+Of+The+Indian+Navy#PPA145,M1. 

Apte, B.K. (editor), Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974-75), Oxford University Press, London Link - http://books.google.com/books?id=FKQ9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=subject:%22Maratha+(Indic+people)%22#PRA1-PR21,M1., Pune : Balwant Printers - English Translation of popular Marathi book "Shrimanyogi".

, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)

, he is the most popular and most enigmatic historian of Maratha times, especially that of Shivaji. He is revered throughout Maharashtra as "Shivashahir".

, Marathi, Shivsangram Prakashan (2004), Kolhapur

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. In the meanwhile entire Jadhavrao family including Lakhuji and his three sons were murdered in Nizam's court while they had come there to join his forces. Unsettled by this incident Shahaji Raje decided to part himself from Nizamshahi and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom.

) The Great King of INDIA and Great INSPIRATION OF world is called as Great Shivaji Maharaj.laid the foundations of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was younger of the two sons of Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai. His father, Shahaji was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various times the Bijapur Sultanate, Deccan sultanates and the Mughals.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

, a sardar in Nizamshahi, due his refusal to allow his daughter Jijabai's (Shivaji's mother) marriage to his son - Shahaji. This lead Maloji's to aggressive conquests to obtain a higher station and an important role under Nizamshahi, something that eventually lead him to achieving the title of

After this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the year of 1636.

Shahaji appointed young Shivaji, under the care of his mother Jijabai to manage the Pune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in administration. This council included Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa (Prime Minister), Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar, Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis, Sonopant

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His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.

Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.

At the age of 17 Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom, in 1645.By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region.

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

Immediately after slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji galloped up the slope towards the fortress with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the cover of the densely covered valley, to immediately attack Afzal Khan's forces.

Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.

The Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar pursued the retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join up with the part of their reserve forces stationed in the nearby village of Wai. They were engaged in battle before they could regroup and were defeated prior to reaching Wai.

This great and complete victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.

Her piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers, Khafi Khan) especially in his tolerant attitude towards other religions as well as in his fair and kind treatment of women and non-combatants.

were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Shivaji along with his mavla friends took a blood oath to fight against the Mughal empire at Rohideshwara temple. And young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic as he was, wasted no time in setting off on a path of freedom and glory.

By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (led by Farradkhan

Shivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy,

Meanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain),

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Subsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an elite Pashtun army comprised mainly of Afghani mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun army was decimated by the Maratha troops. The intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional surrender of Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

This victory alarmed the mighty Mughal empire who now derisively called Shivaji "Mountain Rat" . Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat.

At that time Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivaji, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

In the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to attack until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishaal Gaad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle.

Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshahi through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom. Also, as the terms of peace, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi Johar.

Ghod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande and the soldiers who selflessly fought and died to save their king and country. A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his courageous men.

In January, 1660, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with a large army to defeat Shivaji. He was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636. Within three years Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by Shaista Khan and his army numbering over 100,000.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

Within twenty-four hours of this daring attack, Amir-ul-Umra, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his very personal and ignoble defeat in Pune.[4]

In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan.

Sensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a brave Sardar along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of Vishaal Gad.

Babaji Deshpande another man provided protection to Shivaji maharaj from back side as he entered just after him. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Khan and severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers with his sword as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death; lost his son, many of his guards and soldiers in the raid.

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Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

Dr. Ajit Joshi in a book Agryahun Sutka, concluded that Shivaji likely disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entourage.[citation needed]

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

When Shivaji reached the fort after the victory, he was deeply bereaved by the loss of his good friend Tanaji. He sadly commented "Gadh ala puhn sinha gela" (The fort was conquered but the lion was lost). Thereafter Kondana fort was renamed Sinhagad (Lion Fort) to honor Tanaji Malusare's bravery and sacrifice.

He was bestowed with the Jaanva, (in Hindi the Janeu the sacred thread), with the Vedas and was bathed in an abisheka. Shivaji had insisted on an Indrabhishek ritual, which had fallen into disuse since the 9th century.

Shivaji then was conferred with the title of "shakkarta". He started his own calendar. A few days later a second ceremony was carried out, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri.

Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.

Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and citizens.

He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.

After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji.

, the fort keeper, led an army of about 1500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana.

Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard(known as

Mavalas. The gates were soon opened and once inside, all his soldiers joined Tanaji in the surprise attack.

. Pandit Gaga Bhatt, a renowned Brahmin from Varanasi, officially presided over the ceremony declaring that Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and recognized Kshatriya.

) and internal intelligence.[12] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch

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Toward the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong, and was able to effectively keep the Mughal forces in check and on the defensive while expanding his kingdom southward to Gingee, Tamil Nadu.

Shivaji's kingdom served as a Hindu bulwark against Islamic powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.

During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.

Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.

Shivaji did not believe in being treated as a royalty, in fact he mingled freely with his subjects to spend time with them to better understand their thoughts, issues and challenges. It is reported that he enjoyed simple meals of crushed onion and ‘bhakris’ - a type of Indian peasant bread with his foot soldiers (mavlas). This reflected his 'down to earth' character.

Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.

Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, "Ganimi Kava" a term used for such a warefare, (though the term "commando" is modern). [14] Shivaji was responsible for a lot of changes in military organization. These include -

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Shivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Ghats.Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor should deliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sar-i-naubat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks balance.

The house of Shivaji was one of the Indian royal families who were well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted it. The root can be traced from Shahaji who supported Jayram Pindye and many like him. Shivaji's seal was prepared by him.

16] he had realized the tactical advantage of having a strong navy and decided to purse this idea. Shivaji was concerned about the growing dominance of British India naval forces over Indian waters and start building his navy forces to tackle this issue. For this very reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.

Shivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared. His Rajpurohit Keshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet.

After his death Sambhaji, who was himself a Sanskrit scholar (his verse - Budhbhushanam), continued it. His grandson Shahu spent his entire childhood in Mughal captivity, which affected his taste. But even he showered gifts on learned Brahmins. Serfoji II from the Thanjavur branch of the Bhosle continued the tradition by printing the first book in Marathi Devnagari.

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He also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.)

Towards the end of 1676, Shivaji defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Gingee near Bijapur, Karnataka, modern-day Tamilnadu. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war.

A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

The indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.

Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar.

Sir Jadunath Sarkar, a noted Indian historian and scholar, estimated that about 500,000 Mughal soldiers and 200,000 Marathas died during this decades long epic struggle for dominance of the Indian sub-continent.

19] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, and sought his blessings. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri bahut thorwale bhau, meaning "great elder brother".

"Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone." [20][21][22]

] The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and wife Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyarabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king.but before the death of shivaji maharaj he went to mughal prince & against maratha empire.

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Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later.He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history.

School texts in Maharashtra describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity.

The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji.

Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar wrote 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes), a play based on the complex relationship between Shivaji and Sambhaji. Shahir like Tulsidas and Agandas had written heroic ballads on him. Kavi Bhushan has composed in Hindi, a famous work 'Shivraj Bhushan'.

Star Pravah- the Marathi channel of Star India Network now has a multi-crore TV serial Raja ShivChhatrapati on the life of Shivaji. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hour episodes.

Mee Shivaji Raje Bhosle Boltoy is a yet-to-be launched Marathi film which tries to convey how Shivaji would have responded to the problems faced by the 'Marathi manoos' today. Mahesh Manjrekar plays Shivaji in the film.

directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala pan sinh gela' and many more movies specially in Marathi were made on his and his associates' life.

जाणता राजा), a musical tale of Shivaji's life. Kusumagraj has composed a famous poem on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar' Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat'. performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar.

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Ramchandrapant amtya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parsoji Bhosle, Harji raje Mahadik and Kanhoji Angre.

at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

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, Oxford University Press, London Link - http://books.google.com/books?id=FKQ9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=subject:%22Maratha+(Indic+people)%22#PRA1-PR21,M1.

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. In the meanwhile entire Jadhavrao family including Lakhuji and his three sons were murdered in Nizam's court while they had come there to join his forces. Unsettled by this incident Shahaji Raje decided to part himself from Nizamshahi and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom.

) The Great King of INDIA and Great INSPIRATION OF world is called as Great Shivaji Maharaj.laid the foundations of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was younger of the two sons of Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai. His father, Shahaji was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various times the Bijapur Sultanate, Deccan sultanates and the Mughals.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

, a sardar in Nizamshahi, due his refusal to allow his daughter Jijabai's (Shivaji's mother) marriage to his son - Shahaji. This lead Maloji's to aggressive conquests to obtain a higher station and an important role under Nizamshahi, something that eventually lead him to achieving the title of

After this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the year of 1636.

Sabnis, Sonopant as Dabir and Dadoji Konddeo as teacher. Apart from these ministers, military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and

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His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.

Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.

) especially in his tolerant attitude towards other religions as well as in his fair and kind treatment of women and non-combatants.

were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Shivaji along with his mavla friends took a blood oath to fight against the Mughal empire at Rohideshwara temple. And young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic as he was, wasted no time in setting off on a path of freedom and glory.

By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (led by Farradkhan) and another against Shivaji at Purandhar (led by Fattekhan). However both Bhosle brothers defeated the invading armies securing the release of their father. Thereafter, Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, was then sent to destroy Shivaji, in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt.

Shivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy, Krishnaji Bhaskar Kulkarni

Meanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain), Ragho Atre's cavalry units swooped down and attacked the large but unprepared Adilshahi cavalry before they were able to be fully geared up for battle and succeeded in completely routing them in short order.

