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The Shatapatha Brahmana (शतपथ ब्राह्मण śatapatha brāhmaṇa, "Brahmana of one hundred paths") is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda. It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina (ŚBM, of the vājasaneyi madhyandina śākhā) and Kanva (ŚBK, of the kāṇva śākhā), with the former having the eponymous 100 adhyayas,7624 kandikas in 14 books, and the latter 104 adhyayas,6806 kandikas in 17 books. Linguistically, it belongs to the latest part of the Brahmana period of Vedic Sanskrit (i.e. roughly the 8th to 6th centuries BCE, Iron Age India)

TRANSCRIPT

I

m^'':

s

PRINCETON,

N.

J.

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BL 1010

.S3 V.26 Satapathabr ahma na. The satapatha~br ahmana

Shelf..

w..-^..

'^

''"'v

>v

I

-'>

',':

."'.'-'

T-'

-'pi

.'._-,.,

m^^^

/".

C^. ^.

. .V.,

^

'.

;^r-^ respectively.i'oshatta;;^

woof^

(otu),

Praghata, apparently the closely-woven part at both ends of the

cloth

(thrum)," '

from whence the loose threads of the nivi, or unwoven fringe come out. The Black Ya^us ascribes it to the plants.'

Literally,

unbeaten (ahata), unwashed.'if it

That

is

to say,

be not a new garment,

it

should be one&c.), but

that

has not been washed by a washerman (with mautra,daily after bathing.Its

worn*

Or, outward form, tanu.'

meaning sometimes comes veryit

near to that of2,2,

skin,'

assigned to

by the lexicographers. Cf.

Ill,

20

;

4, 3, 9.

Ill

KAiVDA,

I

ADHYAYA,

2

BRAHMAiVA, 21.

11

'fostering a fair appearance;' for evil indeed is that appearance which he has heretofore fostered

while unconsecrated

;

but

now

(he'

fosters)

a

fair

appearance

:

therefore he says,

fostering a

fair

appearance.'

Adhvaryu) then makes him enter the hall. Let him not eat (the flesh) of either the cow or the ox for the cow and the ox doubtless support everything here on earth. The gods spake, Verily, the cow and the ox support everything here come, let us bestow on the cow and the ox whatever vigour21.

He

(the

;

'

:

belongs to other species^!'

Accordingly they bestowed on the cow and the ox whatever vigour belonged to other species (of animals) and thereHence, were one fore the cow and the ox eat most.;

to eat (the flesh) of an

ox or a cow, there would be,or,

as

it

were, an eating of everything,(or,

as

it

were,

a going on to the end

to destruction).

Such

a one indeed would be likely to be born (again) as a strange being, (as one of

whom

there

is)

evil report,

such as

he has expelled an embryo from a woman/ 'he has committed a sin^ ;' let him therefore not eat (the flesh) of the cow and the ox. Nevertheless'

Ya^;}avalkyais

said,

'

I,

for one, eat

it,

provided that

it

tender.'

^ Vayasam, cf. Ill, 3, 3, 3. The Kava vayasaw viryaw yad anyesham pajunam.'

rec.

has yad anyesha;'

^

A different

translation of this passage

is

proposed by Professor

Delbriick (Synt. Forsch. Ill, p. 25); but the Ka?/va text (sa td.ffi hejvaro 'dbhutam abhi^anitor ^ayaya va garbha? niravadhid yadveti tad

isv2iTa.k to the infinitive in tos.

u hova^a) shows that we have here, as frequently, to supply The Ka/zva yad va (*or some such thing ') would also seem to indicate that we ought to translate:

(as of

some such

(iti) sin

one of whom) there is evil report: he has committed as the producing of abortion.''

1

5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Third BRAHMAiVA.1.

Having brought water forward^ he takes outfor

(the material for) a cake on eleven potsherds for

Agni and Vish7^u;sinceit

Agni

is

all

the deities,

is

in

the deities.Vish;2uis

Agni that offering is made to all Moreover Agni is the lower half, and' :

the upper half of the sacrificeafter

I

will

become

consecrated

encompassing

all

the

encompassing the entire sacrifice,' thus he thinks, and hence there is a cake on eleven potsherds for Agni and Vish/m. 2. Some then offer a rice-pap to the Adityas. This is referred to (in the passage, Rig-veda X, 72,8),' There are eight sons of Aditi who were borndeities, after

from her body with seven she went to the gods, but Mart^jidsi^ she cast off.' But those that are 3. Now Aditi had eight sons. called the gods, sons of Aditi,' were only seven, for the eighth, Marta;/^a, she brought forth unformed ^ it was a mere lump of bodily matter^, as broad as it;'

was

Some, however, say that he was of the size of a man. That 4. The gods, sons of Aditi, then spake,high.'

*

Viz. the so-called

'praita>^.,'

see part

i,

p. 9 note.

described in the following paragraphs,yesh/i,'

is

called the

The offering, Dikshantusedat the

Consecration offering.'bird, Vishwu, the sun.

As

to the formulas

offering, see Ait. Br. I, 4 seq.^ ^

The

Or, the eighth she brought forth undeveloped, as a marta^ kumaraka iva paribhasate. A play on the word kaninaka, which has the double meaning of youth' and pupil of the eye.' The St. Petersburg Diet, assigns also to kumaraka the meaning of 'ball of the eye' in this (the only) passage. The Kava recension reads, Sa esha kumaraka iva kaninakayam (?both 'maiden' and 'pupil of the eye'). ^ Indra slew Vntra, his eye-ball fell away, it became collyrium.''

'

'

Taitt.^

S.VI,

I, I, 5.it

Professor Delbruck, S. F. Ill, 27, takesis

thus,

'

He brushesto'

the

eye with the end of a reed, for the reedrepelling mischief.'

a thunderbolt capable of'

But,

if

'

virakshastayaito

belonged

what pre-

cedes,'nakti,'

it

would probably havewhile, in

be construed with

jareshikaya

the clause with 'vai,';

giving the

reason, being insertedit

parenthetically

an idiomatic rendering,evil spirits, theis

would have

to

be placed

at the

end:

He

anoints the eyes with a reed-stalk in

order to chase away the

reed being a thunderbolt.;

This abstract dative of purposeconstrued with what precedes,5, 3,

very

common

it

being generally

as, for instance, I, i, 4, i;3,

8; 15; III,

I,

2,

13; 19;

3, 2, 8; 6; 8; and, with a parenthetici,

clause with 'vai' intervening, III,

2,

13; IV,

5, 7, 7.

Not

less

common

is

the analogous construction with a clause with 'ned'

1

i-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Rakshas roams along the air even as man here roams along the air^ rootless and unfettered on both sides: theindeed, and unfettered on both sides, the;

reason, then,to chase14.

why

it

is (a

reed-stalk) with a tuft,

is

away the

evil spirits.

The(it is

right eye

he anointsis

first; for infirst,

human

practice the left (eye

anointed)

but with theart the

gods15.

done) thus.anointsit

He

with the text,

'Thou

eye-ball of Vretra,'is;

'

Vmra's eye-ball it indeed Eye-giving thou art give me the eye!'for:

in this there is nothing obscure. 16. The right eye he anoints once with the sacrificial

formula, once silently;

and the

left

one he:

anoints once with the formula, twice silently

thus

he makes the left (or upper) one superior 2. five times, 1 7. And the reason why he anoints:

is

that the sacrifice is of equal measure with the year, and five seasons there are in the year he thus

obtains possession of the latter in five (divisions),

and therefore he anoints five times. 18. He then purifies him with a cleanserstrainer)

(pavitra,is

of sacred grassis

;

forin

impure, indeed,

man

:

truth

within he and sacred grassfoul;

that

he'

speaks

un-

is

pure

:

Having becomecleansing,

pure,

I

shall be consecrated,' thus he thinks;

and the

stalks of sacred grass are a

means of

('

lest

such an event should happen') instead of the dative of the

abstract, cf.1

I

now

IV, 5, 9, 3. I, 2, i, 8 ; 9 take this passage differently from;

my

interpretation of

about the air, 4 ('and, in order that this man may move See also IV, i, i, 20. rootless and unfettered in both directions'). 2 Tad uttaram evaitad uttaravat karoti ;' ' uttaram dvaitad uttaI, I, 2,'

ram

karoti,'

Kava

recension.

Cf. p. 2, note

i.

Ill

KANDA,

I

ADHYAYA,

3 BRAHMAiVA, 2 2.

I

7

he thinks19.It

'Having become cleansed, I shall be consecrated,' thus and therefore he purifies him with a;

cleanser of sacred grass.

may

consist of

one

(stalkis

of grass); for

that blower (or purifier, thein

Wind)

one only, and

accordance with his nature is this (cleanser) hence it may consist of one (stalk).20.

Oris

there

may be

three (stalks)

;

for one, in-

deed,

that blower, butthreefold,

on entering

into

man hein

becomes

to wit,

the out-breathing, the

in-breathing,

and

the

through-breathing^ andis

accordance with his measurethere21.

this (cleanser)

:

hence

may be three (stalks). Or there may be seven (stalks');vital airs of the(stalks).:

for there are

seven

seven

head hence there may be There may even be thrice seven,

one and twenty: such indeed is perfection. 22. He purifies him with seven (stalks) each time, with the text (Va^. S. IV, 4), 'May the Lord of thought purify me !' The lord of thought doubtless is Pra^apati^: he thereby means to say, May Pra^apati purify me!' 'May the lord of speech purify me !' The lord of speech doubtless is Pra^apati*: he thereby means to say, 'May Pra^apati purify me!' 'May the divine Savitrz purify'

me,'^

for well purified indeedi,

is

he

whom

the divine

See part

p. 19,

noter

2.2, 3, 5, 6,

^

The9,

Taitt. S. VI, i,

allows the option between (one),I,

and 21 stalks; highest number.7,^

while the Ait. Br.

