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ममममम ममममममममम Maratha Samrajya Maratha Confederacy 1 Shiva 2 Sambh 3 Rajar 4 Tarab 5 Shahu 6 Ramar 7 Shahu 8 Prata 9 Shaha 10 1848 11 Prata 12 Rajar 13 Prata 14 Raja 15 Prata 16 Udaya Political Map of South Asia around 1758 AD 1674 – 1820 Flag

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Maratha Samrajya Maratha Confederacy16741820Maharajas1 2 3 4Flag5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16Shivaji I (leader from 1 Sambhaji I (1680-1689 Rajaram (1689-1700). Y Tarabai (regent 1700-1 Shahu I (1708-1749). S Ramaraja (1749-1777). Shahu II (1777-1808). S Pratapsinh (1808-1839 Shahaji III (1839-1848) 1848 to Great Britain Pratapsinh I (adopted) Rajaram III Pratapsinh II Raja Shahu (1918 - 19 Pratapraje (1950-1978) Udayanraje Bhonsle (1Political Map of South Asia around 1758 ADCapital1st Rajgadh & then shifted to Raigadh Marathi Monarchy - 1674-1680 - 1681-1689 -16891700 -17001707 -17071747 -17471777 History Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram Tarabai Shahu Ramaraja April 21, 1674 September 21, 1820 1,000,00 0 km (386,10 2 sq mi)Language(s) Government Chattrapathi- Established - Ended AreaPopulation - 1700 est. 150,000, 000 Hon, Rupee, Paisa, MohorCurrencyThe Maratha Empire (Marathi: Marh Smrjya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the MarathaConfederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire's territoContents[hide] 1 Brief History 2 Chhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680) 3 Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)4 Rajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707) 5 Shahu (c 1707-1749) 6 Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar (1650-1716) 7 Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740) 8 Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) 9 The Decline of the Empire 10 Legacy of the Empire 11 Maratha rulers 11.1 The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji 11.2 The Royal House of Kolhapur 11.3 Peshwa 12 See also 13 Notes 14 ReferencesBrief HistoryAfter a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king SThe Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third BChhatrapati Shivaji (c. 1645-1680)ShivajiChhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale, founder of the Maratha ConfederacyThe Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, wheSambhaji (c 1681-1689)This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable so material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009) Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was aWhen they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the MaraRajaram and Tarabai (c 1689-1707)Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under sie Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinentShahu (c 1707-1749)The extent of Maratha EmpireAfter Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by BahadurIn 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, knAn army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to dMaratha Emperors (1674-1818)Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram(1674 - 1680) (1680 - 1689) (1689 - 1700)Queen Tarabai(1700 - 1707) (1707 - 1749) (1749 - 1777)Shahu RamarajaThe Peshwas (Prime Ministers) (1712-1818) Balaji Vishwanath Bajirao Balaji Bajirao Madhavrao Ballal Narayanrao Raghunathrao Sawai Madhavrao Bajirao II Nana Sahib(1712-1719) (1719-1740) (1740-1761) (1761-1772) (1772-1773) (1773-1774) (1774-1795) (1795-1851) (1851-1857)(Peshwa period: 1689-1708)Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranksWhen Chatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to PanHe received military help from the great Maratha warriors - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions hIn 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife to TarabBut owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arr Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740)After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one oShrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general w Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761)Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of theEighteenth century painting of a Maratha Soldier ( by Franois Balthazar Solvyns)The Decline of the EmpireThe Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of Indian Muslims that included Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowl Even today the phrase in Marathi, "meet your Panipat", has a similar meaning as the phrase "meet your Waterloo" doesAfter 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectivelyIn 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalfThe last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one ofToday the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, "Great Nation", which was createLegacy of the EmpireRuins of the Raigad fort, which served as a capital for Maratha EmpireOften painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It broughtFrom its onset, Religious tolerance and religious pluralism were important pillars of the nation-state since they were fundThe Maratha Empire was unique in that it did not adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the pri Since its start, many people of talent were brought into the leadership of the Maratha Empire which made it one of the m The empire also created a significant navy. At its height this was led by the legendary Kanhoji Angre.The Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Their policy of religious tolerance gave equal importance to Hindu interestMaratha rulersThe Royal House of Chhatrapati ShivajiSee also Bhosale family ancestryChhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689) Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700) Queen Tarabai Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji) Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chhatrapati Rajaram and Queen Tarabai))The Royal House of KolhapurQueen Tarabai (wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram) in the name of her son Shivaji II Chhatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chhatrapati [Rajaram] from his second wife) Chhatrapati Shahu IV of KolhapurPeshwaSonopant Dabir (1640-1674) Moropant Trimbak Pingle (1674-1683) Moreshwar Pingale (1683-1689) Ramchandra Pant Amatya (1689-1708) Bahiroji Pingale (1708-1711) Parshuram Tribak Kulkarni(Pant Pratinidhi) (1711-1713) Balaji Vishwanath (1713-1720) Baji Rao I (1720-1740) (son of Balaji Vishwanath) Balaji Bajirao (son of Bajirao I) Peshwa Madhavrao (2nd son of Balaji Bajirao) Narayanrao Peshwa (3rd son of Balaji Bajirao) Raghunathrao Peshwa (brother of Balaji Bajirao) Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao) Chimnajee Madhavarao (26 May 1796 - 6 Dec 1796) (brother of Bajirao II, adopted by Madhavrao II's wife)Bajirao II (son of Raghunathrao) Nana Sahib Peshwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao II)Amritrao (Brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao waMaharajasaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680) bhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I. ram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I. bai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram. hu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I. araja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Sha hu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja. apsinh (1808-1839) haji III (1839-1848) to Great Britain apsinh I (adopted)apsinh II Shahu (1918 - 1950) apraje (1950-1978) yanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)ahratta) or the Maratha18. At its peak, the empire's territories covered much of South Asia.peror Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaBaji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the Peshwas.rtion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions intoe by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiabler among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father'slive if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turn over all his hidden treasures,disclose the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped himoved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widosition on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious afShivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor butended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna.hi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shas of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji Maharaj. He was one of the prominent Peshwas froumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Moguls, baji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chatrapaered this post to his wife to Tarabai. Tarabai gave important position to Pant among senior administration of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyatraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the state Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandrahwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually causeBaji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 ue period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749.d improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wcluded Rohillas, Shujah-ud-dowlah, Nujeeb-ud-dowlah, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Batrase "meet your Waterloo" does in English.frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Massion struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1eshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes"Great Nation", which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the stateevolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be sumnation-state since they were fundamental beliefs of Shivaji, the founder of the empire.Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and Kshatriya Dhangar (Holkars) were the trusted genera mpire which made it one of the most socially mobile regimes. Note that the ruler of Indore was a Dhangar , a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwaliorqual importance to Hindu interests and acted as an important back-pressure against the expanding Mughal influence. Today's partitioned Indanhoji Angre.by Madhavrao II's wife)olkar's rule on Pune. Bajirao was later reinstated by the British.adopted son of Shahu I.s its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year lond reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas lost control of the Kingdom. Many sardarsns. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathlf crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore.e Mughal officers who had helped him and embrace Islam. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzehe same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shahuji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejee Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this wa vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maand the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwato negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an anas one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.any challenges like influx of Moguls, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity o shadow king in absence of Chatrapati Rajaram.n of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" : who have explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and adminisji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.ecognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was aati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite bnasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhon January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The Marathas were abandoned by Suraj Mal and Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance ae knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of GAnglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support theed the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of theombined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestigecelebrated Shivaji. They can be summarized as below:gar (Holkars) were the trusted generals of the Brahmin Peshwas. ar , a Shepherd; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary bahal influence. Today's partitioned India is substantially the area of the Maratha confederacy., fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Scontrol of the Kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Neweir leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggre and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeof Mahadev (Lord Shiva). Aurangzeb ordered him and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were brutally torturedugh she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they hadmmanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Muons between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against thefor the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or indepetrolled the empire after Shahuji.and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an awar, maintenance of forts and administration etc.ctive of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.r) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited wof Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha powputs who quit the Maratha alliance at a decisive moment leading to the great battle. Their supply chains cut off, the Marathas attacked the Aalwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhonsales of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabaintervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing hisnd struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of theh, Jhansi with Uttar Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" sche Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family. All the grmperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the dPandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar became kings in their respective regions. The empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with poliheast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400nd Kavi Kalash were brutally tortured for over a fortnight. The torture involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. Tinst the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.omptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 170rathas into the vendetta against the emperor.e, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent ofc condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state.nabling its rapid expansion.e never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder,Chh.Shivaji maharaj, which reached its zenithe Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km) or one-third of the Indiacut off, the Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days. The defeat at Paniput clood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knightith the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In thotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was da surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.was from an ordinary family. All the groups of the Maharashtrian society like CKP, SKP, Vaishyas, Bhandaris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Maunder certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaway to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhiase Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji Maharaj proclaimed himself emperor taking the title (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spreadnistration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years thad tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved of removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly band Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities hashmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaji maharaj, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.1 million km) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent.n three days. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy neven the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh,dgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Aagainst the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.daris, Brahmins, Kolis, Dhangars, Marathas and Saraswats were well-represented in the Empire. [2]mpire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcothe Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaein 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, but later lost it to the MughalsGolconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almoambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with 'Wagh Nakhe (Tiger claws, a kind of weapon), and wasy 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.inces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.most famous of the nine Peshwas.attle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit. Delhi/Agra was controlled by Mahadji Shinde from Gwalior, Central India wasto princely states like Sangli, Aundh,Bhor,Bawda,Jat,Phaltan, Miraj etc.I signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha iot in Indian history.ra. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension betwhe Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into thn 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspirt to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangamesher claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe. This grievous death was given to him at Vadhu on the banks of Bhima river, neof Warna in 1731.hinde from Gwalior, Central India was controlled by Holkars from Indore and Western India was controlled by Gaikwad's from Baroda.gnty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, Ue 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars, or army commanders, tore at their cohesion.ated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the threehejwalkar, Shivaji Maharaj was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories oor a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb humiliated them by parading the Bahadurgad. Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan aadhu on the banks of Bhima river, near Pune.ed by Gaikwad's from Baroda.was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct Bheir cohesion.ish East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by thevasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shgzeb humiliated them by parading them wearing clown's clothes. Later, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalashthe town. A small down to camels with Mug gzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was about to leave were tied upside ambush followed andincluding Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which rehwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of ththe Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji Maharaj [1]. As per legend, Shivaji Maharaj was the first king in India whose vision encompassed thwn. A small down to camels with Mughal soldiers throwing stones, mud, and cow dung at them. tied upside ambush followed andby British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947n India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).til India became independent in 1947.Maratha rulersThe Royal House of Chhatrapati ShivajiChhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680) Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689) Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700) Chhatrapat Chatrapati Sambhaji, ) Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of Chatrapati Rajaram - QuThe Royal House of KolhapurQueen Tarabai (wife of Chatrapati Rajaram) Chatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chatrapati Rajaram from second wife) ChhPeshwaBalaji Vishwanath Bajirao the first (brother Chimaji-appa) Balaji Bajirao (brother Raghunathrao, Cousin Sadashivra Vishwasrao) Narayanrao Peshwa (younger brother of Madhavrao, murdered by uncle) Raghunathrao Peshwa (uncle "Barbhai" conspiracy) Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao) Bajirao the second (son of Raghunathrao) Am second, for a short period during Yashwantrao holkar's siege of Pune, Bajirao reinstated by British later) Nana Sahib Bajirao the second, lived in Uttar Pradesh in exile)ati Rajaram (1670-1700) Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, Son of grandson of Chatrapati Rajaram - Queen Tarabai)apati Rajaram from second wife) Chhatrapati Shahu Maharajher Raghunathrao, Cousin Sadashivrao-bhau) Peshwa Madhavrao (elder brother uncle) Raghunathrao Peshwa (uncle of Narayanrao, ousted in coup named he second (son of Raghunathrao) Amritrao Peshwa (brother of Bajirao the einstated by British later) Nana Sahib Peashwa the second (adopted son ofBhonsleThe Bhosle or Bhosale (pronounced Bhoslay) were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several statThe most prominent member of the clan was Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha empire. His successors ruled as mIn addition to the Bhonsle Maharajas of Satara, rulers of the Bhonsle clan established themselves at Thanjavur in TAfter the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Marathas were forced to accepFlag of the Maratha Bhosale/BhonsleLineage: Suryavansh or Solar clan Original kingdom: Mainawati, Tuljapur, Raygad fort (Raigad) and Burhanpur Current kingdoms: Kolhapur, Satara, Nagpur Akalkot and Thanjavur. Colour of throne, canopy, sign (Nishan ), and Horse (Varu ): Bhagwa (Ochre), *Heraldic sign (Nishan ): Rudra on f Clan goddess: Jagdamba Bhavani, Tulja Bhavani, chittoud Bhavani, *Clan godd: Eklingji, Bada Mahadeo of shikh Guru: Shankkayan, *Gotra: Kaushika, *Veda: Rigveda *Mantra: Gayatri mantraSurnames:Aher, Awatar, Ubale, Aadhale, Bhondve, Desale, Dhole, Kacchawah, Kalse, Kanse, Kanase, Kadoo, K [edit] Notable Bhosale Subclans Ghorpade Kharade Desale Shisode SawantMaharajas of Satara Shivaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680) Sambhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I. Rajaram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I. Tarabai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram.Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I. Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I. Shahu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja. Pratapsinh (1808-1839) Shahaji III (1839-1848) 1848 to Great Britain Pratapsinh I (adopted) Rajaram III Pratapsinh II Raja Shahu (1918 - 1950) Pratapraje (1950-1978) Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)[edit] Maharajas of Thanjavur Venkaji (1674-1686) Shahji (1686-1711) Sarabhoji I (1711-1727) Tukoji (1727-1735) Bava Sahib (1735-1736) Maharani Sujana Bai (1736-1738) Sawai Shahji (1738) Sayaji (1738-1739) Pratap Singh (1739-1763) Tusalji (1763-1787) Amar Singh (1787-1798) Sarabhoji II (1798-1824) Shivaji (1824-1855) 1855 to Great Britain [edit] Maharajas of Kolhapur Shivaji I (1700-1712) Shambhoji (1712-1760) Sivaji II (1760-1812) (adopted from the family of Khanwilkar) Shambhu (1812-1821) Shahoji I (1821-1837) Shivaji III (1837-1866) Rajaram I (1866-1870) (adopted from the family of Patankar) Shivaji IV (1870-1883) Shahu IV (1883-1922) (adopted from the family of Ghatge) Rajaram II (1922-1940) British rule (1940-1942) Shivaji V (1942-1947) Shahoji II (1947-1949), titular Maharaja 1949-1983 (adopted from the family of Pawar) 1948 to India Shahu II as titular Maharaja (1983-present) [edit] Maharajas of NagpurRaghoji I (1738-1755) Janoji (1755-1772) Mudhoji I (1772-1788) Raghoji II (1788-1816) Mudhoji II (1816-1818) Raghoji III (1818-1853) 1853 to Great BritainBhonsleThe Bhosle or Bhosale (pronounced Bhoslay) were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India .The most prominent member of the clan was Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha empire. His successors ruled as maharajas froIn addition to the Bhonsle Maharajas of Satara, rulers of the Bhonsle clan established themselves at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu iAfter the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the Marathas were forced to accept British ruleFlag of the Maratha Bhosale/BhonsleLineage: Suryavansh or Solar clan Original kingdom: Mainawati, Tuljapur, Raygad fort (Raigad) and Burhanpur Current kingdoms: Kolhapur, Satara, Nagpur Akalkot and Thanjavur. Colour of throne, canopy, sign (Nishan ), and Horse (Varu ): Bhagwa (Ochre), *Heraldic sign (Nishan ): Rudra on flagpole Clan goddess: Jagdamba Bhavani, Tulja Bhavani, chittoud Bhavani, *Clan godd: Eklingji, Bada Mahadeo of shikhar shingnap Guru: Shankkayan, *Gotra: Kaushika, *Veda: Rigveda *Mantra: Gayatri mantraSurnames:Aher, Awatar, Ubale, Aadhale, Bhondve, Desale, Dhole, Kacchawah, Kalse, Kanse, Kanase, Kadoo, Kharade, Gh [edit] Notable Bhosale Subclans Ghorpade Kharade Desale Shisode SawantMaharajas of Satara Shivaji I (leader from 1655, Maharaja 1674-1680) Sambhaji I (1680-1689). Eldest son of Shivaji I. Rajaram (1689-1700). Younger son of Shivaji I. Tarabai (regent 1700-1708). Wife of Rajaram.Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I. Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I. Shahu II (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja. Pratapsinh (1808-1839) Shahaji III (1839-1848) 1848 to Great Britain Pratapsinh I (adopted) Rajaram III Pratapsinh II Raja Shahu (1918 - 1950) Pratapraje (1950-1978) Udayanraje Bhonsle (1978 till present)[edit] Maharajas of Thanjavur Venkaji (1674-1686) Shahji (1686-1711) Sarabhoji I (1711-1727) Tukoji (1727-1735) Bava Sahib (1735-1736) Maharani Sujana Bai (1736-1738) Sawai Shahji (1738) Sayaji (1738-1739) Pratap Singh (1739-1763) Tusalji (1763-1787) Amar Singh (1787-1798) Sarabhoji II (1798-1824) Shivaji (1824-1855) 1855 to Great Britain [edit] Maharajas of Kolhapur Shivaji I (1700-1712) Shambhoji (1712-1760) Sivaji II (1760-1812) (adopted from the family of Khanwilkar) Shambhu (1812-1821) Shahoji I (1821-1837) Shivaji III (1837-1866) Rajaram I (1866-1870) (adopted from the family of Patankar) Shivaji IV (1870-1883) Shahu IV (1883-1922) (adopted from the family of Ghatge) Rajaram II (1922-1940) British rule (1940-1942) Shivaji V (1942-1947) Shahoji II (1947-1949), titular Maharaja 1949-1983 (adopted from the family of Pawar) 1948 to India Shahu II as titular Maharaja (1983-present) [edit] Maharajas of NagpurRaghoji I (1738-1755) Janoji (1755-1772) Mudhoji I (1772-1788) Raghoji II (1788-1816) Mudhoji II (1816-1818) Raghoji III (1818-1853) 1853 to Great Britainof several states in India .ors ruled as maharajas from their capital at Satara, although de facto rule of the empire passed to the Peshwas, the Marathas' hereditary chThanjavur in Tamil Nadu in the 17th century, and at Nagpur and Kolhapur in modern-day Maharashtra in the 18th century. The Bhonsle of Thrced to accept British rule. The four Bhonsle dynasties continued as rulers of their princely states, acknowledging British sovereignty while ren ): Rudra on flagpole adeo of shikhar shingnapur Satara, Saptashrungi Nivasini Devi in Nasik district near Vani *Clan object (Devak ): Five Leaf,ase, Kadoo, Kharade, Ghorpade, Chavle, Devaskar, Deokar, Dhorne, Nakashe, Polhar, Fhale, Bansode, Badhe, Borde, Matale, Navsare, Meshwas, the Marathas' hereditary chief ministers, during the reign of Shahu I.the 18th century. The Bhonsle of Thanjavur were descendants of Sivaji's half-brother Venkaji, while the Bhonsle of Satara and Kolhapur weowledging British sovereignty while retaining local autonomy. The states of Nagpur, Thanjavur, and Satara came under direct British rule in