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Subsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an elite Pashtun army comprised mainly of Afghani mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun army was decimated by the Maratha troops. The intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional surrender of Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

At that time Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivaji, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

In the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to attack until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishaal Gaad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle.

In January, 1660, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with a large army to defeat Shivaji. He was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636. Within three years Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by Shaista Khan and his army numbering over 100,000.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

another man provided protection to Shivaji maharaj from back side as he entered just after him. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Khan and severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers with his sword as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death; lost his son, many of his guards and soldiers in the raid.

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Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.

Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and citizens.

He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.

After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji.

Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard(known as ghorpad in Marathi named "Yeshwanti" with a rope tied around its body for climbing this cliff on a moonless night.

, a renowned Brahmin from Varanasi, officially presided over the ceremony declaring that Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and recognized Kshatriya.

12] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch

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During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.

Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.

Shivaji did not believe in being treated as a royalty, in fact he mingled freely with his subjects to spend time with them to better understand their thoughts, issues and challenges. It is reported that he enjoyed simple meals of crushed onion and ‘bhakris’ - a type of Indian peasant bread with his foot soldiers (mavlas). This reflected his 'down to earth' character.

Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.

14] Shivaji was responsible for a lot of changes in military organization. These include -

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16] he had realized the tactical advantage of having a strong navy and decided to purse this idea. Shivaji was concerned about the growing dominance of British India naval forces over Indian waters and start building his navy forces to tackle this issue. For this very reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.

Shivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared. His Rajpurohit Keshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet. [17]

continued the tradition by printing the first book in Marathi Devnagari.[citation needed]

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He also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.)

A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

The indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.

Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar.

19] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

, meaning "great elder brother".

] The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and wife Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyarabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king.but before the death of shivaji maharaj he went to mughal prince & against maratha empire.

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The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji.

directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala pan sinh gela' and many more movies specially in Marathi were made on his and his associates' life.

), a musical tale of Shivaji's life. Kusumagraj has composed a famous poem on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar' Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat'. performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar.

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at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

) The Great King of INDIA and Great INSPIRATION OF world is called as Great Shivaji Maharaj.laid the foundations of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was younger of the two sons of Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai. His father, Shahaji was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various times the Bijapur Sultanate, Deccan sultanates and the Mughals. [3] Shivaji with his ideology of Hindavi Swaraj (freedom for Hindustan) decided to directly challenge Bijapur Sultanate rule and eventually the Mughal empire, to establish the Marāṭhā Sāmrājya or the Maratha kingdom for thr Marathas, by the Marathas and of the Marathas. Shivaji succeeded in establishing control of small portion of the present state of Maharastra in western India, during his lifetime.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

, a sardar in Nizamshahi, due his refusal to allow his daughter Jijabai's (Shivaji's mother) marriage to his son - Shahaji. This lead Maloji's to aggressive conquests to obtain a higher station and an important role under Nizamshahi, something that eventually lead him to achieving the title of Mansabdar (military commander and a imperial adminstrator). Leveraging this new found fame and power he was able to convince Jadhavrao to give his daughter in marriage to his son Shahaji.

After this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the year of 1636. [8] Thereafter Shahaji was inducted by Adilshah of Bijapur and was offered a distant jagir - land holdings, at present-day Bangalore, but he was allowed to keep his old land tenures and holdings in Pune.

and Dadoji Konddeo as teacher. Apart from these ministers, military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to train Shivaji in martial arts. In 1644, Shahaji had Lal Mahal built in Pune for his wife and his son Shivaji. A royal seal in Sanskrit which read,

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His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Shivaji along with his mavla friends took a blood oath to fight against the Mughal empire at Rohideshwara temple. And young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic as he was, wasted no time in setting off on a path of freedom and glory.

). However both Bhosle brothers defeated the invading armies securing the release of their father. Thereafter, Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, was then sent to destroy Shivaji, in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt.

Shivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy, Krishnaji Bhaskar Kulkarni and his bodyguard Sayyed Banda attacked Shivaji with swords but Jiva Mahala, Shivaji's personal bodyguard fatally struck them down with a 'dandpatta' (medieval weapon). Afzal Khan managed to stumble out of the tent to get help but was immediately slain by Shivaji's associate

cavalry units swooped down and attacked the large but unprepared Adilshahi cavalry before they were able to be fully geared up for battle and succeeded in completely routing them in short order.

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To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

another man provided protection to Shivaji maharaj from back side as he entered just after him. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Khan and severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers with his sword as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death; lost his son, many of his guards and soldiers in the raid.

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Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and citizens.

After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji. [citation needed]

in Marathi named "Yeshwanti" with a rope tied around its body for climbing this cliff on a moonless night. [citation needed] Perhaps this was the first time in the history of wars where a lizard was used to climb a fort.

12] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch [13] till Maratha internal conflict brought their downfall in 1756.

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Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.

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16] he had realized the tactical advantage of having a strong navy and decided to purse this idea. Shivaji was concerned about the growing dominance of British India naval forces over Indian waters and start building his navy forces to tackle this issue. For this very reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.

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A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

The indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.

Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar.

19] The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery.

] The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and wife Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyarabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king.but before the death of shivaji maharaj he went to mughal prince & against maratha empire.

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directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala pan sinh gela' and many more movies specially in Marathi were made on his and his associates' life.

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at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji’s ideology of Hindavi Swaraj and subsequent expansion of the Maratha Empire, was partly responsible for re-establisment of Hindu rule and its re-emergent assertiveness throughout the mainland of present day India after being ruled by various Muslim dynasties. The ideology of Hindavi swaraj was in part the inspiration that propelled the succeeding generation of Marathas to establish independent kingdom in India prior to their eventual humiliating defeat by the British Empire. This ideology was neither directed against Islam nor aimed toward propagation of Hinduism.[5]

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

A large portion of his kingdom was a coastline and he secured it with a potent navy under his commander Angre. He was very successful in keeping foreign naval ships, particularly Portugese and British, under check. For his foresight of establishing of one of the first large scale naval presence he is referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".[6] Building and securing seaside and land based forts played an important role in Shivaji’s military history. He conquered, constructed and renovated many strategically located forts to defend and secure his kingdom.

Shahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4 month pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to give up the fort and planned his escape.

3] Shivaji with his ideology of Hindavi Swaraj (freedom for Hindustan) decided to directly challenge Bijapur Sultanate rule and eventually the Mughal empire, to establish the Marāṭhā Sāmrājya or the Maratha kingdom for thr Marathas, by the Marathas and of the Marathas. Shivaji succeeded in establishing control of small portion of the present state of Maharastra in western India, during his lifetime.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

(military commander and a imperial adminstrator). Leveraging this new found fame and power he was able to convince Jadhavrao to give his daughter in marriage to his son Shahaji.

8] Thereafter Shahaji was inducted by Adilshah of Bijapur and was offered a distant jagir - land holdings, at present-day Bangalore, but he was allowed to keep his old land tenures and holdings in Pune. [10][11]

were appointed to train Shivaji in martial arts. In 1644, Shahaji had Lal Mahal built in Pune for his wife and his son Shivaji. A royal seal in Sanskrit which read, This is the royal seal of Shivaji, son of Shahaji. This royal seal is for the welfare of people. This seal (the rule of the seal) will grow like the new moon grows

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Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzul Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Shivaji got word that Afzal Khan planned to slay him during the meeting.

). However both Bhosle brothers defeated the invading armies securing the release of their father. Thereafter, Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, was then sent to destroy Shivaji, in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt.

Jiva Mahala, Shivaji's personal bodyguard fatally struck them down with a 'dandpatta' (medieval weapon). Afzal Khan managed to stumble out of the tent to get help but was immediately slain by Shivaji's associate

cavalry units swooped down and attacked the large but unprepared Adilshahi cavalry before they were able to be fully geared up for battle and succeeded in completely routing them in short order.

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To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustemjaman ignominiously fled the battlefield.

Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. Siddi Johar's soldiers realized that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishalgad.

Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal.Chimanaji deshpande-one of the childhood friend of Shivaji had played role of loyal bodyguard during this attack.

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In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra.

From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

] Perhaps this was the first time in the history of wars where a lizard was used to climb a fort.[citation needed]

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Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

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A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

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at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Page 129: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

3] Shivaji with his ideology of Hindavi Swaraj (freedom for Hindustan) decided to directly challenge Bijapur Sultanate rule and eventually the Mughal empire, to establish the Marāṭhā Sāmrājya or the Maratha kingdom for thr Marathas, by the Marathas and of the Marathas. Shivaji succeeded in establishing control of small portion of the present state of Maharastra in western India, during his lifetime.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

This is the royal seal of Shivaji, son of Shahaji. This royal seal is for the welfare of people. This seal (the rule of the seal) will grow like the new moon grows, was handed to Shivaji. Thus Shivaji started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom on a mission. Shivaji used the title of

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). However both Bhosle brothers defeated the invading armies securing the release of their father. Thereafter, Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, was then sent to destroy Shivaji, in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt.

, Shivaji's personal bodyguard fatally struck them down with a 'dandpatta' (medieval weapon). Afzal Khan managed to stumble out of the tent to get help but was immediately slain by Shivaji's associate Sambhaji Kavji, before he could alert his commanders or raise an alarm.