3 mentions only the

The Kava

text adds, sa hi /^ittanam ish/e,

'

for

he rules overpavate, tadthat blower

the thoughts.'* The Kawvas read, ayaw vava vakpatir yo 'y^'"^ enam esha punati, 'the lord of speech doubtless is

(purifier, the

wind)

:

hence

it

is

he that

purifies him.'

[26]

C

1

^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Savitr^ has purified^; therefore he says,

divine

Savitrz

purify

me!'

'with

'May

the

a

flawless

flawless cleanser

cleanser;' for that blower (the wind) is indeed a with that one,' he means to say':

the sun, are

'with the rays of the sun;' for they, the rays of therefore he says, indeed purifiers;

'with the rays of the sun.'23.

'O Lord of the pavitra' (means

of puri-

fication),

for

he (who

is

consecrated)

is

indeed

the lord of the pavitra,

'of thee, purified

by

for he is indeed purified by the the pavitra, pavitra; 'with whatsoever desire I purify myself, may I be able to effect it!' whereby he !' says, May I reach the end of the sacrifice 24. He then makes him pronounce the beginning'

of the benedictions (Va^. S. IV,

5),

'We approach

you,

O gods, for desirable goods, at the opening ofthesacrifice; we call on you, O gods, for holy^ blessings.' Thereby the officiating priests invoke on him those blessings which are their own. 25. He (the sacrificer) then bends his fingers inwards, viz. the two (little fingers), with the text (Va^. S. IV, 6), 'Hail, from the mind (I take hold of) the sacrifice !' the two (nameless or ring fingers) with, 'Hail, from the wide ether!' the two (middle fingers) with, Hail, from the sky and earth !' with, Hail, from the wind, I take hold

'

'

(of the sacrifice)!'^

he clenches both

fists

^

Not visiblyPerhaps

SeeI

p. 8,

note

3.pi.

^

take yagmyasa/i as ace.to

fem., as does

Mahidh.

it

ought

be translated

'

for prayers

properhis

at the sacrifice,'

whereby

he makes sure that each priest usesthe sacrifice.^

own proper

prayers during

III,

For the symbolic meaning of the closing of the hands, see 2,1,6; Ait. Br. I, 3, 20.

Ill

KANDA,

I

ADHYAYA,

3

BRAHMAiVA, 28.of,

1

indeed

is

the sacrifice to be taken hold

as

is

either

this staff or the

garment,is

but'

invisible indeed are

the gods, invisible26.

the sacrifice.Hail, from

Now when;

he says,'

the

mind

(I take hold of) the sacrifice,' he takes hold of it from the mind in saying, From the wide ether,' he takes hold of it from the ether in saying, From heaven and earth,' he takes hold of it from those two, heaven and earth, on which this entire universe rests ; and in saying, From the wind I take hold of (the sacrifice)' the wind being the sacrifice he

;

'

'

takes hold of the sacrifice directly.27.

And when

he

calls,

'Hail!

'Svaha' being the sacrificethe sacrifice.sacrificesacrifice.

he thereby appropriates;

HailM' the

Here now he:

being speech(the

restrains his speech the he thereby appropriates - the

28.

He

the

hall.

He

Adhvaryu) then makes him enter walks along the back of the Ahava-

niya and the front of the Garhapatya^,

this

is

his

passage until thethis is his

Soma

pressing.

The

reason

why

passage until thethe

Soma

pressing

is this.

The

fire isis

womb;

of the sacrifice, and the conse-

crated

an embryo'

and the embryo moves aboutTheSa/whita has twice

^'

Thatmight'

is,

svaha' in each formula.

svaha' in the last formula (svaha vatad arabhe svaha), to whichrefer,

this

but neither recension of the Brahmawa mentions

the final2

svaha.'

Literally,

'he takes within him' (as the speech confined withinhall

him through silence). 2 That is, he enters thethe Garhapatya

by the front

(east) door,

then walks

along the north side of the Ahavaniya and

altar,

and passes between

and

altar to his seat

south of the Ahavaniya.

The

Pratiprasthatrz" then silently anoints

and leads her

into the hall, either

and purifies the Dikshita's wife by the front or back door.

C 2

20within

.SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

the womb. And since he (the sacrificer) moves about there (between the fires), and now turns round and now back, therefore these embryos

move about, and now turn round and now back. Hence this is his passage till the Soma pressing.Fourth BRAHMAiVA.1.

All formulas of the consecration are audgra-

bha?^a (elevatory), since he who is consecrated elevates himself (ud-grabh) from this world to the world

He elevates himself by means of these same formulas, and therefore they say that all formuof the gods.las of the consecration are*

audgrabha/^a.'

Now they

also (specially) designate these intermediate ones as*

audgrabha;/a,'is

a libationsacrificial

because these are libations \ and For the muttering of a formula is an occult (form of sacrifice), butasacrifice.is

a libation

a direct (form of) sacrificesacrifice that

:

hence

it

is

by

this

same

he elevates himself from

this

world to the world of the gods.*

2. And again, the three libations which he makes with the dipping-spoon (sruva) are said to be adhi-

taya^usl'

The;

fourth libation

is

made

for the sakeis

of completeness

while the

fifth,

which

made withisit

the offering-spoon

(srui;, viz.:

the

audgrabha;2a-libation^

for

he

^hu), makes

the real

with anto

While

all

the formulas of the

Diksha are supposed'

be of an

'elevatory (audgrabha^za)' character, the designation

audgrabha-

ani (ya^ftwshi, or elevatory formulas)'five

is

specially applied to the

libations described

text reads,

atha yad etany avantaram audgrabhawanity akhyayantahi tad'

in the

succeeding paragraphs.

The Kava

Shutayo hy eta ahutir hy eva ya^wa/^ paroksham iva hi tad yad

ya^ur ^apaty etena^

ya^fienodgn'bhwite.

I. e.

ya^us for some

meditated' object.

Ill

KANDA,

I

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAA'A,is

8.

21

anush/ubh verse, and the anush/ubhthe sacrifice also3. is

speech, and

speech,

By means'

of the sacrifice the gods obtained

that

supreme authority which they now wield.

They

be unattainThey then sipped the sap of the able by men!' and having sacrifice, as bees would suck out honeyspake,this (world) of ours;

How may

drained the sacrifice and effacedof thesacrificial stake,

its

traces:

by means

they disappeared and because

they effaced (scattered, yopaya) therewith, thereforeit is

called

yupathis

(stake).i?2shis.

4.

Now

was heard by the

Theyis

col-

lected the sacrifice, just as this sacrifice

collectedsacri-

(prepared)^fice,

;

for

even so does he now collect thebecause the

when he

offers those (audgrabha/^a) libations.sacrifice is

5.

He

offers five libations,

commensuratein

to the year,

and there are

five

seasons

the year

(divisions),6.

thus he gains it (the year) in five and therefore he makes five libations.:

Now then

of the oblation (Va^. S. IV, 7)

:

'To

the Purpose, to the Impulse, to Agni, hail!'

At

the outset he indeed purposes to sacrifice.(is

What

part of the sacrificetion), that7.

contained) in this

(first liba-

'To Wisdom,

he now collects and makes his own. to Thought, to Agni, hail!'

with wisdom and thought he indeed conceives that he may sacrifice. What part of the sacrifice (is contained) in this (second libation), that he

now

collects

and makes8.

'Tois

his own. Initiation, to Penance, to Agni, hail!'is

This

merely uttered, but no libationmeaning ofsee parti,

made.

1

Sam-bhn; on

the technical

this

verb (to equip,i.

prepare) and the

noun sambhara,

p.

276, note

22

i-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

9.

'To Sarasvati,Sarasvatiis

to

Pushan, to Agni,

hail!'is

Now

speech, and the sacrifice also

speech.

And Pushan represents cattle, because Pushan means prosperity (push/i), and cattle also means prosperity, since the sacrifice means cattle.What10.

part of the sacrifice

(is

contained) in this (third

libation), that

he now

collects

As

to this they say,indefinitely:;

and makes his own. 'These (three) libationsareunestablished,

are

offered

they

without a god

therein

is

neither Indra, nor

Soma,

nor Agni.'11.

hail

!'

not any one (god we obtain) from thisMsurelyis

'To

the Purpose, to the

Impulse, to Agni,

But

Agnihe

definite,

Agnifire),

is

established

:

when:

offers in

Agni

(the

surely those (libations)

are thereby made definite, are thereby established for this reason he offers at all libations with, 'To

Agni,'

hail!'

Moreover, these libations are calledthe Purpose, to the Impulse, to Agni,

adhitaya^uwshi.'12.

'To

hail!'

he says; for by his own mind he purposes to sacrifice, and from his own mind he impels it (the these two deities sacrifice) when he performs it Purpose and the Impulse are meditated upon the:

(adhita) in his mind.

Thought, to Agni, hail!' he says for with wisdom and thought he indeed conthese two deities ceives that he may sacrifice13.;

'To Wisdom,

to

:

Kava

In the sentence has probably to be taken ironically. seems to form part of the objection raised Sa yat sarveshv agnaye svaheti ^uhoty anaddheva va eta ahutayo huyante akutyai pra'pratish//^ita iva na hi kasyai kana, devatayai huyante yu^a iti tan nagnir nendro na somo, medhayai manasa iti nato 'nyatara/^ ^anaivam eva sarveshv, agnir uva addha^

This

lastit

text

:

11

.

