paramarthananda gita summary

Download Paramarthananda Gita Summary

Post on 11-Apr-2015

253 views

Category:

Documents

7 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Swami Paramarthananda's chapter by chapter summary of the Gita

TRANSCRIPT

-- rmad-Bhagavadgt-Ttparyam

A Chapterwise Summary of the Divine Song

Svm Paramrthnanda Sarasvat

Key to Transliteration a ka ca a ta i e kha cha ai ga ja u o gha jha au a a

ha tha

a da ba

ha dha bha

a na

ya a

pa

ra a

pha

la

sa

va ha

ma a a

ContentsList of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1 3 6 9

Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Chapter 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Chapter 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Chapter 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Chapter 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Chapter 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Chapter 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 i

List of TablesParabhaktalakaam . . . . Analysis of Guas . . . . . Daivsur-sampada . . . . raddhtrayavibhga . . . Tapas (Austerity) . . . . . Sannysatrayavibhga etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 40 43 47 48 49

Note: 1. Portions in brackets are supplied ideas. 2. Numbers in brackets indicate the verses. Chapter numbers are indicated by Roman (I, II, III etc.) numerals and verse numbers by Arabic (1, 2, 3 etc.) numerals.

ii

Chapter 1 Arjunavida-yoga(The setup in which the Gt-teaching is imparted is the epic battle of Mahbhrata, fought between the Pavas and Kauravas. Arjuna, the Pava, discovers the problem of sasra in the battlefield. He surrenders to Lord Ka seeking a solution. Then follows the great teaching. If one should get the Gt-wisdom, one should go through some important phases in ones life. Firstly, one should discover the problem of sasra, for which Gt happens to be a solution. Unless one discovers the disease, one will not seek medicine. Secondly, one should become possessed by a sincere longing (tvramumuk) for freedom from sasra. This alone can lead to committed and fruitful pursuit. Thirdly, one should realize that one cannot solve this problem independently. The maximum that one can do, as a limited human being, is a rearrangement or a reshapement of the problem. Finally, one should surrender to a guru seeking his guidance. When discovers the iya in one and surrenders to a guru, the ground is prepared for the Gt-teaching to take place. The entire first chapter and the first part of the second chapter are devoted to show these developments.) The problem of sasra, as shown in the first chapter, can be said to be the problem of attachment (kp or rga), grief (oka or vida) and delusion (moha). When one is not happy with oneself, one has to seek external aids. This leads to dependence and attachment. Since the conditions of the depended factors are unpredictable, the very peace of mind of that person is in trouble. A disturbed mind can make only faulty judgements complicating the matters further. Thus a vicious cycle is created. This, in short, is the problem of sasra. Coming to the text, we find, in the first twenty verses, a vivid description of the armies arrayed for battle. After a brief instruction of Duryodhana to his commanders, Bhma, Lord Ka, Arjuna, and 1

others blow their conches, signaling the commencement of the battle (1 to 20). At this fateful moment, Arjuna commands Lord Ka, his charioteer, to place the chariot in the middle of the army to scrutinize the enemy-forces. The mischievous Lord brings the chariot in front of Bhma and Droa and asks Arjuna to survey the army (21 to 25). (Till now Arjuna was convinced that his cousins are unrighteous (23) and he, as a katriya, has to fight the battle to establish righteousness.) In a moment of weakness, Arjuna slips down from reason to relation. Instead of seeing the violators of dharma, he sees his beloved kith and kin. Naturally, Arjuna is overpowered by attachment. Then follow the twin offshoots of attachment viz. grief and delusion (26 to 30). In the next five verses, we see Arjuna expressing his intense grief which shakes him completely. This indicates the extent of his attachment. Veiled by attachment, his discriminative power becomes inoperative and he commits a series of false judgements. Interestingly enough, Arjuna even quotes the scriptures to support his unreasonable stand. Thus, Arjuna gets caught up in delusion which is depicted from the 36th verse upto the end of the chapter (36 to 47). In this way, Arjuna finds himself in the deep sea of attachment, sorrow and delusion (rga, oka, moha). Arjuna sincerely wants to get out of this problem. He thinks that solution is to drop the battle. But, one corner of his mind is not convinced by this. At the same time, he has not realized that the problem is too deep for him to solve independently. Hence he doesnt surrender to Ka either. Thus caught up in a dilemma, Arjuna sits back on the chariot sorrowfully. The main topics of this chapter are: 1. Description of the armies and the preparations . . . . . . . . . 1 to 20 2. Arjunas chariot being placed in the middle of the armies on his request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 25 3. Arjunas change of mind leading to attachment (rga) 26 to 28 4. Arjunas grief (oka) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 34 2