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In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

Page 132: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

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A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

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Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji changed rules of military engagement prevalent in that era. He pioneered Ganimi Kava, guerilla tactics, which leveraged various factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack. In comparison to his enemies, Shivaji had smaller army and thereby was obliged to make to follow guirella warfare to help overcome this great imbalance.

3] Shivaji with his ideology of Hindavi Swaraj (freedom for Hindustan) decided to directly challenge Bijapur Sultanate rule and eventually the Mughal empire, to establish the Marāṭhā Sāmrājya or the Maratha kingdom for thr Marathas, by the Marathas and of the Marathas. Shivaji succeeded in establishing control of small portion of the present state of Maharastra in western India, during his lifetime.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

This is the royal seal of Shivaji, son of Shahaji. This royal seal is for the welfare of people. This seal (the rule of the seal) will grow like the new moon grows, was handed to Shivaji. Thus Shivaji started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom on a mission. Shivaji used the title of

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, before he could alert his commanders or raise an alarm.

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In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama an Old Sardar in his 70s faced and challenged Uday Bhan and killed him. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and lead them back on the offensive. The Marathas now re-commenced their ferocious attack on the Mughal defenders and captured the fort.

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He boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all enemies, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation). He defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal empire and the sultanates, he overcame and succeeded in face of unprecedented level of succeedingly difficult challenges and trials.

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A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was forced to be moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat, once and for all, would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.

Page 140: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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3] Shivaji with his ideology of Hindavi Swaraj (freedom for Hindustan) decided to directly challenge Bijapur Sultanate rule and eventually the Mughal empire, to establish the Marāṭhā Sāmrājya or the Maratha kingdom for thr Marathas, by the Marathas and of the Marathas. Shivaji succeeded in establishing control of small portion of the present state of Maharastra in western India, during his lifetime. [4] At its peak the Maratha Empire rule spread upto Attock in Pakistan.

9] He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at Banglore (present day Bengaluru). During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Maharastra was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions.

, was handed to Shivaji. Thus Shivaji started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom on a mission. Shivaji used the title of Raja (king) only after Shahaji's death.

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In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Page 143: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Page 144: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more than prepared to squarely face the great dangers inherent in waging a war against a the powerful Mughal empire - he was fighting for independence and as such feared no earthly power, he had taken a solemn oath to achieve freedom or die trying. In January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra. Within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including parts of modern-day Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Page 145: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Page 146: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Page 147: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

Page 148: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life except that he was married to Saibai, Soyarabai, Kashibai, Putalabai and Sagunabai and had two sons and three daughters, as a ruler, his name is compared to that of Napoleon, Julius Caesar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus, who were all great rulers in their own respect. He incorporated modern administrative concepts such as cabinet, foreign affairs, internal intelligence and others and commanded an extremely well trained army. This apart, he was a king who was just and kind and showed tolerance towards all religions and languages. He himself was proficient in Sanskrit and Marathi, and patronized art of all kinds.Shivaji succumbed to fatal illness spanning many weeks in 1680 and his empire was taken over by his son Sambhaji. But this did not remove the imprint he left on the minds of all Indians. Chatrapati Shivaji's name will forever be remembered in folklore and history as the great king whose rule is considered as a golden era, which showed the light of freedom, paving the way for India's Independence later.

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Shrimant Sambhaji Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

'Birth name:' Sambhaji Bhonsle

'Title:''Birth:'

'Birthplace:''Death:'

Rajaram'Marriage:''Children:'[edit] Early life

Sambhaji was a very brave, courageous and powerful Man. His personality, attitude, intelligence and qualities had gained him the respect and appreciation of everyone who visited the Maratha Durbar.

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

Emperor and High Protector of the Maratha EmpireMay 14, 1657Purandar Fort near Pune, IndiaMarch 11, 1689

'Succeeded by:'

YesubaiShahu

Sambhaji was born on Purandar fort [1] A scholar of Sanskrit and seven other languages[citation needed

[edit] About Sambhaji

Chatrapati Sambhaji wrote several poems including a highly prestigious Sanskrit poem book “Budh bhushan”. He even composed poems in Hindi language.[citation needed]

Sambhaji is also known for his political acumen. He had given shelter to Akbar, the son of Aurangzeb, to cause widespread revolt against Aurangzeb.[2]

[edit] Estrangement and reconciliation with father

[edit] Coronation

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

[edit] Attack on Burhanpur

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

[edit] War with Mughals

Main article: War of 27 years

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

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The Marathas led by Sambhaji fought single-handedly against all the enemies. To make matters worse, there was a devastating famine in the region for two years in 1686-87.

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

[edit] Capture and Execution

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

[edit] War with Siddis of Janjira

[edit] War with Chikkadev Rai of Mysore

Hearing about the intrusion of Chikkadev Rai into Maratha territory, Sambhaji had sent his Diwan

[edit] War with the Portuguese of Goa

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions.

Stone arch at Tulapur confluence under which Sambhaji was executed

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

There were small attacks by Ramdasi people from Battis Shirala’s Math (group related to Samartha Ramdas

Ganoji’s hunger for Maratha land in the form of watan led to his enmity with Sambhaji. Sambhaji like his father- Shivaji Maharaj had abolished the custom of giving away

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

Sambhaji's Samadhi(Mausoleum) built at the place where he was cremated, Vadhu

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Sambhaji's torture and heroic death unleashed an unprecedented unity and heroic spirit among the Marathas. Aurangzeb continued his grim war against the Marathas for another 18 years but could not subjugate the Maratha state.

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

It is quite interesting to look at his own version. After he assumed the charge of Chhatrapati, he issued a Danapatra which is a eulogy right from his great grandfather Maloji to himself. He writes about him'Balbhavendra prasthadhinathanudnyat mallayudhadatt adnyabhanga:It means he(Aurangzeb) asked me to wrestle before him to which he refused.' This was during his visit along with his father to Aurangzeb's court in Agra.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

[edit] Immediate aftereffects of Sambhaji's execution

With Sambhaji's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army!

[edit] Legacy

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

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Shrimant Sambhaji Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

Sambhaji was a very brave, courageous and powerful Man. His personality, attitude, intelligence and qualities had gained him the respect and appreciation of everyone who visited the Maratha Durbar.

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

1] A scholar of Sanskrit and seven other languages[citation needed], Sambhaji quickly gained a firm political standing in the Maratha kingdom and, by the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation in 1674, he was able to impress visiting dignitaries with his acumen, intelligence, personality and, most important of all, modesty. Unfortunately, within two weeks after Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation, his grandmother Jijabai died and Sambhaji was left with nobody to nurture him. And the fact that Shivaji was too busy with the affairs of the state did not help.

Chatrapati Sambhaji wrote several poems including a highly prestigious Sanskrit poem book “Budh bhushan”. He even composed poems in Hindi language.[citation needed]

Sambhaji is also known for his political acumen. He had given shelter to Akbar, the son of Aurangzeb, to cause widespread revolt against Aurangzeb.[2]

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

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The Marathas led by Sambhaji fought single-handedly against all the enemies. To make matters worse, there was a devastating famine in the region for two years in 1686-87.

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

Hearing about the intrusion of Chikkadev Rai into Maratha territory, Sambhaji had sent his Diwan to Chikkadev Rai. But the Diwan was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

There were small attacks by Ramdasi people from Battis Shirala’s Math (group related to Samartha Ramdas's follower) this attack was also assisted by local Maratha soldiers but this attack was unsuccessful and Dixit- Bhat of Shirala and 50 other Maratha soldiers were killed by Moguls while trying to rescue Sambhaji. This incident happened on 3 February 1689. Later with strong army of 20,000 people Julphikarkhan moved towards Karad and then Baramati and finally to

led to his enmity with Sambhaji. Sambhaji like his father- Shivaji Maharaj had abolished the custom of giving away watans, as this led to the people’s suffering, from the hands of the

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

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Sambhaji's torture and heroic death unleashed an unprecedented unity and heroic spirit among the Marathas. Aurangzeb continued his grim war against the Marathas for another 18 years but could not subjugate the Maratha state.

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

It is quite interesting to look at his own version. After he assumed the charge of Chhatrapati, he issued a Danapatra which is a eulogy right from his great grandfather Maloji to himself. He writes about him'Balbhavendra prasthadhinathanudnyat mallayudhadatt adnyabhanga:It means he(Aurangzeb) asked me to wrestle before him to which he refused.' This was during his visit along with his father to Aurangzeb's court in Agra.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army!

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

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Sambhaji was a very brave, courageous and powerful Man. His personality, attitude, intelligence and qualities had gained him the respect and appreciation of everyone who visited the Maratha Durbar.

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

], Sambhaji quickly gained a firm political standing in the Maratha kingdom and, by the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation in 1674, he was able to impress visiting dignitaries with his acumen, intelligence, personality and, most important of all, modesty. Unfortunately, within two weeks after Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation, his grandmother Jijabai died and Sambhaji was left with nobody to nurture him. And the fact that Shivaji was too busy with the affairs of the state did not help.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

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Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

's follower) this attack was also assisted by local Maratha soldiers but this attack was unsuccessful and Dixit- Bhat of Shirala and 50 other Maratha soldiers were killed by Moguls while trying to rescue Sambhaji. This incident happened on 3 February 1689. Later with strong army of 20,000 people Julphikarkhan moved towards Karad and then Baramati and finally to

, as this led to the people’s suffering, from the hands of the watandar and there were chances of the watandars assuming kingship or taking possession of their

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

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Sambhaji's torture and heroic death unleashed an unprecedented unity and heroic spirit among the Marathas. Aurangzeb continued his grim war against the Marathas for another 18 years but could not subjugate the Maratha state.