.

.

Ill

KAiVDA,

I

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

1

7.

23in his

Wisdom and Thoughtmind.14.

are

meditated upon

'To:

Sarasvati, to Pushan, to Agni, hail!' heis

says

;

for Sarasvatithis deity

speech, and the sacrifice alsois

is

speechmind.

Speech

meditated upon

in his

Pushan, on the other hand, means cattle, for Pushan means prosperity (push/i), and cattle means

prosperity, since the sacrificecattle arefliese

meansmind.

cattle

:

hence

meditated upon

in his

And

because

deities are

meditated upon (a-dhita) in his

mind, therefore (these libations) are called adhi-

taya^umshi.15.

He

then offers the fourth libation, with thevast, all-soothing

text,

'Ye divine,

Waters!

Heaven and Earth, wide Ether! let us render homage unto Br^'haspati with offering, hail!'This(libation) trulyis

nearer to the!

sacrifice, since'

he

and water is sacrifice. Heaven Ether he says, because he Let us render homage thereby praises the worlds. unto Brehaspati, with offering, hail!' he says; for Brz'haspati is the Brahman, and the sacrifice also ispraises the waters,

and

Earth

!

wide

'

'

the

Brahman

:

for this reason also this (libation)sacrifice.fifth

is

nearer to the16.

But thefor

libation

which he makes withis

the offering-spoonsacrifice;

(sru/^),

doubtless

the veritable

he offers it with an anush/ubh (verse), and the anush/ubh is speech and so is the sacrifice. 17. In the first place he pours the butter, which remains in the dhruva, into the ^\ihu. -He then ladles with the sruva three times butter from the melting-pot into the ^uhu with what he takes the third time he fills the sruva ^:

^

The

third time

he holds the sruva over the ^uhu and pours

24i8.

SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

He

offers,'

with the text (Va^. S. IV, 8

;

Rig-

veda V, 50, i), May every mortal espouse the friendship of the divine guide! every one prayeth for wealth let him choose glory, that:

he

may prosper, hail 19. Now this (versethe Vi^ve'

!'

and^: '

libation) consists of five'

parts in respect of deitiesto

vii"vo'

devasyaSavitr^';

'

refers'

Deva/^'

;

netur

to

marto'

vuritasince

to Mitra

;

dyumna;;^ vrznita,

to Brzhaspati,;

Brzhaspati means'

dyumna

(glory)

and

pu-

sh yase20.

(for

prospering) refers to Pushan.(libation), then, consists;

This

of five parts, in

respect of deities

fivefold

is

the sacrifice, fivefold

the animal victim, and five seasons there are in the

year

:

the latter he accordingly gains by this (liba-

tion) consisting of five parts in respect of deities.21.

Heis

offers

this

libation withis

verse, becausesacrifice

the anush/ubh;

an anush/ubh speech, and the

speech

so that he thereby obtains the

real sacrifice.

22.

Asfor

to this they say,

'

Let him

offer

only this

one

whatever object the others are offered, that And, indeed'-^, if object he gains even by this one.':

ghee from the pot into the sruva, so aspours1

to

fill

it

;

after

which he

it

from the sruvaTaitt.it

into thei,

^uhu,

Katy. VII, 3,18

comm.its

The

S.

(VI,

2,

5) divides the couplet into

four

padas, which

assigns to

Savit/v',

the Fathers, the Vijve Deva/z,'

and Pushan^

respectively.'

The

various reading

vi^ve' of the

Black'vai')

Ya^us, instead of

vijva/z,' is

very remarkable.

The

author here

states, in his

own

words, the reasons (by

which have led the teachers referred to to maintain that by offering The Kawva this one oblation one gains all the objects in view.text includes the entire passage regarding the fivefold division of

the formula and oblation (pars. 19-21) in the argument of thoseteachers.

For a

detailed description of the pur7?ahuti, or full-offering,

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA,

I.

25

he offers only this one, he would offer a full-offering hence he gains and the full means everything And by filling the everything by this (oblation). dipping-spoon (sruva), he fills the offering-spoon This, however, (^hii), and the latter he offers full.:

is

a mere statement (of others' views) ^

;

but

all (five)

libations are offered.23. He offers this one with an anush/ubh verse. Being an anush/ubh verse, it consists of thirty-onesyllables.vital airs,

Now

there are ten fingers, ten toes, tenthirty-first is;

and the

the body wherein

those vital airs are containedis

for this

much

consti-

a man, the sacrifice is tutes man, and the sacrifice Thus, whatever of the same proportion as a man 2. sacrifice, whatever its measure, to the extent of the that extent he takes possession of it by means of this (libation), when he offers it with an anush/ubhverse of thirty-one syllables.

Second Adhyaya.A

First BRAHMAiVA.

I.

South of the Ahavaniya he spreads two blackIf

antelope skins on the ground, with the neck parts

towards the east: thereon he consecrates him.

there are two (skins), they are an image of these two

worlds (heaven and earth), and thus he consecrates

him on these twosee parti,

worlds.

p.

302, note

2.

A

similaris

view, that the full-offeringthere given (II, 2,is

renders other oblations unnecessary,^

i, 5).

Saisha

mimawisaiva,

'

This,

however,

mere

speculation,'

Kawva^

recension.I,

See

2, 5, 14,

with note.

The

sacrifice represents

the sacrihis entire

ficer himself,Self,

and thus he makes sure ofSelf,

his offering

up

and obtaining a new divine

and a place among the

immortals.

262.

-S-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Theyfor

are joined (fitted) together along their

edge\are

these two worlds

are

also, as

it

were,

joined together at their edge.

At

the hind part theyholes:

fastened togfether throuo^h

thus,

after

uniting (mithunikr/tya) these two worlds, he consecrates(skin), then it is an 3. image of these (three) worlds then he consecrates him on these (three) w^orlds. Those (hairs) which are white are an image of the sky those which are or, if he likes, black are (an image) of this (earth) conversely those which are black are an image of the sky, and those which are white are (an image) of this (earth). Those which are of a brownish yellow colour 2, are an image of the atmosphere. Thus he consecrates him on these (three) worlds. 4. And let him, in that case, turn in the hind end; ;

him thereon. But if there be only one

;

:

(of the skin)^

:

thus, after uniting these worlds with

each other, he consecrates him thereon.5.

He

then squats

down behind

the two skins,

with his face towards the east and with bent (right)

knee; and while touching them thus^ at a place^

The two

skins are fitted together at the inner sides,

and stretched

along the ground by means of wooden pins driven into the ground

round the edge of the skins the hairy and below). At their hind parts they are tacked together by means of a thong passed through the holes and tied together in a loop.'all;

and passed through holes

sides of the latter remaining outside (above'

2 Yany eva babhriawiva hariwi. The Kava text madhye babhrui va hariwi va, those in the centre'

reads,(or

Yany

eva

between the

black and white) which are either brown or yellow (grey).

According to Katy. VII, 3, 21 it would seem that the two hind or one of them, should be doubled up (at the joint) and sewed under. According to the Sutras of the Black Ya^us, on the other^

feet,

hand, the right fore-foot*

is

turned under.

According

to the Sutras of the

Black Ya^us, he

is

to

touch at

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA,

9.

2^

where the white and black (hair) join, he mutters (Vaf. S. IV, 9), 'Ye are the images of the J^z^ and Saman;' an image doubtless is what is con-

formable M Ye are conformable to the ri'/^s and samans' he thereby means to say. 6. 'I touch you.' Now, he who is consecrated becomes an embryo, and enters into the metres hence he has his hands closed, since embryos have their hands closed.'

:

7.

And when'

he says,

'

I'

touch you,' he means

to say,

I

enter into you.'

Do

ye guard

me up

to the goal of this sacrifice!' whereby he says,'

Do8.

ye protect!'

me

until

the

completion of thishis right

sacrifice

He

then kneelswiththe

down withtext,

knee (on

the

skin),

'Thou

art a refuge:the

affordgods'

meis

refuge!'it

for

the skin (/^arma) of thethereforerefuge.'*

black deerit

is

indeed

among men, but among:

a refuge (i^arma):

he says,

Thou art a refuge afford me be to thee: injure me notto;

Homageraises

!^

Now he who

himself upon the sacrifice^ doubtless raises himself

one that is his better for the black deer skin is a (means of) sacrifice. Hereby, now, he propitiatesthat sacrifice,

and thus that!'

sacrifice'

does not injureto thee:

him9.

:

for this reason

he says,sit

Homage befirst

injure

me

not

Heat

must indeed

down

on the hind partto sit

(of the skin).

Werein

he,

on the other hand,

downthe

once

the middle (of the skin), and were

same time the white hair with his thumb and the black with his Say. on Taitt. S. I, 2, 2 (vol. i, p. 297). ^ Sieya.fnsa.fn va esha upadhirohati yo manushya/^ san ya^iiam upadhirohati. Kava recension.fore-finger.

28

i-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

any one there to curse him, saying, He shall either become demented or fall down headlong then that would indeed come to pass. Let him therefore first sit down on the hind part (of the skin). For 10. He then girds himself with the zone. Ahgiras were consecrated, once upon a time when the they were seized with weakness, for they had pre' ! '

pared

no other food but

fast -milk.