5. Arjunas delusion (moha) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 47 Since Arjunas grief is the main topic, this chapter is aptly called Arjunavida-yoga.

Chapter 2 Skhya-yogaIn the first chapter, Arjuna was shown to be completely immersed in grief (oka) caused by attachment (rga) and delusion (moha). Independently analyzing the problem, he comes to the conclusion that withdrawing from the war is the only solution. In the beginning of the second chapter we see the turning point in Arjuna. Chastised by Ka (2, 3), Arjuna analyses the situation further. This leads to the two important discoveries: 1. His weakness of attachment is a fundamental problem which cannot be solved by superficial methods (9). 2. He has to surrender completely to a guru to get out of this fundamental problem (8). Thus, Arjuna becomes a iya by surrendering to Lord Ka. Naturally, Ka also becomes a guru. Now that the guru-iya relationship has been struck, the teaching can begin (10). [Once a human being discovers a seeker in him, the guru will be right in front. The vedaantic teaching can take place only between a guru and iya.] Ka straightway attacks Arjunas idea that war is going to harm Bhma or himself. He points out that all the problems of Arjuna are because of delusion caused by ignorance, for wise men never have a problem (11). Thereafter, Ka gives different reasons to establish that Arjuna has to fight this war: 1. From the stand point of true nature of tm (dhytmika-di), Bhma and others are immortal. tm is never subject to changes 3

in spite of the changes of the body. It is neither a doer nor an enjoyer. Hence, neither is Arjuna a slayer nor is Bhma slain. So, why should he resist to fight? (12 to 25). Even if the tm is impermanent, Arjuna should not lament. Whatever appears will have to disappear and whatever disappears will appear. Hence, one should learn to accept the change. [In fact, change is the beauty of the creation. It looks ugly when our outlook is partial or selfish.] Hence, why should Arjuna grieve for the physical separation from Bhma and others which is inevitable in life? (26 to 30). 2. From the stand point of Katriyas duty (dhrmika-di), Arjuna can fight if it is necessary to establish order. A katriya must look at the problem not from personal stand point, but from social stand point (31). Hence, why should Arjuna hesitate to fight for a righteous cause? A righteous war is a door to heaven for a katriya (32). If Arjuna avoids war, not only he be shirking his duty and losing heaven, but he will positively incur sin (33). For avoiding sin, at least, Arjuna should fight. 3. Looking at the situation from worldly angle (laukika-di), Arjuna should not withdraw from the war. He will be called a coward by everyone (including the future generation) (34, 36). Shouldnt Arjuna fight to protect his reputation? With these arguments, Lord persuades Arjuna to fight (37, 38) and concludes the first part of his teaching. He calls this skhya-yoga (39). [In fact, the first argument which deals with the nature of the tm and the body (tma-antma-viveka) alone is the skhya-yoga.] Hereafter, the Lord enters into buddhi-yoga (karma-yoga). [Though skhya-yoga is the true solution for sorrow, many are not fit to gain it because of the false idea (moha) that worldly pursuits can solve the problem. So, initially, one has to be allowed to pursue worldly ends. By this, one should discover for oneself that actions and their results cannot give permanent satisfaction. This is dispassion.