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

It is quite interesting to look at his own version. After he assumed the charge of Chhatrapati, he issued a Danapatra which is a eulogy right from his great grandfather Maloji to himself. He writes about him'Balbhavendra prasthadhinathanudnyat mallayudhadatt adnyabhanga:It means he(Aurangzeb) asked me to wrestle before him to which he refused.' This was during his visit along with his father to Aurangzeb's court in Agra.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army!

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

Page 158: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

], Sambhaji quickly gained a firm political standing in the Maratha kingdom and, by the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation in 1674, he was able to impress visiting dignitaries with his acumen, intelligence, personality and, most important of all, modesty. Unfortunately, within two weeks after Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation, his grandmother Jijabai died and Sambhaji was left with nobody to nurture him. And the fact that Shivaji was too busy with the affairs of the state did not help.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

Page 159: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

's follower) this attack was also assisted by local Maratha soldiers but this attack was unsuccessful and Dixit- Bhat of Shirala and 50 other Maratha soldiers were killed by Moguls while trying to rescue Sambhaji. This incident happened on 3 February 1689. Later with strong army of 20,000 people Julphikarkhan moved towards Karad and then Baramati and finally to

and there were chances of the watandars assuming kingship or taking possession of their watans.

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

Page 160: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

It is quite interesting to look at his own version. After he assumed the charge of Chhatrapati, he issued a Danapatra which is a eulogy right from his great grandfather Maloji to himself. He writes about him'Balbhavendra prasthadhinathanudnyat mallayudhadatt adnyabhanga:It means he(Aurangzeb) asked me to wrestle before him to which he refused.' This was during his visit along with his father to Aurangzeb's court in Agra.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army!

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

Page 161: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

], Sambhaji quickly gained a firm political standing in the Maratha kingdom and, by the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation in 1674, he was able to impress visiting dignitaries with his acumen, intelligence, personality and, most important of all, modesty. Unfortunately, within two weeks after Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation, his grandmother Jijabai died and Sambhaji was left with nobody to nurture him. And the fact that Shivaji was too busy with the affairs of the state did not help.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

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Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

's follower) this attack was also assisted by local Maratha soldiers but this attack was unsuccessful and Dixit- Bhat of Shirala and 50 other Maratha soldiers were killed by Moguls while trying to rescue Sambhaji. This incident happened on 3 February 1689. Later with strong army of 20,000 people Julphikarkhan moved towards Karad and then Baramati and finally to Bahadurgad near Bhima river. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad.

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

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Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

It is quite interesting to look at his own version. After he assumed the charge of Chhatrapati, he issued a Danapatra which is a eulogy right from his great grandfather Maloji to himself. He writes about him'Balbhavendra prasthadhinathanudnyat mallayudhadatt adnyabhanga:It means he(Aurangzeb) asked me to wrestle before him to which he refused.' This was during his visit along with his father to Aurangzeb's court in Agra.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army!

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

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Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

], Sambhaji quickly gained a firm political standing in the Maratha kingdom and, by the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation in 1674, he was able to impress visiting dignitaries with his acumen, intelligence, personality and, most important of all, modesty. Unfortunately, within two weeks after Chhatrapati Shivaji's coronation, his grandmother Jijabai died and Sambhaji was left with nobody to nurture him. And the fact that Shivaji was too busy with the affairs of the state did not help. [citation needed

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

Page 165: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

There were chances of Portuguese providing supplies to Mughals and allowing unloading of Mughal ships at the Portuguese ports in Goa. Thus, Sambhaji undertook a campaign against the Portuguese in Goa. Portuguese like Chikka Dev Rai, were driven by arrogance. Marathas stormed Goa and started conquering Portuguese territory and forts. Portuguese weren’t able to overcome the Marathas. Common people in Goa rose in rebellion and started thrashing the priests, whom they accused of carrying out forced conversions. [citation needed].Sambhaji controlled the irate people of Goa. Seeing the inevitable, Portuguese ruler Count De Alwore and his ministers even took out the body of St. Xavier and started praying for their safety. And, to their astonishment, Sambhaji had to depart from Goa, as Aurangzeb had again sent about 100,000 (a lakh) troops to run wild in the Maratha kingdom.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

Bahadurgad near Bhima river. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad.

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes

Page 166: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Despite the torture, Sambhaji refused to submit to Aurangzeb's conditions. In so doing he earned the title of Dharmaveer (Protector of the Religion) by which he is known to this day. Aurangzeb ordered to cut Sambhaji's body into pieces and throw it into the river. Residents of nearby village named 'Vadhu' collected as many pieces of his body as they found, sewed them together and performed the final rites on his body. These villagers later went on to use the surname 'Shivle' or 'Shivale', as per spelling preference, which means sewing in the Marathi language.

's death, Maratha confederacy was thrown in a disarray. He was succeeded as leader of the Marathas by his younger brother Rajaram. The Commander in chief of Maratha army, Mhaloji Ghorpade, who succeeded Hambirrao Mohite, died in the ambush at Sangameshwar. A few days after Sambhaji's death, the capital Raigad fell to the Mughals and Sambhaji's wife and son were captured. However, Marathas' capital had shifted to Gingee with Chhatrapati Rajaram. Infact, Marathas under Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav were running riot in the Mughal army! [3]

There is some dispute among historians about Sambhaji's ability as a ruler. Some historians have portrayed him as ineffective and alcoholic. This was just a misinformation by the Mughals. Also many who were denied watans by Sambhaji, deliberately spread these rumours to defame Sambhaji Maharaj. Other historians, notably S.S. Shivade, portray Sambhaji as a capable ruler. But whatever may have been his inadequacies as a ruler, his redemption and symbolism came in his death, and it is for this that he is mostly remembered by the Marathi people to this day.

Page 167: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

citation needed]

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

Page 168: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

Sambhaji warned Siddis, Chikkadev Rai and Portuguese from crossing the path of the Marathas and ordered them to refrain from helping Aurangzeb in any way. In this way, Sambhaji nullified any threat that the Maratha kingdom had from these 3 powers. Sambhaji also beat back the two Mughal armies of 100,000 (a lakh) troops each, which were sent by Aurangzeb to wreak havoc in the Maratha kingdom. In fact, the second army was so badly thrashed that only a few troops could return to the Mughal camp. Thus, Aurangzeb wanted to somehow arrest Sambhaji by deceit, as he concluded that it wouldn’t be possible for him to annex the Maratha kingdom by force.

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar in Konkan to decide on the final blow to oust Aurangzeb from Deccan. In order to execute the plans soon, Sambhaji sent ahead most of his comrades and stayed back with a few of his trustworthy men. In a meticulously planned operation, one of the brother-in-laws of Sambhaji-Ganoji Shirke deceived the Marathas and helped Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan to locate, get to and attack Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was in the garden of Sangameshwar, resolving some issues and was about to leave the town.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

].Sambhaji controlled the irate people of Goa. Seeing the inevitable, Portuguese ruler Count De Alwore and his ministers even took out the body of St. Xavier and started praying for their safety. And, to their astonishment, Sambhaji had to depart from Goa, as Aurangzeb had again sent about 100,000 (a lakh) troops to run wild in the Maratha kingdom.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

After learning that Sambhjaji had been captured and produced before him as a prisoner, Aurangzeb felt very happy. He stood up from his royal seat and offered prayer to God and bent towards land. Kavi Kulesh captured this scene in a small poem which was still remembered in Maharashtra. It was praise of Sambhaji’s courage and glowing of eyes and face of Sambhaji Raje, Kavi kulesh wanted to say that since Aurangzeb have not ever saw such a sharp and courageous man in his entire life that’s why he acknowledged Sambhaji’s greatness by standing up from his royal seat. Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes [citation needed]. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them

Page 169: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Page 170: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

Page 171: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

].Sambhaji controlled the irate people of Goa. Seeing the inevitable, Portuguese ruler Count De Alwore and his ministers even took out the body of St. Xavier and started praying for their safety. And, to their astonishment, Sambhaji had to depart from Goa, as Aurangzeb had again sent about 100,000 (a lakh) troops to run wild in the Maratha kingdom.

Sambhaji and his Men were surrounded from all sides. Marathas took out their swords, roared ‘Har Har Mahadev’ and pounced upon the numerous Mughals. A bloody skirmish took place. However, owing to the number of Mughal troops, Sambhaji Maharaj and Kavi Kalash were captured on 1 February 1689. Ganoji Shirke who guided Mughals through the thorny, thick forests, high cliffs, steep slopes of the Sahyadri deceived Maratha posts in-between by posing Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash as prisoners arrested for smuggling diamonds. Ganoji told Mukarrab about the possible routes, to get to and capture Sambhaji and then, return back. It was a meticulously planned operation. If not for Ganoji, Mughals could have never laid their hands on Sambhaji.[2]

]. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them [citation needed

Page 172: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Page 173: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Within a year or so of Sambhaji's coronation, Sultan Muhammad Akbar took shelter with him and sought Sambhaji's aid in winning the Mughal throne from his father Aurangzeb. On hearing about the death of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb had come to Deccan in 1680 AD to bring down the Maratha Empire. The Mughal army, which came along totaled about 5,00,000-6,00,000 troops and 4,00,000 animals, which, at that time was perhaps the largest army in the world. With the help of such a massive army, he brought the Adilshah (Bijapur) and Qutubshah (Golconda) empires to his feet. Aurangzeb acquired 2 generals namely Mukarrabkhan and Sarjakhan from Qutubshahi and Adilshahi empires respectively. However, he was not able to bring an end to the Maratha Empire. It was to be the final war in his life and lasted all of 27 years until his death near Aurangabad in 1707.