They then

perceived this (source of) strength (viz. the zone), and this (source of) strength they put in (or round)the middle of their body as a (means of attaining) and thereby they attained complecompletion:

tion.

Andin

so does

strength

he now put that (source of) the middle of his body and therebyof hemp.

attain completion.11.It is

made

Hempen

it

is

in

order

to be soft.

Now when

Pra^apati, having

become an

embryo, sprung forth from that sacrifice, that which was nearest to him, the amnion, became hempen And that which threads hence they smell putrid.:

was the outer membrane (and placenta) became the garment of the consecrated. Now the amnion lies under the outer membrane, and hence that (zone) is worn under the garment. And in like manner as Pra^apati, having become an embryo, sprung forth from that sacrifice, so does he become an embryo and spring forth from that sacrifice.12.It (the cord) is

a triple one, because food

is

threefold, food being cattle.

(Moreover) the father and mother (are two), and that which is born is a third hence it is a triple (cord).:

13.

It is intertwined

with a shoot of reed (mu;1fa)

grass, for the sake of chasing

away theItis

evil spirits,

the reed being a thunderbolt.

plaited after

Ill KAiV^DA,

2

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA,

1 8.

29

the

manner of a braid ofit

hair.

For were

twisted^ sunwise (fromcords,

left;

to right) as

it to be any other

would be humanhenceit is

trary to the course of the sun,

the Fathers

:

and were it twisted conit would be sacred to plaited after the manner ofit,

a braid of14.

hair.

Hefor;

girds himself with

with the text (Vaf. S.

(source the Angiras perceived soft as wool, bestow thou strength strengthras,'

IV, 10),

'Thou'

art the strength of thethis

Angiof)

on me!'15.

there

is

nothing obscure intext,

this.

He

then tucks up the end of his (nether) gar-

ment, with the

'Thou

art

Soma's

tuck.'

For heretofore it was the tuck of him, the unconsecrated but now that he is consecrated, it is that of Soma 2 therefore he says, Thou art Soma's tuck.' For he who 16. He then wraps up (his head)^. becomes an embryo and embryos are is consecrated enveloped both by the amnion and the outer membrane therefore he covers (his head).; : '

;

:

17.

He

covers himself, with the text,

'Thou

art

Vish;2u's refuge, the refuge of the sacrificer.' He who is consecrated indeed becomes both Vish/m and a sacrificer for when he is consecrated, he is;

and when he sacrifices, he is the sacrificer therefore he says, Thou art Vish;^u's refuge, the

Vishnu

;

:

*

refuge of the18.

sacrificer.'

Thereupon he

ties

a black deer's horn to thesame term(it

^

Twisted and plaitedLiterally,

is

here

expressed by the

'

sr/sh/a.'^

but

now

(it

being that) of (him) the consecrated,or,

is

that) of^

Soma. With his upper garment,3,

according to others, with a turban.

Katy.VII,

28 schoU.

30

S-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.(of his

Now the gods and the garment'). both of them sprung from Pra^apati, enAsuras,endtered upon their father Pra^apati's inheritance the eods came in for the Mind and the Asuras for:

Thereby the gods came in for the sacrifice and Asuras for speech; the gods for yonder (heaven) and the Asuras for this (earth).Speech.19.'

The godsVa/C'(f.,

said to Ya^?^ais

(m., the sacrifice),

That

speech)call'

a

she will certainlyhimself thought,

thee

woman: beckon her, and Or it may be, he to her.'is

That Va/^

a

to her.' beckon her and she will certainly He accordingly beckoned her. She, however, at first disdained him from the distance: and hence a woman,. when beckoned by a man, at first disdains him from the distance. He said, She has disdained'

woman call me

:

I

will

me

from the distance.'

20.

They

said,

'

Do

but beckon her, reverend

sir,

and she;

will certainly call thee to her.'

He beckoned

her but she only replied to him, as it were, by and hence a woman, when shaking her head:

beckoned by a man, only replies to him, as it were, by shaking her head. He said, 'She has only replied to me by shaking her head.'21.sir,

They

said,

'Do but beckoncall

her,

reverendher.'

and she will certainlyher,

thee

to;

Hesaid,

beckoneda*

and she

called

him

to her to her.

and hence

woman

at last calls the

man

He

She has indeed1

called me.'

horn to the unwoven end (thrum, which was tucked through (par. 15) daya) of the nether garment and then allowed to hang down in front. The Kavas, on the

The Madhyandinas

tied the

other hand, tied

it

to the

hem3,

of the upper garment

(uttarasi/('e

!

Kava

text); of.

Katy.VII,

29 scholl.

Ill

KAiVDA, 2

ADHYAYA,'

I

BRAHMAiS^A, 23.

3

That Va/ being a woman, Say to her, "Come hither to me where I stand!" and report to us her having come.' She then went up Hence a woman goes to where he was standing.2 2.

The gods

reflected,lest

we must take care

she should allure him^

to a

man who

stays in a well-trimmed (house).'

He

reported to them her having come, saying,

She has

indeed come.'23. The gods then cut her off from the Asuras and having gained possession of her and enveloped her completely in fire, they offered her up as a holoAnd In caust, it being an offering of the gods ^. that they offered her with an anush/ubh verse, thereby they made her their own and the Asuras, being deprived of speech, were undone, crying, He 'lavaA he 'lava/^^l; *!

Yosha va iyam vag yad enaw na yuvita. The St. Petersburg That Vak is indeed a woman, (s, V. yu) takes it differently, since she does not wish to draw him towards herself (i.e. since she does not want him to come near her).' Sayawa, on the other hand, explains it elliptically, 'Since she has not joined him (no confidence can be placed in her).' The Kava text reads Ta u ha deva^

Diet,

'

:

yad va enam na yuviteti. Perhaps in our passage also we should read yuvita (as proposed by Delbriick, Syntact. Forschungen III, p. 79), and translate, 'Verily that Va^ is a woman (it is to be feared) that she will [or, it is to be hoped that she will not] allure him [viz. so that Yagiia. also would fall to the share of the Asuras] Dass sic ihn nur nicht an sichbibhaya2 /^akrur yosha va iyamiti' ':

;

'

'

!

fesselt

'

For

similar elliptic constructions with

yad and

the op-

paragraphs 26 and 27; and II, 2, 4, 3 ['Dass er mich nur nicht auffrisst !'] IV, 3, 5, 3 (' Dass uns nur die Rakshas nichtstative, see;

zu Leide thun!')^

;

IV,

6, 9, i.

One wouldnopriests'

expect an

'

iti'

here.

And

therefore requiring

portion &c. to be taken

from it. * Accordingcorrectly.

to Saya?/a,

'

He

'lavo

'

stands for

'

He

'rayo

(i.

e.

ho,

the spiteful (enemies))!' which the Asuras were unable to pronounce

The Kawvaity

text,

however, reads,

te

hattava-^o 'sura;

hailo haila

etaw ha \akam vadanta/2 parababhuvuA

(?

i.

e.

He

3224.

SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Such was the unintelHgible speech which they then uttered, and he (who speaks thus) is a MleZV/a Hence let no Brahman speak barba(barbarian).

rous

language,

since

such

is

the

speech of the

Asuras. Thus and whosoever knows this, his mies of speech enemies, being deprived of speech, are undone.;

alone he deprives his spiteful ene-

25.

That

Ya^^^a

(sacrifice)

lusted

after

Va-^

(speech^),

thinking,

'May

I

pair with her!'

He

united with her.26.

Indra then thought within himself,

'

Surely

a great monster will spring from this union of Ya^;7a and Va/^ [I must take care] lest it should get the Indra himself then became an embetter of me.' bryo and entered into that union. 27. Now when he was born after a year's time, he thought within himself, 'Verily of great vigour is [I must take this womb which has contained me no great monster shall be born from it care] that: :

after me, lest28.it

it

should get the better ofit

me

!'

Havingand putis

seized and pressed

tightly,

he tore

off

it

on the head of Ya^flais

(sacrifice 2);:

for the black (antelope)

the sacrifice

the black

deer skin

theis

deer's hornit

the

same as that sacrifice, and the black same as that womb. And becauseit

was by pressing

tightly together that Indra toreit

out (the womb), thereforetightly (to the

(the horn)

is

bound

end of the garment); and as Indra,

ila,

'

ho, speech.')

A

third version of this passage(Kielh.), p. 2.

seems

to

be

referred to in the^

MahabhashyaVI,;'

Compare'

the corresponding legend about Yagna.i, 3, 6.

and Dakshias\v-

(priests' fee), Taitt. S.^

Ya^ilasya jirshan

shan.'

The

Taitt. S. reads

one would expect krzsha(sara)sya tarn m;7geshu ny adadhat.''

'

Ill KAiVZ>A,

2

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA, 3 1.

33

having become an embryo, sprang from that union, is he (the sacrificer), after becoming an embryo, born from that union (of the skin and the horn).so29.

He

ties it (to

the end of the garment) withit is

the open part upwards, for

wombtext,

bears the embryo.

He

in this way that the then touches with it

his forehead close over the right eyebrow, with the

'Thou

art Indra's womb,'since in enteringit

for

it is

indeed

Indra's

womb,'

he enters thereby \

and in being born he is born therefrom: therefore he says, Thou art Indra's womb.'