thDevak ): Five Leaf,e, Badhe, Borde, Matale, Navsare, Mahajan. Ranbagul, Eaw, Lokhande, Widhate, Wiradh, Watekar, Pedgaonkar, Shisode, Sawant, BhosaleBhonsle of Satara and Kolhapur were descended from Sivaji's sons, Sambhaji and Rajaram.ra came under direct British rule in the mid-nineteenth century when their rulers died without male heirs; Kolhapur continued as a princely stadgaonkar, Shisode, Sawant, Bhosale, Hivrale, Sarupye, kotwal(Total 37)Kolhapur continued as a princely state until India's independence in 1947, when the rulers acceded to the Indian government.he Indian government.Shrimant Shivaji Shahaji Raje BhonsleChatrapati Shivaji was the famous Maratha king who had the utmost courage to stand against the vast ocean of Mughal rule,Although his original name was Shivaji Bhosle, his subjects lovingly gave him the title of 'Chatrapati' or the 'Chief of the KshaBorn on 19th February 1630 at the Shivneri Fort to a valiant Maratha regent Shahaji Raje and a dedicated mother Jijabai, ShA young boy of 16 is not known to win battles, but his mother's teachings, father's struggle and a pride in the motherland gaas an able warrior and leader with the seizure of the Torna Fort which was initially under the Bijapur Kingdom. With this recoHis major breakthrough came with Battle of Pratapgarh against Afzal Khan, the general of the Sultanate of Bijapur, which maHe won it through sheer planning, speed and excellent generalship. This was followed by many other battles against the SulBattle of Pavan Khind, Battle of Vishaalgad and others.Chatrapati Shivaji is most famous for his valor to challengeAlthough Emperor Aurangzeb tried to capture all the forts and territories under Shivaji he could not achieve much successBut a temporary pause was put in Shivaji's successful ventures by the brave Hindu General Jai Singh, sent by the e Mughal Emperor and what followed is popularly known in history as Shivaji's trip to and astonishing escape from Ag Although after this incident, Shivaji remained dormant for sometime, he rose yet again against the Mughals in the yeShivaji BhosleChhatrapatiReign Coronation Full name Titles Born Birthplace Died Place of death Successor1664 - 1680 June 6, 1674 Shivaji Shahaji Bhosle Kshatriya Kulavantas,GoBramhan Pratipalak February 19, 1630 Shivneri Fort, near Pune, India April 3, 1680 (aged 50)Raigad Fort Sambhaji Sai bai SoyarabaiPutalabai Kashibai Sagunabai Manjulabai Sakavaarbai Gunvantibai[1][2] Sambhaji, Rajaram, and six daughtersWivesOffspring Father Mother Religious beliefsShahaji Jijabai HinduismShivaji Bhosle (Born:February 19, 1630, Died: April 3, 1680), commonly known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (ShivajisideologyofHindaviSwarajandsubsequentexpansionoftheMarathaEmpire,waspartlyresponsibleforre Shivaji established and set up a competent civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and wellAlargeportionofhiskingdomwasacoastlineandhesecureditwithapotentnavyunderhiscommanderAngre.H[edit] Early life [edit] BirthShivaji was the youngest son of Shahaji and Jijabai Bhosle. Shivaji's birth date was a matter of controversy but receShahaji Bhosle - Shivaji's father - was the eldest son of Maloji Bhosale of Verul (present day Ellora, Maharastra). MShahaji continuing the lead of his father played an important role in various Deccan wars. He began service with the He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji wasAfter this episode Ahmednagar fell to the Moghul emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahji as Nizam's Ge [edit] Foundation of empireChhattrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle, founder of the Maratha Empire.Shahaji appointed young Shivaji, under the care of his mother Jijabai to manage the Pune holdings. A small councilShivaji Statue in MumbaiHis mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. SFurthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional kingHer piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of MahabhaShahaji's vision, and Jijabai's teachings and motivation, and the able training by military commanders such as Gom [edit] Confrontation with the Regional SultanatesAt the age of 17 Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna Fort of the Bijapur kingdBy 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this mov[edit] Battle of Pratapgarh/ PratapgadMain article: Battle of PratapgarhAfzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur andWagh nakhShivaji, armed himself with a weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting.Afza In the ensuing battle of Pratapgarh in the dense forests, which was fought on November 30, 1659, Shivaji's armiesImmediately after slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji galloped up the slope towards the fortress with his lieutenants and ordMaratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resMeanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. The suddThe Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar pursued the retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join up witThis great and complete victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. TSubsequently, the Sultan of Bijapur sent an elite Pashtun army comprised mainly of Afghani mercenaries to subdue The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire. [edit] Battle of KolhapurMain article: Battle of KolhapurTo counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numberThis victory alarmed the mighty Mughal empire who now derisively called Shivaji "Mountain Rat" . Aurangzeb the Mu [edit] Battle of Pavan Khind Main article: Battle of Vishalgarh In 1660, Adil Shah, once again sent Siddi Johar an accomplished general to put down Shivaji. He ordered his largeAt that time Shivaji was camped at the Panhala fort with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on theShivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accoSensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu DesIn the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded buThereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshahi through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizinGhod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu DThis remained the situation until the death of Shahaji. Henceforth the Marathas became a formal and recognized po[edit] Clash with the Mughals [edit] Shaista KhanIn January, 1660, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with a large army to defeat Shivaji. He was an eShaista Khan, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little furShaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight secuAfter overpowering and slaying the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaking through a wall.Within twenty-four hours of this daring attack, Amir-ul-Umra, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agr[edit] Surat and Mirza Raja Jai SinghIn 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleAurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shiva[edit] Trip To Agra and EscapeIn 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftie From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to possiblyAfter several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji hid himself in one of the boxes and mDr. Ajit Joshi in a book Agryahun Sutka, concluded that Shivaji likely disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after per[edit] Preparing for WarIn the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. His army now conta[edit] Battle of SinhagadKondana fort, on the outskirts of Pune, was still under Mughal control. Uday Bhan Rathod, the fort keeper, led an arTanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sAs the advance party reached the top, they threw ropes for others to climb. Meanwhile Tanaji's brother Suryaji moveTanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji`s Dhal [Defence shieldWhen Shivaji reached the fort after the victory, he was deeply bereaved by the loss of his good friend Tanaji. He sad[edit] CoronationShivaji was formally crowned Chhatrapati (Chief, or King of Kshatriyas), on June 6, 1674 at Raigad fort, and given tHe was bestowed with the Jaanva, (in Hindi the Janeu the sacred thread), with the Vedas and was bathed in an abiShivaji then was conferred with the title of "shakkarta". He started his own calendar. A few days later a second cere[edit] RuleShivaji was an able and competent administrator and established a government that included such modern conceptShivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond betwe He laid the foundations of the modern Marathi identity and infused it with strong martial and moral traditions.Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his ter He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategicToward the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong, and was abShivaji's kingdom served as a Hindu bulwark against Islamic powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical m[edit] CharacterDuring his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary c Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. SheHe boldly risked his life, his treasure and his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immeHe did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled byShivajididnotbelieveinbeingtreatedasaroyalty,infacthemingledfreelywithhissubjectstospendtimewiththemShivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he ear[edit] Revolution in military organisationM.V. Dhurandhar's painting of Shivaji.Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He waA standing army belonging to the state called paga ; All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Soveriegn. Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in the field and supported four months i Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry were his innovations and they excelled in commando tactics; The introduction of an centralized intelligence department, a potent navy, and regular chain-of-command; Introduction of field craft viz. Guerrilla warfare, commando actions, swift flanking attacks; Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' wa Militarisation of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements an[edit] Father of Indian NavyShivajirealizedtheimportanceofhavingasecurecoastlineandprotectingthewesternKonkancoastlinefromthea[edit] FortsMain article: Shivaji's FortsPratap GadShivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Gh[edit] Promotion of SanskritThe house of Shivaji was one of the Indian royal families who were well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted it. TShivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etAfter his death Sambhaji, who was himself a Sanskrit scholar (his verse - Budhbhushanam), continued it. His grandSambhaji issued one danapatra (donation plaque) which is in Sanskrit composed by himself in which he writes abo1. Yavanarambha gritat mlechakshaydiksha : It means - Shivaji had taken a sacred oath and was on mission to de 2. Dillindraman pradhvanspatu : One who has defeated the Mughal Emperor of Delhi 3. Vijayapuradhishwar prathtarmanya bhujchachayay: One whose help was sought by Adilshahi King of Vijaypur[cita[edit] ReligionAs per legend, the family deity of the Bhosle's, goddess Bhavani gave a divine sword to Shivaji.Shivaji made available to Ramdas a fort named Parali Fort to establish his permanent monastery there. The fort waChhatrapati Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect foHe also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur disShivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion.[19] The first thing Shivaji did after aShivaji had respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam.[20] Shivaji used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim His Mavala army's war cry was 'Haar Haar Mahadev' (Hail Lord Shiva).He commanded the respect and fealty of the muslims under his command by his fair treatment of his friends as wel Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also broughtShivaji applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[20] There are many instances in folklore, whicShivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb "Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours[edit] Southern expeditionTowards the end of 1676, Shivaji defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Gingee near Bijapur, Karnataka, m[edit] Death and successionIt is said that he died due to contracting a disease Bloody Flux,[citation needed ] Intestinal anthrax.[citation needed ]Ruins of the Raigad Fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire.A few months after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered byThe indomitable Marathas adapted very well to the huge but slow moving Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb toEventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawSir Jadunath Sarkar, a noted Indian historian and scholar, estimated that about 500,000 Mughal soldiers and 200,00[edit] LegacyA statue of Shivaji in the Birla Mandir, DelhiBecause of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian indepenSchool texts in Maharashtra describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the foun A sectarian political party, the Shiv Sena, claims to draw inspiration from Shivaji.The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati S The School of Naval Engineering of the Indian Navy is named as INS Shivaji. [edit] Literature and Movies Main Article: List of movies on ShivajiShivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahir (ballad composer), poets anSriman yogi is a novel written on Shivaji's life by Ranjit Desai. Raja Shivachhatrapati is a biography authored by BabMarathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar wrote 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes), a play based on theStar Pravah- the Marathi channel of Star India Network now has a multi-crore TV serial Raja ShivChhatrapati on theMee Shivaji Raje Bhosle Boltoy is a yet-to-be launched Marathi film which tries to convey how Shivaji would have re [edit] AssociatesSome of Shivaji's close associates were also his primary army chieftains, and have entered folklore along with him. Antaji Konde-Deshmukh Baji Jedhe Baji Pasalkar Baji Prabhu Deshpande Balaji Avji Chitre Bapuji Mudgal Deshpande Chimanaji Deshpande Dhanajirao Jadhavrao Firangoji Narsala Fullaji Prabhu Deshpande Gangadhar Pant Gomaji Naik Haider Ali Kohari Hambirrao Mohite Hiroji Farjad Jiva Mahala Kanhoji Jedhe Deshmukh Keso Narayan DeshpandeKondaji Farjand Lay Patil Koli Murarbaji Deshpande Nanaji Deshpande Neelkanthrao Surnaik Netaji Palkar Prataprao Gujar Rango Narayan OrpeSarpotdar Sambhaji Kavji Santaji Ghorpade Suryaji Kakade Tanaji Malusare Yesaji KankUnder Shivaji, many men of talent and enterprise rose into prominence. They carried forward his mission and ensur [edit] Accounts of contemporary foreign travellers Many foreign travellers who visited India during Shivaji's time wrote about him.The Abbe Carre was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as Voyage des The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage o [edit] References1. ^ Chhatrapati Shivaji . p. 18. ISBN 8128808265. http://books.google.com/books?id=HsBPTc3hcekC. 2. ^ Shivaji the Great . p. 193. ISBN 8190200003. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5mIVt_Zd-0C. 3. ^ The Presidential Armies of India . W.H. Allen. p. 47. http://books.google.com/books?id=YX9JAAAAMAAJ. 4. ^ a b "Itihaas - Shivaji assumes the title of Chattrapati". Sify Corporation. http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id= 5. ^ Shivaji and Indian Nationalism . Central Pub. House. p. 130. http://books.google.com/books?id=lAAeAAAAMA 6. ^ Setumadhavarao S. Pagadi. (1993). SHIVAJI . NATIONAL BOOK TRUST. p. 21. ISBN 8123706472. http://bo 7. ^ Shivaji and His Times . Longmans, Green and co. p. 20. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. 8. ^ a b c "Gazetter of the Bombay Presidency - Poona - MUSALMANS 1294-1760 - Nizamshahi". http://www.mah 9. ^"ShivajiMaharajsbirthdateisindebate".http://punekar.in/site/2008/11/05/shivaji-maharajs-birth-date-is-in-d 10. ^ "JIJABAI - Her Parent's House Reduced To Ashes". http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/greatpersonalities/ 11. ^ SHIVAJI THE FOUNDER OF MARATHA SWARAJ. B. I. S. M. Puraskrita Grantha Mala. 12. ^ Kamat, K. L.. "Short Bio: Maratha King Shivaji". Kamat's Potpourri. http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/maharas 13. ^ [1] 14. ^ 'Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great'. Manudevi Prakashan. 2005. 15. ^ edited by Om Prakash. (2001). Encyclopaedic History of Indian Freedom Movement . Anmol Publications. p 16. ^ Shivaji and His Times . Longmans, Green and co. p. 294. http://books.google.com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAA 17. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2007). The Mughul Empire , Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, 18. ^ Patil, Vishwas - "Sambhaji ", Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-7 19. ^ Mughal Rule in India By Stephen Meredyth Edwardes, Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett,ISBN 8171565514, 97 20. ^ a b c Zakaria, Rafique, "Communal Rage in Secular India", Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003) 21. ^ Central Chronicle Letter D. Pande. Retrieved on 2007-03-07 22. ^ Book Review IMC India. Retrieved on 2007-03-07 23. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency . p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=4bMIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1 [edit] Further reading Shivchatrapati- Ek Magowa by Dr Jysingrao Bhausaheb Pawar.Apte, B.K. (editor), Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Duff, Grant, History of Marhattas , Oxford University Press, London Link - http://books.google.com/books?id=FKQ V.D.Katamble, Shivaji the Great, Pune : Balwant Printers - English Translation of popular Marathi book "Shrimany Kasar, D.B., Rigveda to Raigarh - Making of Shivaji the Great , Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005) Vishwas Patil - Sambhaji, Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-7 Purandare B. M. (author), Raja Shivachhatrapati , he is the most popular and most enigmatic historian of Maratha Sriman Yogi Joshi, Ajit, Agryahun Sutka , Marathi, Pune: Shivapratap Prakashan (1997) More, Vasantrao, James Laine: A research scholar or a barbarian? , Marathi, Shivsangram Prakashan (2004), Ko Laine, James, Shivaji: Hindu king in Islamic India , London: Oxford University Press 2003. Parulekar, Shyamrao, Yashogatha Vijaya durg , Vijay Durg (1982) Jyotirao Phule, Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle Yanche Powade, Marathi, (1869) Sarkar, Jadunath, Shivaji and his times , Calcutta Zakaria, Rafique, Communal Rage in Secular India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003) Work of D. G. Godse Rajendra Ghorpade Mouni maharaj guru of raje shivaji Mahesh Tendulkar, Runzunjar Senapati Santaji Ghorpade - a book on Santaji Ghorpade. Vishwas Patil, Panipat - a book on the battle of Panipat. Ranjit Desai, Swami - a book on Madhavrao Peshwa [edit] See also Chhatrapati Marathas Maratha Empire Bhosle family ancestry Marathi people List of people known as The Great Maratha clan system Marathawada [edit] External links Chhatrapathi Shivaji Listen Shivaji's Stories(Powade) Great Escape from Agra in 1666 Chhatrapa Succeede Preceded by ti of the d by Maratha new state Empire Sambhaji 1674 1680Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharajst the vast ocean of Mughal rule, single-handedly.atrapati' or the 'Chief of the Kshatriyas' for his undaunted ability to protect them all under the safe shelter of his leadership.d a dedicated mother Jijabai, Shivaji was a descendent of the 96 Maratha Clans who were well known as brave fighters or 'Kshatriyas'. Bijapur Kingdom. With this recognition, there was no looking back.and a pride in the motherland gave the young Shivaji his first achievemente Sultanate of Bijapur, which made him a hero of the Marathas overnight.any other battles against the Sultanate of Bijapur, in warfares such as Battle of Kolhapur, could not achieve much success due to Shivaji's clever leadership qualities and guerrilla tactics.mous for his valor to challenge the mighty Mughal Empire, at the time ruled by Aurangzeb.eneral Jai Singh, sent by the emperor. Upon this, Shivaji decided to negotiate with the d astonishing escape from Agra, where he was kept a prisoner by Aurangzeb. n against the Mughals in the year 1670 with the Battle of Sinhagad. Soon after this victory he was coroneted on 6th June, 1674, as the King ohhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Marathi: ) The Great King of INDIA and Great INSPIRATION OF world is called as Gree,waspartlyresponsibleforre-establismentofHinduruleanditsre-emergentassertivenessthroughoutthemainlandofpresentdayIndiaafd disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The then prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destructinderhiscommanderAngre.Hewasverysuccessfulinkeepingforeignnavalships,particularlyPortugeseandBritish,undercheck.Forhisfomatter of controversy but recently a consensus has been reached and is deemed to be 19 February 1630. [7][8][9] He was born on Shivneri Fent day Ellora, Maharastra). Maloji Bhosale's was deeply insulted by Lakhuji Jadhavrao, a sardar in Nizamshahi, due his refusal to allow his dars. He began service with the young Nizam of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the distre at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. In the meanwhile entire Jadhavrao family including Lakhuji and his three sons were murdered in Nizam'sereafter Shahji as Nizam's General responded by attacking the Mughal garrison and regained control of this region again. In response the MPune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in administration. This council included Shamrao Nilkanthe homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness towgreat Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwisry commanders such as Gomaji Naik Pansambal and Baji Pasalkar were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearlesTorna Fort of the Bijapur kingdom, in 1645.By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region.In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful meanddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitcour) prior to the meeting.Afzal Khan attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a dagger as they embraced at the onset of their meeting. Shivber 30, 1659, Shivaji's armies attacked Bijapur's (Afzal Khan's) forces and engaged them in swift flanking maneuvers.ss with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the coverKhan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshof Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery covewere attempting to join up with the part of their reserve forces stationed in the nearby village of Wai. They were engaged in battle before theary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascenfghani mercenaries to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur'sy Mughal Empire.nother army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's renowned Abyssinian general Rustemjamauntain Rat" . Aurangzeb the Mughal emperor was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear dShivaji. He ordered his large army north to Kolhapur, Maharashtra to confront and defeat Shivaji once and for all.present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivajitiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed , and Shivaji escaped under tand capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a brave Sardar along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Gwas almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to attack until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishaal Gaad, signalling Shivedging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom. Also, as the terms of peace, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi JohPass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande and the soldiers who selflessly fought and died to save their king and country. A small memorial stame a formal and recognized power in the Deccan.to defeat Shivaji. He was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji in the same region in 1636. Within three years Shivaji hadalmost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune.Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attackon by breaking through a wall. Chimanji and Netaji Palkar first entered to provide cover to Shivaji MAharaj.Babaji Deshpande another man pnd headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to thed it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan.l over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Khandahar, modern day Afghanistan to consolidate the M's Haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. The entire plan of escself in one of the boxes and managed to escape.Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji andf as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entouhis army. His army now contained about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. The Mughals had thhod, the fort keeper, led an army of about 1500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed onemely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the forte Tanaji's brother Suryaji moved close to the gates of the fort, namely Kalyan Darwaja, with another 300 Mavalas. The gates were soon openTanaji`s Dhal [Defence shield] with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and proceeded to tie a piece of cloth around his left hand for protehis good friend Tanaji. He sadly commented "Gadh ala puhn sinha gela" (The fort was conquered but the lion was lost). Thereafter Kondana674 at Raigad fort, and given the title Kshatriya Kulavantas Sinhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj . Pandit Gaga Bhatt, a renowndas and was bathed in an abisheka. Shivaji had insisted on an Indrabhishek ritual, which had fallen into disuse since the 9th century.few days later a second ceremony was carried out, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Purncluded such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal ), foreign affairs (Dabir ) and internal intelligence.[12] Shivaji established an there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in theal and moral traditions.jor enemy invasions of his territories. He was also unceasing and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was drivenncluding hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strated thousand strong, and was able to effectively keep the Mughal forces in check and on the defensive while expanding his kingdom southwarbrilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundatioor code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of woformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported t, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. And in that lay the fouty, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangeroubjectstospendtimewiththemtobetterunderstandtheirthoughts,issuesandchallenges.Itisreportedthatheenjoyedsimplemealsofcruadmiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Iof the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, "Ganimi Kava" a term used for such a warefare, (though the termd and supported four months in war. n commando tactics; ar chain-of-command;r claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji; nt population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defencenKonkancoastlinefromtheattacksofSiddisfleet [15][16]hehadrealizedthetacticaladvantageofhavingastrongnavyanddecidedtopurcross the rugged Western Ghats.Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor should deliver it to the enemy. Thth Sanskrit and promoted it. The root can be traced from Shahaji who supported Jayram Pindye and many like him. Shivaji's seal was prepaPrachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etcanam), continued it. His grandson Shahu spent his entire childhood in Mughal captivity, which affected his taste. But even he showered giftshimself in which he writes about his father as:oath and was on mission to defeat invaders Adilshahi King of Vijaypur[citation needed]monastery there. The fort was subsequently renamed as "Sajjangad"(Fort of Decent/Holy ones).n. Shivaji had great respect for Warkari saints like Tukaram and Sufi Muslim pir Shaikh Yacub Baba Avaliya of Konkan .[18]ear to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji"he first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, asoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint Baba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another great Sufi saint, Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, anreatment of his friends as well as enemies.gious policy. He also brought back converts like Netaji Palkar & Bajaji in to Hinduism. He prohibited slavery in his kingdom.many instances in folklore, which describes Shivaji's respect for women, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.dmonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:ainter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a templeee near Bijapur, Karnataka, modern-day Tamilnadu. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capitainal anthrax.[citation needed ] The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and wife Soyarabai. After Shivis father and was sheltered by Sambhaji.[23] Thereafter, in 1681, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved in mass to thenace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to tu05. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Ma00 Mughal soldiers and 200,000 Marathas died during this decades long epic struggle for dominance of the Indian sub-continent.m fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later.He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is calle and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity.ai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many publhir (ballad composer), poets and orators. In Marathi, Bhalaji Pendharkar directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was playes a biography authored by Babasaheb Purandare on his life which was later brought out as Jaanata Raja ( ), a musical tale of Shivd awakes), a play based on the complex relationship between Shivaji and Sambhaji. Shahir like Tulsidas and Agandas had written heroic balal Raja ShivChhatrapati on the life of Shivaji. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hourvey how Shivaji would have responded to the problems faced by the 'Marathi manoos' today. Mahesh Manjrekar plays Shivaji in the film.ntered folklore along with him. These include:forward his mission and ensured the defeat of the Mughals in the War of 27 years. These include Ramchandrapant amtya, Santaji Ghorpadewas published as Voyage des Indes Orienteles mele de plusiers histories curieuses at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a ba to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin md=HsBPTc3hcekC. d=N5mIVt_Zd-0C. oks?id=YX9JAAAAMAAJ. y.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13374092. Retrieved on 2006-11-20. e.com/books?id=lAAeAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. 1. ISBN 8123706472. http://books.google.com/books?id=UVFuAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. m/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. - Nizamshahi". http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/gazeetter_reprint/Poona-II/history_Musalmans.html#. aji-maharajs-birth-date-is-in-debate/. iographies/greatpersonalities/jijabai/page10.htm.kamat.com/kalranga/maharashtra/shivaji.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.ement . Anmol Publications. p. 274. ISBN 8126109386. http://books.google.com/books?id=o5vHbY3VPyEC. com/books?id=7xNFAAAAIAAJ. havan, ISBN 81-7276-407-1, pp.609,634Garrett,ISBN 8171565514, 9788171565511 n, Mumbai (2003)?id=4bMIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=SHIVAJI+%E2%80%93+Father+Of+The+Indian+Navy#PPA145,M1.Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974-75) ks.google.com/books?id=FKQ9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=subject:%22Maratha+(Indic+people)%22#PRA1-PR21,M1. pular Marathi book "Shrimanyogi". Prakashan (2005)enigmatic historian of Maratha times, especially that of Shivaji. He is revered throughout Maharashtra as "Shivashahir".angram Prakashan (2004), KolhapurJune, 1674, as the King of the Marathas. Under his dedicated rule, the small independent land 'Hindavi Swaraj' went on to become a large kOF world is called as Great Shivaji Maharaj.laid the foundations of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was younger of the two sons of Shahaji BhondofpresentdayIndiaafterbeingruledbyvariousMuslimdynasties.TheideologyofHindaviswarajwasinparttheinspirationthatpropelleen as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administrationsh,undercheck.Forhisforesightofestablishingofoneofthefirstlargescalenavalpresenceheisreferredtoasthe"FatherofIndianNavy"He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Shivai, Goddess of the fort, whom his mothere his refusal to allow his daughter Jijabai's (Shivaji's mother) marriage to his son - Shahaji. This lead Maloji's to aggressive conquests to obtwon back most of the district for the Nizam from the Moghuls who had gained it during their attack of 1600.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shawere murdered in Nizam's court while they had come there to join his forces. Unsettled by this incident Shahaji Raje decided to part himself fagain. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshancluded Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa (Prime Minister), Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar , Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis , Sonopant as Dabir anxceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peaceision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to extenfirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers, Khafi Khan) especially in his tolerant attitude towards other religions as well as in his fair andaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Shivaji along with his mavla friends took a blood oath to figontrol of the Pune region.rrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (led by Farradkhan) and another agopen to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of undernset of their meeting. Shivaji was unharmed due to the armour he wore under his clothes, and he counter attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nly placed under the cover of the densely covered valley, to immediately attack Afzal Khan's forces.march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded and subseqe in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all outgaged in battle before they could regroup and were defeated prior to reaching Wai. to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.r of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun army was decimated by the Maratha troops. The intense and bloody battle ended in the unconditional sunian general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on December 28, 1659. In a swift moveme Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat.y routes to the fort. Shivaji, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle.d Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivahold back the enemy at Ghod Khind to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of Vishaal Gad.haal Gaad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this f was awarded to Siddi Johar.ntry. A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his courageous men.n three years Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by Shaista Khan and his army numbering over 100,000.Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entereeshpande another man provided protection to Shivaji maharaj from back side as he entered just after him. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Kging embarrassment to the Mughals with his very personal and ignoble defeat in Pune.[4]Shaista Khan.ed to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 foistan to consolidate the Mughal empire's north-western frontier. However in the court, on May 12, 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behinape. The entire plan of escape displayed Shivaji's excellent ability to carefully analyze, plan and to flawless execute toward a successful outcf days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours oe departing priestly entourage.[citation needed]illery. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. But Shivaji was on a war1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana.imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard(known as ghorpadThe gates were soon opened and once inside, all his soldiers joined Tanaji in the surprise attack.und his left hand for protection and to stanch the bleeding, and he continued to fight. Tanaji was killed by Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seein lost). Thereafter Kondana fort was renamed Sinhagad (Lion Fort) to honor Tanaji Malusare's bravery and sacrifice.ndit Gaga Bhatt, a renowned Brahmin from Varanasi, officially presided over the ceremony declaring that Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and rce the 9th century.sided over by Nischal Puri..[12] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg andduals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary cs. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland, and in this goal he was suppunits, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly biggerng his kingdom southward to Gingee, Tamil Nadu.ed him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worshtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would havetry. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or octly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Sultans and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, indjoyedsimplemealsofcrushedonionandbhakris-atypeofIndianpeasantbreadwithhisfootsoldiers(mavlas).Thisreflectedhis'downtohieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiratiowarefare, (though the term "commando" is modern). [14] Shivaji was responsible for a lot of changes in military organization. These include -gnavyanddecidedtopursethisidea.ShivajiwasconcernedaboutthegrowingdominanceofBritishIndianavalforcesoverIndianwatersadeliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sar-i-naubat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks balance.. Shivaji's seal was prepared by him.Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared. His Rajpurohit Keshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit sut even he showered gifts on learned Brahmins. Serfoji II from the Thanjavur branch of the Bhosle continued the tradition by printing the firstgar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.) his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: one of his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Daryah Yacub of the Konkan, and sought his blessings. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri bahut thorwale bhau , meaning "great elder brother".ce of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone." [20][21][22]served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war.wife Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyarabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaurt moved in mass to the Deccan to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twentye strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Saner trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challesub-continent.e king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history.Maharashtrian identity.onour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivch the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala p), a musical tale of Shivaji's life. Kusumagraj has composed a famous poem on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar' Vedat Marathe vir dauddas had written heroic ballads on him. Kavi Bhushan has composed in Hindi, a famous work 'Shivraj Bhushan'. more than 100 one-hour episodes.ays Shivaji in the film.t amtya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parsoji Bhosle, Harji raje Mahadik and Kanhoji Angre.: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and s Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of aA1-PR21,M1.Swaraj' went on to become a large kingdom ranging from the Northwest India to the East.Though not much is known of his personal life excunger of the two sons of Shahaji Bhosle and Jijabai. His father, Shahaji was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various timasinparttheinspirationthatpropelledthesucceedinggenerationofMarathastoestablishindependentkingdominIndiapriortotheireventumly opposed under his administration. Shivaji himself was a religious, devout and tolerant Hindu who worshipped with deep faith. Shivaji chanrredtoasthe"FatherofIndianNavy".[6]BuildingandsecuringseasideandlandbasedfortsplayedanimportantroleinShivajismilitaryhistoddess of the fort, whom his mother Jijabai during her pregnancy used to worship. Shivaji was fifth son born to Jijabai, 3 of whom had died aaloji's to aggressive conquests to obtain a higher station and an important role under Nizamshahi, something that eventually lead him to achie00.[8] Thereafter Lakhuji Jadhav, Shahaji's father in law attacked Shahaji and surrounded him at the Mahuli fort along with Jijabai who was 4hahaji Raje decided to part himself from Nizamshahi and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom.Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Moghuls in return for the authority to rule this region in the yearal as Sabnis , Sonopant as Dabir and Dadoji Konddeo as teacher. Apart from these ministers, military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and Bajithe arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom.etermination and an aversion to external political domination.her religions as well as in his fair and kind treatment of women and non-combatants.mavla friends took a blood oath to fight against the Mughal empire at Rohideshwara temple. And young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic ae (led by Farradkhan) and another against Shivaji at Purandhar (led by Fattekhan). However both Bhosle brothers defeated the invading armKhan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to confront and surprise Afzaer attacked Afzal Khan with a wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Thereupon Afzal Khan's deputy, Krishnaleiutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.ops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain), Ragho Atre's cavalry units swooped down anbattle ended in the unconditional surrender of Bijapuri forces to Shivaji.cember 28, 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalrdiers to fight a decisive battle.Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the of Vishaal Gad.nd 1286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle.s courageous men.y numbering over 100,000.bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palam. Shivaji then confronted Shaista Khan and severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers with his sword as he fled through an open window. Shahivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal SardAurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji took offense to this seeming insult and stormss execute toward a successful outcome. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thaim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to prore trouble. But Shivaji was on a war footing and aimed to directly take on the combined might of the Moghul empire. Shivaji was more thano capture Kondana.a monitor lizard(known as ghorpad in Marathi named "Yeshwanti" with a rope tied around its body for climbing this cliff on a moonless nighty Uday Bhan in a fierce battle. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers started to back-up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelart Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and recognized Kshatriya.rected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the Brinded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.meland, and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment he received from his soldiers, followers and cme and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.nded and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.as as beautiful as her, he would have been handsome as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protecot as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his brilliant strategies or his noble birth but was trulys heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.(mavlas).Thisreflectedhis'downtoearth'character. Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.military organization. These include -dianavalforcesoverIndianwatersandstartbuildinghisnavyforcestotacklethisissue.ForthisveryreasonheisalsoreferredtoastheFahecks balance.eshav Pandit was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet. [17]nued the tradition by printing the first book in Marathi Devnagari.[citation needed ]ce to this Shah Sharifji.)paigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibraau , meaning "great elder brother".gdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king.but before the death of shivaji maharaj he went to mughal prince & against marathaThis was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughws by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tAurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and within eighty years of Shivaji's death, they were themselves finally overtaken anelhi has