It was a disproportionate battle in all senses. Aurangzeb's army was at least 8 to 9 times larger than Sambhaji's. His whole empire was around 15 times bigger than Sambhaji's. However, Sambhaji led the fight valiantly and did not let Aurangzeb win even a single major victory. The tenacity and sheer will of the Maratha resistance to the Mughal invasion is best illustrated by the story of the Ramshej fort near Nashik. Aurangzeb's commanders claimed that they would win the fort within hours but the fight for the fort lasted for seven years. Sambhaji utilised the available resources very well and made strategically adroit moves by comprehensively defeating the enemies of his kingdom like Siddi of Janjira, Chikkadev Rai of Mysore and Portuguese of Goa and Bassein (Vasai) before they could turn on him and support Aurangzeb.

Page 174: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam religion. Sambhaji refused to convert, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On 11 March 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

].Sambhaji controlled the irate people of Goa. Seeing the inevitable, Portuguese ruler Count De Alwore and his ministers even took out the body of St. Xavier and started praying for their safety. And, to their astonishment, Sambhaji had to depart from Goa, as Aurangzeb had again sent about 100,000 (a lakh) troops to run wild in the Maratha kingdom.

]. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were tied upside down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them[citation needed].

Page 175: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Page 176: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Page 177: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 178: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Page 179: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Interestingly enough, Sambhaji joined forces with Aurangzeb for almost a year. Shivaji had gone further south for his campaign to capture the forts of Adil Shah leaving Deccan in charge of Sambahji. In the meantime, Aurangzeb, realising the opportunity to finish off the Maratha empire in the absence of Shivaji ordered his commander Diler Khan to lead a large army to attack Sambhaji. Realising the desperate scenario of facing Diler with a handful of men and in the absence of Shiavji, Sambhaji decided to play a masterful trick on the moghuls. To bide time, he decided to send Diler a series of letters convincing him that he disapproved of his father's strategies and was himself on the verge of joining Aurangzeb. This lead to the time consuming procedure of asking for Aurangzeb's permission for further course of action. Eventually, Sambhaji was allowed to become an ally of Auranzeb. This allowed Shivaji to finish off his campaign in the south and turn back to Deccan. When Auranzeb came to know of the little trick played on him by Sambhaji, he became furious.

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Page 180: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 181: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Aurangzeb spent the last 25 years of his life in the Deccan in constant war with the Marathas till his death on 3 March 1707. In 1737, within 50 years of the torture and death of Sambhaji, Maratha JAT Allied armies entered Delhi and had re-established Hindu rule over all of western, central and much of northern India. It was the first time after 1192, when Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Mohammed Ghori, that a Hindu army was in control of Delhi except for a brief period by Hemu in 1556. The Maratha empire would remain the foremost military power in India till they lost power to the British after 3 Anglo-Maratha wars, the last of which ended in 1818.Internal division among marathas led to defeat against british. Peshwa could not control Maratha knights- Shinde and holkar and this led to weakening of Maratha Empire. Still, British were defeated at first Anglo-Maratha war which was fought by all Maratha sardars unitedly.Marathas and Tipu sultan are the exception in regard that they were only rulers who could defeat British.

Page 182: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Page 183: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 184: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Page 185: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 186: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all.

Page 187: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 188: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Bahadurkhan Kokaltash, a relative of Aurangzeb was in-charge of Burhanpur, a Mughal stronghold. He left Burhanpur to attend a wedding, giving the charge of Burhanpur to Kakarkhan. The careless and bigheaded Bahadurkhan also took with him a territorial army, to showoff at the wedding. Sambhaji had tricked Mughals by making them to think that Marathas were going to attack Surat, which was twice plundered by Shivaji Maharaj in his lifetime. However, Hambirrao Mohite, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha army was already surrounding Burhanpur. And to his surprise, Sambhaji had also reached Burhanpur in a very short time. Thus, within a fortnight of his coronation, Sambhaji along with Hambirrao attacked Burhanpur. Mughals tried to retaliate but were taken aback by the sudden attack of the Marathas and thus, couldn’t do much to save Burhanpur. The Mughals either hid somewhere or locked themselves up in the fort of Burhanpur. Marathas plundered all the Mughal treasure in Burhanpur. The Mughals were made poorer by about 20 million rupees. Sambhaji also purchased horses from an Arab trader, although the utterly frightened trader, was ready to give away the horses for free. This attack is a perfect example of careful planning, execution, excellent strategic mobility and immense courage of the Marathas under Sambhaji. Marathas safely reached Raigad with all the loot. People of Burhanpur, especially women and children weren’t harmed at all. [2]

Page 189: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 190: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

Page 191: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

Page 192: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort.

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Janjira was under the Siddis. Janjira was strategically a very important place and a mighty fort in the Arabian Sea, with cannons embedded all around. It also had high economic importance. Traders had to cough up heavy amounts to bypass this spot. Marathas had earlier tried conquering Janjira, but to no avail. Sambhaji wanted to capture Janjira. Marathas attacked the fort from all sides. Siddis also retaliated with their cannons and ships. However, the force of the Maratha attack was such that defeat was eminent for the Siddis. But still they weren’t giving up. But then, there was a lull in the Maratha camp and Janjira was not attacked, on the orders of Sambhaji Maharaj. Other Maratha chiefs were getting anxious and didn’t know the reason behind this. The reason was that Sambhaji had sent a spy along with some trust-worthy Men in the fort of Janjira to deceive the Siddis. Nobody except Sambhaji knew about this. However, the day on which the spy and his Maratha comrades were going to leave Janjira by blowing up the gunpowder and explosives store, they were caught, as a female-servant came to know about this and informed the Siddis. They were all killed and only one managed to escape. Sambhaji got this news and couldn’t believe his misfortune. He now wanted to destroy the fort and came up with a unique idea of building a bridge of stones from the shore leading to the fort. However, the implementation was very risky, difficult and consumed time. When about half of the bridge was built and victory for the Marathas was inevitable, news came that Aurangzeb had sent 100,000 (a lakh) troops to ravage the Maratha kingdom. Thus, Sambhaji had to leave Janjira to counter the Mughal army.

was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

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Annaji Datto, Somaji Datto wanted to oust Sambhaji so that they could get to play a bigger role in the affairs of the state and use it to their advantage. They even poisoned Sambhaji's food, but, Sambhaji was fortunately saved. Their plot was uncovered the first time around, however, Sambhaji forgave them. Still, they conspired the second time too and wanted to arrest Sambhaji at the Panhala Fort, where he was staying at the time of Shivaji's death. They wanted to crown Rajaram in opposition to Sambhaji as Maratha emperor. They forcefully involved Moropant Pingale, Balaji Awji Chitnis and Chitnis's son in their treachery. Soyrabai, mother of Rajaram was also a part of this plan. However Sarnobat, the then Supreme Commander of Maratha forces, Hambirrao Mohite, Rajaram's uncle ( Mother's brother) supported Sambhaji since he was the rightful heir to the throne. At the time of Shivaji's death, there was news of impending attack of Aurangzeb's army on Marathas and at such a crucial juncture, a strong leader like Sambhaji was the need of the hour. Therefore, Hambirrao did not support his own sister and sided with Sambhaji. It was chiefly because of Hambirrao Mohite's support that Sambhaji was able to ascend to his rightful place on the Maratha throne in 1681. However Sambhaji pardoned Moropant Pingale and again re-appointed him on the post of “Peshwa”. Later on there were no differences between Sambhaji and Moropant Pingale as they together participated in the 1681 Burhanpur war. Soyrabai (step-mother of Sambhaji) also felt guilty about what she had done and later died heart-broken. The rest of those who were guilty were either crushed under elephant's leg or thrown down the Raigad fort. [2]

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was insulted in the Mysore Durbar. Seeing this, Sambhaji became infuriated and decided to teach Chikkadev Rai a lesson. Marathas marched into the Tamil state. But, Chikkadev Rai too put on his armour and decided to face Sambhaji, before Marathas could reach Mysore’s capital. Both the armies were face-to-face and poised for a battle. All of a sudden, arrows started pouring in from the Mysore army. They started inflicting fatal wounds on the Maratha army. The long-range, deadly arrows from the Mysore bowmen filled the skies. Thus, realizing the casualties, Sambhaji retreated for the time being. Sambhaji then ordered all the local cobblers to prepare rubber clothing. Then, these garments were laden with oil. Marathas then started making bows and arrows using a particular local tree. These bows and arrows were ordinary and crude. A piece of cloth was wound at the arrows’ head and it was set on fire using oil. Thus, Sambhaji transformed ordinary arrows into fiery arrows. But still the Mysore bowmen had longer, stronger, better quality bows and arrows than the Marathas. Marathas then started attacking the forts in Mysore. The Mysore bowmen started striking from the forts. But, their lethal arrows proved futile, as the oil-laden rubber clothing neutralized the effects of the arrows. Then, Marathas started striking with their arrows. These arrows would strike the explosives and gunpowder store, causing explosions and many casualties. The forts of Chikkadev Rai fell into the hands of the Marathas one by one. Thus, Chikkadev Rai was brought down to his knees and he agreed to abide by the terms of the Marathas.