Thereupon he draws (with the horn) the ('easterly') line, with the text, 'Make the crops full-eared!' Thereby he produces the sacrifice; for when there is a good year, then there is abundant (material) for sacrifice but when there is a bad year, then there is not even enough for himself:30.;

hence he thereby produces the31.

sacrifice.

not the consecrated henceforth scratch himself either with a chip of wood or with his nail.let

And

For he who is consecrated becomes an embryo and were any one to scratch an embryo either with a chip;

of

wood

or his nail, thereby expelling

it,

it

would

Thereafter the consecrated would be liable to be affected with the itch and offspring (retas)die I;

coming

after the consecrated

that

offspringitch.

would

then also be liable to be born with the

Now hishead of the

^

In the Kava text

'

ata/i

sacrificer,vij-an

sa yak

(therewith)' refers to the

X'/nrasta

pravij-aty ato

upaspmaty ato va enam etad agre prava agre ^ayamano ^ayate tasma/^ /^/nrasta

upaspr;!rati.^

syet,

Apasyan mrityet = apagaM/^an mr/tim prapnuyat, Say. ?apahe would force it out and it would die.' The Kawva text has' '

merely

ayam mn'tyet

(!).'

[26]

D

34

5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.not injureits

own womb^ does

offspring,

and that

black deer's horn being indeed his own womb, that (horn) does not injure him and therefore the conse;

crated should scratch himself with the black deer's horn and with nothing but the black deer's horn.32.

for

Adhvaryu) then hands to him a staff, the staff being driving away the evil spirits,(the

He

a thunderbolt.33. Itis

of

Udumbara wood (Ficusstrength,:

Glomerata), for

him to obtain food and means food and strengthbara wood.34.It

theit

therefore

is

Udumbara of Udum-

reaches up to his mouth,:

for so far extendsis,

his strength

as great as his strengthit it

so great

it

(the staff)35.

is

when

reaches up to his mouth.standupright, with

He makes

the text,

in'Stand up, O jury on to the goal of this sacrifice!' whereby he means to say, Standing erect, protect me till the

tree, erect;

guard me from

'

completion of this sacrifice36.It is-

!'

only

now

thattheirwill

some bend thespeech,

fingers

inwardargue,

and

restrain

because, they

only from now

he not have to mutter;

But let him not do so for in like manner as if one were to try to overtake some one who runs away, but could not overtake him, so does he not Let him therefore turn in overtake the sacrifice. his fingers and restrain his speech on that (former)anything.occasion.37.

And when the consecrated (after restraining his^,

speech) utters either a rik, or a saman, or a ya^iis^ ' *

That

is,

the

womb

from which he (the

sacrificer) is born.

11. I, 3, 25-

Viz. in muttering the formulas

mentioned above,

III, 2, i, 5 seq.

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,

I

BRAHMAiVA, 40.

35

he thereby takes a firmer and firmer hold of the sacrifice let him therefore turn in his fingers and restrain his speech on that (former) occasion. speech 38. And when he restrains his speech:

beingfice to

sacrifice

he thereby appropriates the sacri-

But when, from speech restrained, he utters any sound (foreign to the sacrifice), then In that that sacrifice, being set free, flies away. case, then, let him mutter either a ri^ or a ya^ushimself \

addressed to Vish;/u, for Vish/^uthis

is

the

sacrifice;

thereby he again gets hold of theis

sacrifice

and

the atonement for that (transgression).calls out,is'

is

Thereupon some one ^ this Brahman, consecrated39.

Consecrated:'

this

Brahman

him,

being thus announced, he thereby announces tothe

one who has obtained the sacrifice he has become one of yours protect him !' this is what he means to say. Thrice he says it, for threefold is the sacrifice. 40. And as to his saying, Brahman,' uncertain, as it were, is his origin heretofore^; for the Rakshas, they say, pursue women here on earth, and so the Rakshas implant their seed therein. But he, forsooth, is truly born, who is born of the Brahman (neut.), of the sacrifice wherefore let him address even a Ra^anya, or a Vai^ya, as Brahman, since he who is born of the sacrifice is born of the Brahman (and hence a Brahma;^a). Wherefore they say, Let no one slay a sacrificer of Soma for by (slaying) a Soma-sacrificer he becomes guilty of a heinous sin'Tgods'

:

Of

great vigour;

is

this

:

'

:

'

;

^

Or, puts

it

in himself, encloses

it

within himself.Pratipra-

some one other than the Adhvaryu, viz. the sthatr/ or some other person, Katy. VII, 4, 1 1 scholl. ^ That is, inasmuch as he may be of Rakshas origin.^

That

is,

*

Viz. of the crime of Brahmanicide (brahmahatya).

D

2

36

^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Second BRAHMAiVA.1.

Heis

maintains silence; and silently he remainssunset.this

seatedsilence2.

till

The

reason

why he

maintains

By means'

of the sacrifice the gods gained thatwield.

supreme authority which they nowspake,

How

can this (world) of ours be

They made un;

attainable tosacrifice,

men

?'

They sipped

the sap of the

even as bees would suck out honey and having drained the sacrifice and scattered it by means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared and:

because they scattered (yopaya,therewith, therefore3.it

viz.

the sacrifice)(post) ^

is

called

yupa

Now

this

was heard by the

7?/shis.

Theycol-

collected the sacrifice.

As

that sacrifice

was

lected (prepared) ^ so does hecollect the sacrifice (by

who

is

consecrated

keeping his speech withinis

him),^

for the sacrifice

speech.

Professor Whitney (American Journal of Philology, III, p. 402)

proposes to take

yopayaway/

here in the sense

to block or bar the

He

remarks,

of to set up an obstacle, 'How the setting up of a postmadeto appear.'it

should operate to " efface traces " cannot easily beI

am

not aware that any one has sjipposed that

was byseems'

the

'

setting

up' of the post that the traces of the sacrifice were obliterated.

what followsto mix,stir

They'

Frompretty

collected the sacrifice

'

it

to

me

clear that our author at

any

rate connects

'yopaya with the root yu,

about,

and hence

to efface the traces

ground, or by scattering about.^

by mixing with the This causative was evidently no

longer a living form, but resorted to for etymological purposes.Or, perhaps,

They

collected the sacrifice in the

same way

as

this (present) sacrifice

has been collected.

See, however, the cor-

responding passageclearer:

III, 2, 2,

Ta.fu yatha

29; 4, 3, 16. The Ka?/va text is yatharshayo yagnzm samabharaws tathayawr/shayo

ya^fia^ sambhr/to

yatho vai tad

yagiiam

samabharann

evam u va esha

etad

yagmm

sambharati yo dikshate.

Ill

KAA^DA, 2

ADHYAYA,set,

2

BRAHMAiVA,

7.

^J

4.

Whenis

the sun has

he breaks

silence.is

Now

Pra^apati

the year, since the sacrificeis

Pra^apati

day and night, since these two revolvHe has been consecrated during ing produce it. the day, and he has gained the night as great as

and the year

:

the sacrifice

is,

as great as

is its

extent, to that extent

has he gained5.

it before he breaks silence. Some, however, make him break his

silence

on

seeing the

(first) star^,

arguing that then the sun has

But let him not do so, for what would become of them if it were cloudy ? Let him therefore break silence as soon as he thinks the sun has set. 6. Now, some make him break silence by theactually set.

formula, 'Earth! ether! sky!' arguing that thereby

they strengthen the

sacrifice,;

they heal the

sacrifice.

But

let

him not do so

for

he who breaks silencesacrifice,

with that (formula) does not strengthen the

does not heal the7.

sacrifice.

Let him rather break silence with

this!

oneprefast-

(Va^. S. IV, 11),'

Prepare ye the fast-food

pare ye the fast-food! [prepare yefood!]

the

the Brahman, Agni is the sacriFor fice; the tree is meet for the sacrifice.'is

Agniis

this

indeed

his sacrifice, this

is

his havis-offering at

this (rite of consecration),

even as the Agnihotra washe establishes thesacrifice

heretofore^.

In thus preparing the (Soma) sacrificesacrifice,

by means of the^

'After pointing

out

(some)

stars

[nakshatrawi

darjayitva],'

Kawvarisen,^

recension.

Cf. Taitt.

S.VI,

i, 4, 4,

'when!

the stars have"

he breaks silence with " Prepare the fast-foodis

That

to say, the eating of the fast-food, consisting chiefly ofit

milk, takes, as

were, the place of the Agnihotra, or evening and

morning

sacrifice,

which he

is

not allowed to perform during the time

of his consecration.

38in the sacrifice,

5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A.

and;

carries

on the

sacrifice

by means

of the sacrificeis

for (the partaking of) that fast-food

indeed carried on by him till the pressing of the Soma. Thrice he pronounces (the first words ^), forthreefold8.is

the sacrifice.

Moreover, he

breaks

silence,

after

turning

round towards the

fire.

He, on the other hand, who

breaks silence with any other (formula) but this 2, does not strengthen the sacrifice, does not healthesacrifice.

In pronouncing thethe

first

(part of the

formula) 3 he utters the truth of speech*.

Brahman (neut), he says, for Agni Agni is indeed the Brahman (sacerdotium) for Agni is indeed the sacrifice is the sacrifice,'9.'

Agni

is

'

;

'

;

'the tree

is

meet

for the

sacrifice,' for trees ^

are

indeed meet for thesacrifice, if

sacrifice,

since:

men

could not

there were no trees

therefore he says,fast-food for him.

'the tree10.

is meet for the Thereupon they cook the

sacrifice.'

For he who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods and becomes one of the deities. But the sacrificial food of the gods must be cooked, and not uncookedhence they cook^

it,

and he partakes of that fast-milkPrepare ye the fast-food!'