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Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

Reign 1689 – 1700Coronation 1689Full name Rajaram Shivaji BhosaleBorn 1670Birthplace Raigad fortDied March 2, 1700Place of death Sinhagad fort, MaharastraPredecessor Sambhaji BhosaleSuccessor Tarabai BhosaleConsort TarabaiRoyal HouseFather Shivaji BhosaleMother Soyrabai

Though Rajaram was not able to move out of Jinji, his young generals Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav continued to harass the Mughal army through guerrilla tactics. Kafi khan wrote about them that whenever mughal horses used to refuse to go to the water to drink water, it was feared they had seen Santaji and Dhanaji.

Santaji Ghorpade whose father Senapati Mhaloji Ghorpade died in the battle of Sangmeshwar along with Sambhaji, was directed by Sambhaji to Raigad to rescue the queen and Rajaram. The gallant man, true to the words given to his master secured the release of Rajaram from the siege of Raigad.

With the plight of Rajaram, the rout of the Marathas was almost complete. Aurangzeb was at his zenith of power. But then the brave Santaji on his own forded the River Bhima even though it was flooded, attacked the very centre of the Mughal camp. Aurangzeb who at that time was reading Koran was saved due to magnanimity of the marathas.

Santaji is credited with the defeat of at least three major Mughal chiefs. One Mughal general Kasim Khan was so badly defeated that he committed suicide. By brilliant tactics of cavalry, Santaji wreaked havoc right from the Pune to the Tanjore region. Unfortunately he fell out with Rajaram and Dhanaji Jadhav. He was killed when he was alone taking bath by one Nagoji Mane. The severed head of Santaji was presented to Aurangzeb for reward. Such was the tragic end of one of the most distinguished general of cavalry in the contemporary India.

[edit] Siege of Gingee for seven years

Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jang against Marathas in the Deccan, but specially sent Zulfiqar Khan to capture Gingee fort, who laid the siege in September, 1690. After abandoning the siege three times, finally it was captured after seven years on January 8, 1698. Rajaram escaped and fled first to Vellore and afterwards Vishalgarh.

[edit] Generals Santaji and Dhanaji

[edit] Death

Rajaram died of an unspecified illness in 1700 at fort Sinhagad in present day Maharashtra, perhaps due to his weak constitution. Thereafter the Maratha empire suffered a power vacumn until the release of his nephew, Shahuji in 1707. In the interim, Rajaram's wife, Tarabai ruled the empire as regent for her young son, Shivaji II. Eventually, Shahuji succeeded Rajaram as the fourth

[edit] An estimate

Rajaram was a cool minded person. He was quite patient and practical. During the time of crisis he remained as a rallying point of Maratha resistance. He remained confined to Jinjee fort for 9 years itself indicates his mental strength and the sheer will to continue the cause. Due to his locking position in Jingee fort, he had to give more authorities to his generals which slowly eroded the strong position of the king. However considering the task before him, he did his job well. He built a temple at Sindhudurg in the memory of his father.

[edit] See also

Chhatrapati

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Maratha EmpireBhonsle family ancestryKhando Ballal

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, p.2962. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.289,365-703. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, p.6094. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.294-5

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Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

Though Rajaram was not able to move out of Jinji, his young generals Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav continued to harass the Mughal army through guerrilla tactics. Kafi khan wrote about them that whenever mughal horses used to refuse to go to the water to drink water, it was feared they had seen Santaji and Dhanaji.

With the plight of Rajaram, the rout of the Marathas was almost complete. Aurangzeb was at his zenith of power. But then the brave Santaji on his own forded the River Bhima even though it was flooded, attacked the very centre of the Mughal camp. Aurangzeb who at that time was reading Koran was saved due to magnanimity of the marathas.

Santaji is credited with the defeat of at least three major Mughal chiefs. One Mughal general Kasim Khan was so badly defeated that he committed suicide. By brilliant tactics of cavalry, Santaji wreaked havoc right from the Pune to the Tanjore region. Unfortunately he fell out with Rajaram and Dhanaji Jadhav. He was killed when he was alone taking bath by one Nagoji Mane. The severed head of Santaji was presented to Aurangzeb for reward. Such was the tragic end of one of the most distinguished general of cavalry in the contemporary India.

to capture Gingee fort, who laid the siege in September, 1690. After abandoning the siege three times, finally it was captured after seven years on January 8, 1698. Rajaram escaped and fled first to Vellore and afterwards Vishalgarh. [4] Rajaram tried to counter with a siege of the town of Berar, but was checked by Prince

Rajaram died of an unspecified illness in 1700 at fort Sinhagad in present day Maharashtra, perhaps due to his weak constitution. Thereafter the Maratha empire suffered a power vacumn until the release of his nephew, Shahuji in 1707. In the interim, Rajaram's wife, Tarabai ruled the empire as regent for her young son, Shivaji II. Eventually, Shahuji succeeded Rajaram as the fourth Chattrapati in 1708.

Rajaram was a cool minded person. He was quite patient and practical. During the time of crisis he remained as a rallying point of Maratha resistance. He remained confined to Jinjee fort for 9 years itself indicates his mental strength and the sheer will to continue the cause. Due to his locking position in Jingee fort, he had to give more authorities to his generals which slowly eroded the strong position of the king. However considering the task before him, he did his job well. He built a temple at Sindhudurg in the memory of his father.

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Santaji is credited with the defeat of at least three major Mughal chiefs. One Mughal general Kasim Khan was so badly defeated that he committed suicide. By brilliant tactics of cavalry, Santaji wreaked havoc right from the Pune to the Tanjore region. Unfortunately he fell out with Rajaram and Dhanaji Jadhav. He was killed when he was alone taking bath by one Nagoji Mane. The severed head of Santaji was presented to Aurangzeb for reward. Such was the tragic end of one of the most distinguished general of cavalry in the contemporary India.

4] Rajaram tried to counter with a siege of the town of Berar, but was checked by Prince Bedarbakht and Zulfiqar Khan and had to return.

Rajaram was a cool minded person. He was quite patient and practical. During the time of crisis he remained as a rallying point of Maratha resistance. He remained confined to Jinjee fort for 9 years itself indicates his mental strength and the sheer will to continue the cause. Due to his locking position in Jingee fort, he had to give more authorities to his generals which slowly eroded the strong position of the king. However considering the task before him, he did his job well. He built a temple at Sindhudurg in the memory of his father.

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Santaji is credited with the defeat of at least three major Mughal chiefs. One Mughal general Kasim Khan was so badly defeated that he committed suicide. By brilliant tactics of cavalry, Santaji wreaked havoc right from the Pune to the Tanjore region. Unfortunately he fell out with Rajaram and Dhanaji Jadhav. He was killed when he was alone taking bath by one Nagoji Mane. The severed head of Santaji was presented to Aurangzeb for reward. Such was the tragic end of one of the most distinguished general of cavalry in the contemporary India.

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Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj..Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1670-1700 AD) was the younger son of the first Chattrapati Shivaji, step-brother of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, and took over the Maratha Empire as the third Chattrapati after his brother was tortured and killed by Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. He had a very short reign during which he was furiously pursued by the Mughals

He was pampered by his mother and liked by all due to his docile nature.He was decalred chatrapati at the age of 10 by a faction of court after death of Shivaji.However Sambhaji prevailed and assumed the throne.Sambhaji put othere to death but brought up his brother as a prince.Future events proved this.He was vey cultured and accomodative. As Mughals started lying siege to the region around Raigad, the brave widow of Sambhaji, Rani Yesubai sent the young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya ghat. The Maratha army fought fiercely with Mughals and led the new Maratha King, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the town of Jinji (sometimes anglicised to Ginjee) in present day state of Tamil Nadu and its fort via Pratapgad-Vishalgad forts

Aurangzeb deputed Gajiuddin Firoj Jung against Marathas in the Deccan, but specially sent Zulfikar Khan to capture Jinji which was captured in 1698. Rajaram tried to counter with a siege of the town of Berar, but was checked by Prince Bedarbakht and Zulfikar Khan and had to return.However, his generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav continued to harass the Mughal army through guerrilla tactics.Kafi khan writes about them that whenever mughal horses used to refuse to go to water,it was feared that whether they had seen Santaji and Dhanaji. Santaji Ghorpade whose father senapti Ghorpade died in the battle of Sangmeshwar alongwith Sambhaji, was directed by Sambhaji to Raigarh to rescue the queen and Rajaram.The gallant true to the words given to his master secured release of Rajaram from the siege of Raigarh . WIth plight of Rajaram, the route of maratha was alomst complete.Aurangzeb was at his zenith of power.But then the brave Santaji on his own forded the river Bhima even though it was flooded , and attacked the vety centre of Mughal camp.Aurangzeb who was reading the holy Koran was saved due to magnamity of the maratha . Santaji is credited with defeat of at least three major chiefs of Mughals.One Mughal genral Kasim Khan was so badly defeated that he committed suicide.By brilliant tactis of cavalry ,Santaji played havoc right from Poona region to Tanjore region. Unfortunatley he fell out with Rajaram and Dhanaji Jadhav .He was killed when he was alone taking bath by one Nagoji Mane.The severed head of Santaji was presentd to Aurangzeb for reward.Such was the tragic end of the one of the most distingushed general of cavalry in the contemporay Rajaram died of an unspecified illness in 1700 at the Sinhagad fort in present day Maharashtra, perhaps due to his weak constitution. Thereafter the Maratha empire suffered a power vacumn until the release of his nephew, Shahuji in 1707. In the interim, Rajaram's wife, Tarabai ruled the empire as regent for her young son. Eventually, Shahuji succeeded Rajaram as the fourth Chattrapati.