Viz. the injunctionin theis

'

which

is

indeed

read thrice

Kavaclearer.

text, where the arrangenment of these

paragraphs2

much'

Thus

Say.

ato 'nyena, bhur bhuva/^ suvar ityanena

'

(MS.'

I.

O.

657).

Dr. Lindner

makes

ata/z

refer to Agni.

The Kawva:

text

So 'gnim begins the passage, corresponding to paragraphs 7 and 8 (thrice) etad va etasya havir ikshama^io visr/^ate vrataw kri;/utaesha yzgiio yad vratam.'^

That

is,

the words

'

Agni

is

the Brahman.'(neut.) is the truth (or essence,

^

Viz. because 'the

Brahman

satyam),' Say.^

Viz. trees

from which

sacrificial

implements, fire-wood, the

sacrificial stake, Sec, are

obtained.

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,offerit

2

BRAHMAA^A,thefire.

1

4.

^.()

(vrata)

and does not

in

Theofferit

reasonin the

why he11.

eats the fast-food:

and does not

fire is this

of the sacrifice the gods gained that supreme authority which they now wield. Theyspake,'

By means

How

can this (world) of ours be

made;

un-

attainable tosacrifice,

men?'

They sipped

the sap of the

even as bees would suck out honey and having drained the sacrifice and scattered it by

means of the

sacrificial

post,

they disappeared.therewith,

And12.

because they scatteredit

(yopaya)

therefore

is

called

yupa

(post).i?/shis.

Now

this

was heard by the

They

collected the sacrifice.lected, so

Asis

does heit

whois

was colconsecrated now becomethatsacrifice

he that carries it on, that produces it. And whatever (sap) of the sacrifice was sucked out and drained, that he now restores again by sipping the fast-milk and not offering it in the fire; for, assuredly, were he to offer it in the fire, he would not replenish (the sacrifice). But let him, nevertheless, think (that he does so) sacrificing and not the reverse.the sacrifice, for13. For, verily, these vital airs are born of the mind, endowed with mind\ of intelligent power^ Agni is speech Mitra and Varu;^a are the out: ;

breathing and the in-breathingthe eye;

;

Aditya (the sun)ear,

is

and the All-gods are theis

it

is

untohim.

these deities that offering14.

therebyrice

made by

Now, some add both

first (day's) fast-milk,

arguing,

and barley

to the

"

By means;

of these

two substances (rasa) we restore what part of the sacrifice was sucked out and drained and, should^

Manoyu^Cf.

(?),

'

mind-yoked,'

i.e.

having thouglits for their team.

^

paragraph 18.

40

SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A.

the vrata-cow yield no milk, he

may

prepare bis fast;

food of whichever of these (cereals) he pleases and thus both the rice and the barley are taken hold of'

But let him not do this for he who adds both rice and barley (to the milk) neither replenishes the sacrifice nor heals it. Let him. therefore add only Both the rice and the one or the other (cereal). barley doubtless form his (havis) material for offering (at the New and Full-moon Sacrifice), and when they

by him."

;

do so becomealso'

his material for offering, then they are

taken hold of ^' by him.let

Should the vrata-cowfast-food of which-

yield no milk,

him prepare the

ever of them he pleases.

Some, again, add to the first (da3''s) fast-food (vrata) all manner of vegetables and fragrant (seasonIf disease were to befall him, he ing), arguing, might cure it by whatever thereof he pleases, as if But let him not he cured it by the fast-milk 2.'15.

'

^ Anvarabdha has here the usual sacrificial meaning of taken hold of (from behind),' with perhaps something of that of 'taken (as medicine =einnehmen).' Thus at the invocation of the Ida., the'

sacrificer has to

touch (anv-arabh) thenote i; and III,

ida,

from behind, therebysacrifice.

keeping up his connection, and identifying himself, with theCf. parti,

p. 228,

2, 4, 15.

Hence

the author,

making use

of the term suggested by those he criticises, argues that

as both kinds of material have already been used and therefore

touched (anvarabdha) by him at the New and Full-moon Sacrifice (Sayaa), they have therefore been taken possession of by him. It is possible, though scarcely likely, that the verb may have referencehereto the anvarambhawiya ish/i, or preliminary ceremony of with the first performance of the New and Full-moon Sacrifice,

which the present use of these cereals would, in that case, be identified, as that of the vrata-milk was with the Agnihotra (cf. paragraph 7above).

Theis

Kanva.

text hasity

the verb

a-rabh

instead, yatha

havisharabdhena bhisha^yed^

evam

etat.

That

to say,

medicinal properties of someascribed to the milk.

though the restoration might be due to the of those ingredients, it could be

Ill

KANDA,lest;

2

ADHYAYA,

2

BRAHMAiVA,is

I 7.

4

do

this,

he should do whatfor those peopleact,

inauspicious to

do at the sacrifice and inauspicious to the sacrifice assuredly is that which is human. If any disease were to befall him who is consecrated, let him cure it wherewith he pleases; for completion is proper 16. He (the Adhvaryu) hands the fast-food tothe sacrificeis

what

a

human

him, after letting the ordinary (meal-)time pass,the morning-milk in the afternoon,distinction:

viz.

the evening-milk in the latter part of the night, and

for the sake of

he thereby distinguishes the divine from heis

the human.to

about to hand the fast-food him he makes him touch water^ with the text, 'For protection we direct our thoughts to divine devotion, the source of supreme mercy^, the bes tower of glory and the bearer of sacrifices^: may it prosper our ways, according to our desire!' Heretofore, indeed, it was for a1 7.

And when

human meal*

that he cleansed himself, but:

now

it is

for the sake of divine devotion

therefore he says,

For the sake of

assistance

we

turn our thoughts to

divine devotion, the source of supreme mercy, the

bestower of glory, the bearer of^

sacrifices

:

may

it

Sayaa takes

this tois

tion of the sacrificeit

desirable,

mean, that, as above all the consummaone should in case of disease curetheir

by any of those drugs without^

being taken (anvarabdha)

sacrificially,

or as part of the sacrificial performance.text, the sacrificer first;

According to the Kawva

washes himself

(nenikte) and then sips water (a/^amati)fast-milk,^

and having drunk the

he touches water (apa upaspmati).'

Or, perhaps,

we

meditate on the divine intelligence, the most('bringing, or bearing, worship'); thus alsotext reads

merciful.'*

Ya^wavahasamI,

Taitt. S.

2, 2.

The Kava

vi^-vadhayasam,

'all-

nourishing, all-sustaining.'

42

5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

prosper our ways, according to our desire !' Whenever, being about to take the fast-food, he touches

him touch it with this same (formula). Thereupon he drinks the fast-food, with the text, 'May the gods favour us, they who are born of the mind, and endowed with mind\ and of intelligent power! may they protect us! Hail to them!' Thus that (fast- food) comes to be for him (by means of the Svaha) as an oblation consecrated by the Vasha/. 19. Having drank the fast-food, he touches his navel-, with the text (Va^. S. IV, 12), 'Ye waters that have been drank, may ye become palatable and auspicious within us! may they prove agreeable to us, freeing us from disease and weakness and sin, they the divine, the immortal, the holy !' Now, he who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods and becomes one ofwater, let1 8.

the deities

;

but the

sacrificial

food of the gods:

is

not increased (with other material)

hence,

if in

handing the fast-foodit

(to

the consecrated) he increases

fast.

commits a fault and breaks the This (formula), however, is the atonement for that (transgression), and thus that fault is not committed by him, and he does not break the fast (or vow) therefore he says, Ye waters ....!' When' :

(with other milk), he

ever, after drinking the fast-food,

he touches;

his

navel, let^

him touchnote2.

it

with this (formula)

for

who

See

p. 39,

The Kava

text here again identifies the

divinities referred to in the text with the vital airs.^

Having eaten and touched water, he strokes

his belly

abhimr/jate), Kav.clear:

The Kava

text renders the

(udaram meaning quiteiti

Uta

vai tivraw

vopotsi?l/('aty,

vratam bhavati tat kshudrataram asad alpaw va bhavati tad bhuyaskamyopotsi?7/Jati.

Ill

KAA'DA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 21.(or not)

43

knows whether20.

he who hands the fast-foodit

(to the consecrated) increases

(with other milk)^

When

he intends to pass urine, he takes up

a clod of earth or some other object by means of the deer's horn, with the text (Va^. S. IV, 13), 'This

(O Earth) is thy covering meet for worship.' For this earth truly is divine, and serves as a placemust not be defiled by him who is consecrated. Having lifted up this its sacrificially pure covering 2, he now relieves himself on its impure body, with the formula, I discharge not offspring, but waters,' for so indeed he does^; 'delivering from trouble, and consecrated by Sv ah a,' for they do indeed deliver from trouble what is pressed together inside therefore 'consecrated he says, 'delivering from troubJe,' !' whereby he means by Svaha, enter ye the earth to say, Having become offerings, do ye enter the earth, appeased 21. Thereupon he throws the clod of earth down again, with the text, Unite with the earth!' for truly this earth is divine, and serves as a place for the worship of the gods it must not be defiled by him who is consecrated. Having lifted up this itsfor the worship of the

gods

:

it

'

:

'

!

'

:

*

No

other fresh milk

is

to

be added

to that obtained4,

by one milk-

ing of the

vratadughais

preceding formulathe part of him

29); but the to be muttered in order to obviate any evil(fast-milk)this rule,

cow (Katy.VII,

consequences arising from a possible secret breach of

on

who hands

the milk to the sacrificer.spill,'

Dr. Lindner

takes upotsi/^ in the sense of 'tothis rendering,

but I find no authority for(in the equiva-

which neither the prep,

up a, nor abhiof.

lent abhyutsi/^)^ ^'

would seem4.

to

admit

See

p. 10,

note

Ubhayawz va ata ety apa^ ^a

retaj- kd,

;

sa etad apa eva muwX'ati

na pra^am.'

44sacrificiallyits

i-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

pure covering, he has reheved himself on impure body, and now restores to it this its pure covering therefore he says, Unite with the earth !' 2 2. He then gives himself up to Agni (the fire) For he who for protection and lies down to sleep.:'

is

consecrated draws nigh to the gods and becomesdeities;

one of the

but the gods do not sleep, while to;

him sleeplessness is not vouchsafed and Agni being Lord of vows to the gods, it is to him that he now commits himself and lies down to sleep, with the text (Vaf. S. IV, 14), O Agni, be thou a good waker: may we thoroughly refresh ourselves!' whereby he says, O Agni, wake thou we are going to sleep!' 'Guard us unremittingly!' whereby Make us he means to say, protect us heedfully !' say, 'Order awake again!' whereby he means to so that, having rested here, we may awake safely.' 23. And when he has slept and does not wish to fall asleep again, (the Adhvaryu) makes him mutter'

*

:

'

'

the text (Va^. S. IV, 15),

'

Thought and

life

have

come back to me, breath and soul have come back to me, eye and ear have come back to me;' for all these depart from him when he sleepsthe breath alone does not;

and:

after

he has slept

them therefore he says, Thought and life have come back to me .' 'May Agni Vaii-vanara, the unassailable preserver of lives, preserve us from mishap and shame!' whereby he means to say, May Agni save us from whatever mistake (may be committed) on this occasion, either by sleep or otherwise:' this is why he says, May Agni Vai^vanara, the unassailable preserver of lives, preserve us from mishap and shame 24. For, when he who is consecrated utters anyhe'

again

unites

with

.

.

'

'

!

Ill

KANDA,is

2

ADHYAYA,

2

BRAHMA7/A, 26.

45

thing that

foreign to the vow, or

when he becomes

angry, he commits a fault and breaks his vow, since suppression of anger behoves him who is consecrated.

Now, Agni it is to him

is the Lord of vows among the gods, therefore that he resorts (Va^. S. IV, i6;

Agni, art the divine guardian of vows among men, to whom praise is due at the sacrifices.' This, then, is his atonement for that (transgression); and thus that fault is not committed by him, and he does therefore he says, Thou, O not break his vow Agni, art the divine guardian of vows among men,Rig-veda VIII,ii, 7):

'Thou,

O

'

:

to

whom praise is due at the sacrifices.' 25. And whatever (gift) people offer

to

him\

thereon he (the Adhvaryu) makes him pronounce the text, 'Bestow this much, O Soma, bring more!' for Soma indeed it is that appropriates for the consecrated whatever people offer to'

him when he:

says,'

Bestow this much, O Soma,' he means to say, Bestow this much on us, O Soma;' and by 'Bringmore,' he

means

to say, 'Fetch

more

for us!'

'The

divine Savitr^, the bestower of wealth, hath bestowed wealth on us;' whereby that (gift) comes to be impelled by Savit?^2 with a view to(further) gifts.

Before sunset he (the Adhvaryu) says, Consecrated, restrain thy speech !' and after sunset he re26.'

leases speech.

Before sunrise he says, Consecrated,'

restrain thy speech!'1'

and

after sunrise

he releaseslet

And

if

they were to bring him either a garment or a cow,it

him address

According to some authorities the Dikshita is to go about for twelve days begging his means of subsistence, and whatever he obtains he is to touch and Katy. VII, 5, 3, comm. consecrate by the above text.with the text.'

Kava

text.

46his Speech,

^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

for the sake of continuitylet

:

with the night

he continues the day, and with the day the night, 27. Let not the sun set on him while abidingelsewhere (than the hall); northe sun rise onto set

him while

asleep.

For were the sun

on him

while abiding elsewhere, he (the sun) would cut him and were the sun to rise on off from the night;

him while asleep, he would cut him off from theday:

there

by

all

is no atonement for this, hence it must means be avoided. Prior to the purificatory

bath he should not enter water, nor should it rain upon him for it is improper that he should enter;

water, or that

it

should rain upon him, before the

purificatory bath.falteringly,

Moreover, he speaks his speecheffusively after the

and not

manner ofspeaks his

ordinary speech ^

The:

reason

why he

speech falteringly and not after the manner of ordinary speech28.is

this

By means'

of the

sacrifice

the gods gained

that supreme authority which they

spake,

Howto

can this (world) of

now wield. They ours be made unatsap of the;

tainablesacrifice,

men?'

They

sipped the

having drained

even as bees would suck out honey and the sacrifice and scattered it by means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared. And because they scattered (yopaya) therewith,therefore29.it is

called

yupa;

(post).i?/shis.

Now

this

was heard by the

They

and as that sacrifice was colhe who is consecrated now collect the lected, so does sacrifice (by keeping back his speech), for the sacrifice is speech. of the sacrifice And whatever partcollected the sacrifice

^

Literally,

'

Falteringly

(i.

e.

hesitatingly,

cautiously) he speaks

speech, not

human

effusive (speech).'

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,

3

BRAHMAiVA,

I,

47

was then sucked out and drained, that he now restores again by speaking his speech faheringly and not effusively after the manner of ordinary speech. For were he to speak effusively after the manner of ordinary speech, he would not restore (the sap of thesacrifice): therefore

he speaks

his

speech falterlngly

and not30.

effusively after the

manner of ordinary speech.

He

verily anoints himself,

it

is

for speech

that he anoints himself^ since he anoints himself for

the sacrifice, and the sacrifice(the anointed) doubtlessis

is

speech.

Dhikshita

the

same

as dikshita(the

consecrated).

THE PRAYATVIYESHn,I.

or

OPENING-SACRIFICE.

Third Brahmaa-a, He prepares the Praya;dya rice-pap

Now

for Aditi. while the gods were spreading (performing)

the sacrifice on this (earth) they excluded her (the earth) from the sacrifice. She thought, How is it'

that, in

spreading the sacrifice on me, they should exclude me from the sacrifice.?' and confoundedtheir sacrifice^:

they

knewthe

not that

sacrifice.

Dhikshate, apparentlyPetersb. Diet.firsts.

desiderative of dihi,

(Weber, inconstruction

St.

v.)

Cf. Ill,

3,

7

seq.

The

is

is rather peculiar. This paragraph apparently proof why he should be cautious in his speech, and the words sa vai dhikshate' have to be taken parenthetically He speaks his speech cautiously for (anointing himself as he does) he anoints himself for speech, &c.' The Kava text offers

(especially the

hi)

to supply further'

'

;

Atha yad dhikshito nama va-^e va esha etad dhikya^wo hi vak, tasmad dhikshito nama, dhikshito ha vai namaitad yad dikshita ity ahu/^. Sayaa's comment (MS.) is not very satisfactory: YikdiM ya^fiasadhanatvenaless difficulty:

shate, ya^?Iaya hi dhikshate,

praj-awsati

;

sa vai dhikshitaiti

iti

prasahgad dhikshitajabda? nirvaktiiti

dhikshito ha va

yasmad

dikshita

nama tadmi diksha vak

sadhyeti vak jruti^.

482.

^-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.

Theyis it

said,

'

How

comesit

it

that our sacrificeit

was confounded, when we spread

on

this (earth)

?

how3.

that

we know'

not

?'

Theyhas

said,

In spreading the sacrifice on her,

we have excluded her fromthat

the sacrificesacrifice,

:

it is

she

confounded oursaid,

let

us

havesacri-

recourse to her!'4.

Theyon

'

When we wereit

spreading the

fice

that5.

how was we know it not ?'thee,'

that

it

became confounded,

She said, While spreading the sacrifice on me, ye have excluded me from the sacrifice that was why I have confounded your sacrifice. Set ye:

aside

a

share

for

me

;

thenit!'

ye

shall

see

the

sacrifice,6.

then ye shall

know

shall

'So be it!' said the gods: 'Thine, forsooth, be the opening (praya;^iya^), and thine the concluding (udayaniya) oblation!' This is why both the Praya/nya and the Udayaniya (pap) belong^

At IV,forth,

5, 1, 2,

the

name prayawiya

is

derived from pra-i, toit

goto

because by means ofSimilarly,

this offering they, asis

were, go forth

buy the Soma.I,

udayaniya

explained as the offer-

ing he performs after coming out (ud-i) from the bath.Br.7,

In Ait.

on the other hand, the name praya?nya is explained as that by means of which sacrificers go forward (pra-i) to the heavenly world. In the Soma sacrifice, the Praya^nya and Udayaniya may be said to correspond to the Fore-offerings and After-offerings (pray%a and anuy%a) of the New and Full-moon Sacrifice though, of course, the Fore- and After-offerings form part of the prayawiya and udayaniya, as ish/is. But they are peculiar in this respect, that offering is made at both to the very same deities, and that the invitatory prayers (anuvakya) of the prayaiyesh/i form the For offering-prayers (y%ya) of the udayaniyesh/i, and vice versa.these formulas, see Ajval. 6'rautas. IV, 3 ; Haug, Ait. Br. Transl. p. 16. The offering formula of the oblation to Aditi at the Prayawiyd

(and invitatory formula

at the

Udayaniya), strange to say,6, 2).

is

not

a Rik-verse, but one from the Atharvan (VII,

Ill

KAA^DA, 2

ADHYAYA,is

3 BRAHMAA'A, 12.

49

to Aditi

;

for Aditi truly

this (earth).