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Rani Yesubai''Yesubai'' was the wife of Sambhaji, a Maratha emperor.She was the daughter of Pilajirao Shirke, an illustrious Maratha Sardar, who was in the services of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.Yesubai was by various accounts extremely beautiful, wise and prudent. She was fiercely loyal to the goals of her father-in-law, Shivaji maharaj, of establishing and perpetuating the Maratha empire. It is said that she aided her husband, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj in the daily affairs of state, giving just and wise suggestions. She was extremely loyal to her husband Sambhaji and was very proud of his audacity and other qualities. She did not hesitate to go against her own brother when he unjustly demanded of Sambhaji Maharaj a vatan. She was the most favourite wife of Sambhaji Maharaj, and was his lifelong faithful companion, friend and beloved.They had a son called Shahaji, but he was renamed by Aurangzeb as 'Shahu' to obliterate any memories of his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

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Rani Yesubai.She was the daughter of Pilajirao Shirke, an illustrious Maratha Sardar,

who was in the services of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.Yesubai was by various accounts extremely beautiful, wise and prudent. She was fiercely loyal to the goals of her father-in-law, Shivaji maharaj, of establishing and perpetuating the Maratha empire. It is said that she aided her husband, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj in the daily affairs of state, giving just and wise suggestions. She was extremely loyal to her husband Sambhaji and was very proud of his audacity and other qualities. She did not hesitate to go against her own brother when he unjustly demanded of Sambhaji Maharaj a vatan. She was the most favourite wife of Sambhaji Maharaj, and was his lifelong faithful companion, friend and beloved.They had a son called Shahaji, but he was renamed by Aurangzeb as 'Shahu' to obliterate any memories of his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

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Rani Tarabai

Tarabai was the daughter of the famed Maratha general Hambirao Mohite. She was the niece of Soyarabai, the second wife Chatrapati Shivaji.

War with the Mughals

The Marathas were continually at war with the Mughals, and in 1700 the Maratha capital Satara was besieged and surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram, who was the king at that time, died. Then Tarabai assumed control in the name of her son, Sambhaji II.Tarabai was skilled in cavalry movement, and made strategic movements herself during wars. She personally led the war and continued the onslaught on the Mughals. A truce was offered to the Mughals in such way that it was promptly rejected by the Mughal emperor, and Tarabai continued the Maratha resistance.By 1705, Marathas had crossed the Narmada and entered Malwa, which was in Mughal possession. There they defeated several Mughal garrisons. Many well-known commanders, including Udaji Pawar and Hybatrao Nimbalkar, excelled in this offensive. This aggressive Maratha strategy brought ruin upon the Mughals. They were defeated and withdrew from Maratha country. During this uncermonious withdrawal, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb died at Khultabad Dist Aurangabad Political intrigues

In order to divide the Maratha onslaught, the Mughals released Shahu on certain conditions. He immediately challeneged Tarabai and Sambhaji II for leadership of the Maratha polity. Shahu eventually prevailed thanks to his legal position and in part to the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath' diplomacy, and Tarabai was sidelined for some time. She established a rival court in Kolhapur in 1713.After Shahu's death in 1749, Tarabai helped conduct Ramaraja to the kingship. Afterwards, however, she denounced Ramaraja on the grounds that he was not her grandson as he claimed. During this period of weakened royal power, Tarabai exercised great influence in the Maratha state. She headed one of several factions vying for control within the increasingly fractious confederacy.Hailed as Bhadrakali, her name is still celebrated in countryside in parts of Maharashtra. Noted historian Jadunath Sarkar has written about her, "In that awful crisis her character and strength saved the nation".

Tarabai is also the name of a small town in São Paulo, Brazil.

Tarabai (1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. Her husband was Chhatrapati Rajaram, son of Shivaji the Great.

Preceded by

Regent of the

Succeeded by

Rajaram ChhatrapatiMaratha EmpireChhatrapati Shahuji1700–1708

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was coronated a sovereign king, in 1674. His administration was centralised and had 8 misters to look after the affairs of the state. At this time his vast kingdom included whole of costal Maharashtra, Karnataka, and parts of Gujrat and Tamilnadu.

In 1680, he was succeeded by his son Sambhaji, then 23 years old. Some accounts describe Sambhaji as irresponsible, addicted successor; while others describe him as a shrewd and responsible king.After Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb marched on Deccan with the intention of ending the Maratha empire. After a struggle of 9 years Sambhaji was captured and killed by Aurangzeb. Sambhaji's younger brother Rajaram, succeeded him. Enraged by Sambhaji's brutal death, the Marathas lead by Rajaram fought Aurangzeb. He fought for nearly 10 years, until his death. His wife Tarabai continued the struggle. She shifted the capital of Maratha empire to Karaveer (Kolhapur). With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 the Maratha struggle ended. Marathas fought for nearly 30 years against the Mughals. This was the toughest time for Marathas. For most of the time they fought without a king and without a kingdom.

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Rani Tarabai

Tarabai was the daughter of the famed Maratha general Hambirao Mohite. She was the niece of Soyarabai, the second wife Chatrapati Shivaji.

The Marathas were continually at war with the Mughals, and in 1700 the Maratha capital Satara was besieged and surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram, who was the king at that time, died. Then Tarabai assumed control in the name of her son, Sambhaji II.Tarabai was skilled in cavalry movement, and made strategic movements herself during wars.

A truce was offered to the Mughals in such way that it was promptly rejected by the Mughal emperor, and Tarabai continued the Maratha resistance.By 1705, Marathas had crossed the Narmada and entered Malwa, which was in Mughal possession. There they defeated several Mughal garrisons. Many well-known commanders, including Udaji Pawar and Hybatrao Nimbalkar, excelled in this offensive. This aggressive Maratha strategy brought ruin upon the Mughals. They were defeated and withdrew from Maratha country. During this uncermonious withdrawal, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb died at Khultabad Dist Aurangabad

In order to divide the Maratha onslaught, the Mughals released Shahu on certain conditions. He immediately challeneged Tarabai and Sambhaji II for leadership of the Maratha polity. Shahu eventually prevailed thanks to his legal position and in part to the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath' diplomacy, and Tarabai was sidelined for some time. She established a rival court in Kolhapur in 1713.After Shahu's death in 1749, Tarabai helped conduct Ramaraja to the kingship. Afterwards, however, she denounced Ramaraja on the grounds that he was not her grandson as he claimed. During this period of weakened royal power, Tarabai exercised great influence in the Maratha state. She headed one of several factions vying for control within the increasingly fractious confederacy.

Noted historian Jadunath Sarkar has written about her, "In that awful crisis her character and strength saved the nation".

(1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. Her husband was Chhatrapati Rajaram, son of Shivaji the Great.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was coronated a sovereign king, in 1674. His administration was centralised and had 8 misters to look after the affairs of the state. At this time his vast kingdom included whole of costal Maharashtra, Karnataka,

In 1680, he was succeeded by his son Sambhaji, then 23 years old. Some accounts describe Sambhaji as irresponsible, addicted successor; while others describe him as a shrewd and responsible king.After Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb marched on Deccan with the intention of ending the Maratha empire. After a struggle of 9 years Sambhaji was captured and killed by Aurangzeb. Sambhaji's younger brother Rajaram, succeeded him. Enraged by Sambhaji's brutal death, the Marathas lead by Rajaram fought Aurangzeb. He fought for nearly 10 years, until his death. His wife Tarabai continued the struggle. She shifted the capital of Maratha empire to Karaveer (Kolhapur). With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 the Maratha struggle ended. Marathas fought for nearly 30 years against the Mughals. This was the toughest time for Marathas. For most of the time they fought without a king and without a kingdom.

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Shahu eventually prevailed thanks to his legal position and in part to the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath' diplomacy, and Tarabai was sidelined for some time. She established a rival court in Kolhapur in 1713.

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Shrimant Shahu Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati MaharajChhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in the state of Maharashtra, India). More popularly known as Chattrapati Shahuji, he came out of captivity by the Mughals and survived a civil war to gain the throne in 1707. Somewhat of a roi fainéant, he was a good judge of character, but was content to let his Prime Ministers (the Peshwas) rule on a day-to-day basis.He was the son of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, who was killed by the Mughals in 1689.

1. Imprisonment

The Marathas emerged as victorious in this long war. The Mughals retreated around 1707 after the death of the then Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. The next Emperor Bahadur Shah released Shahuji in 1707 under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor. His mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour by him and her release could be obtained only in 1719 when Marathas became strong and controlled Delhi.

She set up a competing Kingdom of Kolhapur. With the assistance of Balaji Vishwanath who was later appointed the ‘‘Peshwa (Marathi for Prime Minister) and Sardar Khanderao Dabhade who was later appointed the ‘‘Senapati (Marathi for Commander-in-Chief), Shahuji outmanoeuvered Tarabai in 1714 and consolidated his power.

His childhood was spent in royal mughals captivity, he was kept away from his own people, and he could not got any military education. After release from mughals, then caretaker of Maratha kingdom, Rani Tarabai refused to give him throne, which she had defended from might mughals.

and helped Shahu to turn Maratha’s loyal to Rani Tarabai towards Shahu. In exchange Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath Prime Minister of Maratha kingdom. After civil war Shahu was kept away from regular politics of the empire and was forced to settle at Satara. Maratha Empire was then governed by Peshwas of Pune.

2. AccomplishmentsShahuji's primary accomplishment was in stabilising the fractured Maratha empire after the defeat of the Mughals by Marathas. During the War of 27 Years many Maratha nobles became powerful. He was the binding force of the Marathas.

the Maratha frontiers. In a real sense he was the emperor of contemporary India, but remained grateful to even weak descendants of the great Mughals. During his captivity, Mughals had raised him as a prince and never compromised his honor or that of his mother. He spent his entire childhood and youth, from age 7 to age 28 in the custody of the Mughals. He had passed through hardships and all uncertainties of life. Born as a prince, he became a prisoner at the age of 7, became a Chattrapati at the age of 28 and saw the empire spreading all over the continent. These events strengthened him.

3. Socio-political revolution

As a patron, he always gave space to the rising talented buds to act and as an authority made those ambitious chiefs to submit before his highness. Shahuji was instrumental in giving space to new talents irresepctive their background. His reign saw rise of many like Balaji, changes in late 19th century as a result of this.Shinde and many more talented people who later became the strong support on which the Maratha empire expanded and flourished, especially Bajirao Peshwa and Holkars in North. He is credited with establishing the position of Peshwa, which later became a hereditary position. He appointed a young Bajirao as Peshwa on April 17, 1719 after the premature death of his father Balaji Vishwanath. After 20 years tenure of Bajirao, he appointed Nanasaheb, as Peshwa. These three Peshwas were extremely efficient and Shahu always acknowledged their efforts to enhance the Maratha Empire. He is also responsible for appointing Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre to the position of the first Maratha naval chief, in return for his moving loyalty from the Tarabai camp. He appointed Sardar Khanderao Dabhade as his "Sarsenapati" or Commander-in-Chief. During his tenure almost all sections of society rose to power. Perhaps Maratha empire was the most socially mobile empire which accommodated many new socio-economic groups which were hitherto miles away from the power. It had had an effect on the social fabric of the nation. Maharashtra witnessed a spate of social

4. FamilyShahuji had four wives, and fathered two sons and four daughters. He adopted two sons, Meherban Shrimant Fatehsinh I Raje Sahib Bhonsle and Shrimant Rajaram II Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib in 1745 (who succeeded him as the Raja of Satara).

Shrimant Shahu Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the

During Mughal-Maratha war of 27 years Shahuji was imprisoned by the Mughals at the age of 7 years after the fall of

After his release Shahuji had to contend with a competing claim by his aunt, Tarabai and her son, Raje Sambhaji II (son of Rajaram).

Being a grandson of Great Shivaji and son of Sambhaji, Shahu could not make strong impression on history and the politics of his time.

Shahu was alone and was not very ambitious like his grandfather and father. Balaji Viswanath

Under his patronage his many civilian officers like Balaji or army commanders like Bajirao,

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5. DeathAfter Shahuji's death in 1749 his adopted son, Rajaram II succeeded him, but he was largely incompetent. The Maratha empire was primarily governed by the Peshwas from then onwards, with the Chattrapatis remaining the titular head.

Page 210: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Shrimant Shahu Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati MaharajChhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in the state of Maharashtra, India). More popularly known as Chattrapati Shahuji, he came out of captivity by the Mughals and survived a civil war to gain the throne in 1707. Somewhat of a roi fainéant, he was a good judge of character, but was content to let his Prime Ministers (the Peshwas) rule on a day-to-day basis.He was the son of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, who was killed by the Mughals in 1689.

The Marathas emerged as victorious in this long war. The Mughals retreated around 1707 after the death of the then Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. The next Emperor Bahadur Shah released Shahuji in 1707 under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor. His mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour by him and her release could be obtained only in 1719

She set up a competing Kingdom of Kolhapur. With the assistance of Balaji Vishwanath who was later appointed the ‘‘Peshwa (Marathi for Prime Minister) and Sardar Khanderao Dabhade who was later appointed the ‘‘Senapati (Marathi for Commander-in-Chief), Shahuji outmanoeuvered Tarabai in 1714 and consolidated his power.

His childhood was spent in royal mughals captivity, he was kept away from his own people, and he could not got any military education. After release from mughals, then caretaker of Maratha kingdom, Rani Tarabai refused to give him throne, which she had defended from might mughals.

and helped Shahu to turn Maratha’s loyal to Rani Tarabai towards Shahu. In exchange Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath Prime Minister of Maratha kingdom. After civil war Shahu was kept away from regular politics of the empire and was forced to settle at Satara.

Shahuji's primary accomplishment was in stabilising the fractured Maratha empire after the defeat of the Mughals by Marathas. During the War of 27 Years many Maratha nobles became powerful. He was the binding force of the Marathas.

the Maratha frontiers. In a real sense he was the emperor of contemporary India, but remained grateful to even weak descendants of the great Mughals. During his captivity, Mughals had raised him as a prince and never compromised his honor or that of his mother. He spent his entire childhood and youth, from age 7 to age 28 in the custody of the Mughals. He had passed through hardships and all uncertainties of life. Born as a prince, he became a prisoner at the age of 7, became a Chattrapati at the age of 28 and saw the

As a patron, he always gave space to the rising talented buds to act and as an authority made those ambitious chiefs to submit before his highness. Shahuji was instrumental in giving space to new talents irresepctive their background. His reign saw rise of many like Balaji, changes in late 19th century as a result of this.Shinde and many more talented people who later became the strong support on which the Maratha empire expanded and flourished, especially Bajirao Peshwa and Holkars in North. He is credited with establishing the position of Peshwa, which later became a hereditary position. He appointed a young Bajirao as Peshwa on April 17, 1719 after the premature death of his father Balaji Vishwanath. After 20 years tenure of Bajirao, he appointed Nanasaheb, as Peshwa. These three Peshwas were extremely efficient and Shahu always acknowledged their efforts to enhance the Maratha Empire. He is also responsible for appointing Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre to the position of the first Maratha naval chief, in return for his moving loyalty from the Tarabai camp. He appointed Sardar Khanderao Dabhade as his "Sarsenapati" or Commander-in-Chief. During his tenure almost all sections of society rose to power. Perhaps Maratha empire was the most socially mobile empire which accommodated many new socio-economic groups which were hitherto miles away from the power. It had had an effect

Shahuji had four wives, and fathered two sons and four daughters. He adopted two sons, Meherban Shrimant Fatehsinh I Raje Sahib Bhonsle and Shrimant Rajaram II Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib

(1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather,

Shahuji was imprisoned by the Mughals at the age of 7 years after the fall of Raigad, the Maratha capital in Feb. 1689 when his parents were also captured.

Tarabai and her son, Raje Sambhaji II (son of Rajaram).

, Shahu could not make strong impression on history and the politics of his time.

Balaji Viswanath sensed opportunity to become kingmaker

Under his patronage his many civilian officers like Balaji or army commanders like Bajirao, Raghoji I Bhonsle and many more expanded

Page 211: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

After Shahuji's death in 1749 his adopted son, Rajaram II succeeded him, but he was largely incompetent. The Maratha empire was primarily governed by the Peshwas from then onwards, with the Chattrapatis remaining the titular head.

Page 212: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

, the Maratha capital in Feb. 1689 when his parents were also captured.

Page 213: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Shrimant Ramaraja Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji, Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Kolhapur, Maratha Empire - PeshwaBajirao < ...

Ramaraja was the fifth monarch of the Maratha Confederacy. He was the adoptive son of Chhatrapati Shahuji, and the putative grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram. The early years of his reign were marked by controversy over his succession, as the dowager queen Tarabai denounced him and alleging that he was not in fact the grandson of Rajaram and herself. During Ramaraja's reign, the power of the Chhatrapati was almost totally overshadowed by that of the Peshwas or Prime Ministers; furthermore, the Marathas were engaged in con ...Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji. Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji Chhatrapati Rajaram Chhatrapati Shahuji Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally) Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Kolhapur. ... Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj ... Maratha Empire - Peshwa. Balaji Vishwanath Maratha Empire, Maratha Empire - The Reign of Shivaji, Maratha Empire - Shivaji's Successors, Maratha Empire - Shahu the Chatrapati, Maratha Empire - The Peshwa, Maratha Empire - The Decline of the Empire, Maratha Empire - Marathas Rulers, Maratha Empire -

Page 214: Shivaji Maharaj Aani Tyanche Vanshaj

Shrimant Ramaraja Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj

The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji, Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Kolhapur, Maratha Empire - PeshwaBajirao < ...

Ramaraja was the fifth monarch of the Maratha Confederacy. He was the adoptive son of Chhatrapati Shahuji, and the putative grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram. The early years of his reign were marked by controversy over his succession, as the dowager queen Tarabai denounced him and alleging that he was not in fact the grandson of Rajaram and herself. During Ramaraja's reign, the power of the Chhatrapati was almost totally overshadowed by that of the Peshwas or Prime Ministers; furthermore, the Marathas were engaged in con ...Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji. Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji Chhatrapati Rajaram Chhatrapati Shahuji Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally) Maratha Empire - The Royal House of Kolhapur. ... Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj ... Maratha Empire - Peshwa. Balaji Vishwanath Maratha Empire, Maratha Empire - The Reign of Shivaji, Maratha Empire - Shivaji's Successors, Maratha Empire - Shahu the Chatrapati, Maratha Empire - The Peshwa, Maratha Empire - The Decline of the Empire, Maratha Empire - Marathas Rulers, Maratha Empire -