Thereupon

they saw and spread the sacrifice. 7. Hence, when he prepares the Praya;iya rice-pap for Aditi, he does so for the purpose of his seeingthe sacrifice(the:

'After seeing the sacrifice

I

shall

buy

Soma) and spread

that (sacrifice);' thus think-

ing he prepares the Praya;2iya pap for Aditi.sacrificial

The

food had been prepared, but offering had

not yet been8.

made

to the deity (Aditi),

Svasti^ appeared to them. They offered to her, for Pathya Svasti (the wishing of *a happy journey') is speech, and the sacrifice also is speech. Thereby they perceived the sacrifice and spread it. appeared to them: they 9. Thereupon Agni offered to him whereby they perceived that part of the sacrifice which was of Agni's nature. Now of Agni's nature is what is dry in the sacrifice that they thereby perceived and spread. 10. Then Soma appeared to them they offered to him whereby they perceived that part of the sacrifice which was of Soma's nature. Now of Soma's nature is what is moist in the sacrifice that they thereby perceived and spread. 11. Then Savitr 2 appeared to them they offered to him. Now Savitr/ represents cattle, and the sacrifice also means cattle hence they thereby perceived and spread the sacrifice. Thereupon they offered; : :

When Pathya

;

:

:

:

to the deity (Aditi), for

whom

the sacrificial food

had been prepared.12.offers.^

It is to

these

same

five deities, then, that

he

For that'

sacrifice,

when thrownhappy

into dis-

I. e.

welfare on the road, or a

journey,' a genius of

well-being and prosperity.[26]

E

50order,

i-ATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A.

was

in five parts

;

and by means of those

five

deities they recognised1

it.:

3.

The

seasons became confounded, the fivefive deities

by

means of those samethem.

they recognised

by 14. The regions became confounded, the five means of those same five deities they recognised:

them.15.

Through Pathya Svasti they recognised(upper)

the

northern

region

:

wherefore

speech

sounds higher here ^ among the Kuru-Paw/^alas for she (Pathya Svasti) is in reaHty speech, and through her they recognised the northern region, and to her belongs the northern region.

Through Agni they recognised the eastern region wherefore they take out Agni from behind towards the east and render homage to him for through him they recognised the eastern region, and to him belongs the eastern region. 17. Through Soma they recognised the southern16.:

2,

;

region

:

hence, afterit

the

Soma

has been bought,;

round on the south side and hence Soma is sacred to the Fathers for through him they recognised the southern region, and to him belongs the southern region. 18. Through Savitr^' they recognised the western region, for Savitrz is yonder burning (sun) wherefore he goes towards the west, for through him they recognised the western region, and to him belongs the western region.they drive they say that; :

*

Atra,

?

'

there.''

In the

St.

Petersb. Diet, uttarahi'

is

here takeni,

in the sense ofpref. p.'

in the north,' instead ofI,

higher.'p. 191.

See also partfire-place.

xlii,is,

note i; Weber, Ind. Stud.

That

from the Garhapatya

to the

Ahavaniya

Ill

KANDA,

2

ADHYAYA,

3 BRAHMAA^A, 2 2.

5

I

19.

Through Aditi they recognised the upperis

region, for Aditi

this (earth)

:

wherefore the plantsfor

and

trees

grow upwards on her;

through her

they recognised the upper region, and to her belongsthe upper region.20.

The

hospitable reception^ (of

King Soma)

verily

is the head of the sacrifice, and the opening and closing oblations are its arms. But the arms are on both sides of the head, and hence those two oblations, the Praya^^iya and Udayaniya, are made on both sides of (before and after) the reception. 21. Now, they say that whatever is done at the Praya/^iya should be done at the Udayaniya 2, and the barhis (grass-covering of the altar), which is used at the Praya;2iya, is also used at the Udayaniya he:

lays

removing it (from the altar). The pot (in which the rice-pap was cooked) he puts aside with the parched remains of dough, and (so he does)it

aside, after

the pot-ladle after wipingofficiate

it.

And

the priests

whothe

during the Praya/dya,

officiate also at

Udayaniya.ance at the22.

And

because of

this identical

perform-

sacrifice the

two arms are alike and ofit

the same shape.

But

let

him not do

in this

way.

Let himfire^),

rather 2 (at the proper time) throw both the barhis

and the pot-ladle after (the prastara, into the and let him put the pot aside after rinsing it.priests

Thethe

during the Praya/ziya, also at the Udayaniya; but should theyofficiate

who

officiate(in

^

See

III, 4, I.

^ ^

See

p. 48,

note'

i.

Or, perhaps,5,

let

him,

VII,*

16-19; cf. also Seel, 8, 3,19; 9,

For the Udayaniya, see IV, if he chooses (kamam) note on III, 2, 4, 14..

5, i..

;'.

see Katy.

2,

29.

E

2

52

5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A.time) have departed this hfe, others

mean

may

offi-

It is because he offers to the same ciate instead. deities, and the same oblations, that the two arms are alike and of the same shape. 23. To five deities he offers at the Praya;2iya, and hence there are five to five at the Udayaniya This (Praya;/iya offerfingers here and five there.:

ing) ends with the ^'amyu.

They perform no

Patni-

sa;72ya^as^

For the arms are on the

fore-part of

the body, and the fore-part of the sacrifice he perfects

by

this

(opening ceremony).

with the ^'amyu, and

why

This is why it ends no Patnisawya^as are

performed.

HIRAA^YAVATI-AHUTI,

OFFERING WITH GOLD; AND HOMAGE TO THE SOMA-COW.or

Fourth BRAHMAivA.1.

Now Soma

was:

in the sky,

and the gods were

here on earth.

Would that The gods desired, might sacrifice with him, Soma came to us we when come.' They created those two illusions,'

Suparm and Kadru.(dhish/^ya^)it is

In the chapter on the hearths

set forth

how

that affair of

Suparm

and Kadru came2.

to pass.

Soma for them. While she was carrying him off, the Gandharva Vi^-vavasu stole him from her. The gods were aware of this, Soma has indeed been removed from yonder (sky), but he comes not to us, for the Gandharvas haveGayatri flew up to'

stolen him.'^

For the .Samyuvaka, seeI

I, 9, i,

24

;

for the Patnisawya^as,

I,

9, 2,^

seq.III, 6, 2, 2 seq.

See

Ill

KANDA,said,

2

ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA,

7.

53

They women let3.:

will return

The Gandharvas are fond of us send Va^ (speech) to them, and she to us together with Soma.' They sent'

Yak

to them,

and she returned

to

them togetherher and said,

with Soma.

came 4. The Gandharvas 'Soma (shall be) yours, andit!'

after

Va/^ ours^''

'So beus

said the gods; 'but

if

she would rather comeoff

hither,

do not ye carry heraccordingly

by

force

:

let

woo

They wooed her. The Gandharvas recited the Vedas to her, saying, See how we know it, see how we know it^l' 6. The gods then created the lute and sat playing and singing, saying, Thus we will sing to thee, thus we will amuse thee!' She turned to the gods; but,her!'5.'

'

in truth, she

turned to them vainly, since she turned

engaged in praising and praying, to dance and song. Wherefore even to this day women are given to vain things for it was on this wise that Va/f turned thereto, and other women do as she did. And hence it is to him who dances and sings that they most readily take a fancy ^. 7. Both Soma and Vak were thus with the gods. Now, when he buys Soma he does so in order that he may sacrifice with him, when obtained, for his (own) obtainment (of heavenly bliss*); for he whothose,:

away from

^ Yours (shall be) Soma, and ours Ya.k, wherewith you bought (Soma) from us.' Kawva text. ^ The G. proclaimed the sacrifice and Veda to her, saying,' Thus we know the sacrifice, thus we know (the Veda) mighty are we.''

;

Kava text. ^ 'And hence*

it

is

to

him who

is

given to vain things,

whohis

dances and sings, thatLiterally,arrival(?'

that he

women are most attached.' Kawva text. may sacrifice with the arrived (guest) for

own

in the

world of the gods).'

54sacrificesfices8.

5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA.with

with

Soma that has not been bought, sacriSoma that has not been (properly) obtained \first

In the

place he pours the butter, which

dhruva spoon, in four parts into the ^uhu and having tied a piece of gold with a blade of the altar-grass ^ and laid it down (in the^hu), heremains;

in the

offers (the butter), thinking,

'

I

will offer

with pure

for milk and gold are of the same both have sprung from Agni's seed^

milk

;'

origin, since

down the piece of gold, with the text (Va^. S. IV, 17), 'This (butter) is thy body, O shining (Agni) this (gold) is thy light,' for 'unite therewith that gold is indeed light: and obtain splendour!' When he says, 'Unite9.

He

lays

!

'

therewith,'

he means to say, Mingle therewith ;' and when he says, Obtain splendour,' splendour meaning Soma, he means to say, Obtain Soma.' 10. And as the gods then sent her (Va/^) to Soma, so does he now send her to Soma and the cow for which the Soma is bought being in reality Vai,' '

;

it'

is

her he gratifies byher,

thisI

offering,

thinking,

With11.

whenoffers,

gratified,

shall buy the Soma.'

He

with the text,

'Thou

art the

singer of praises*,''

for this

(word '^M'), the;

one of her (Vak's) names 'upholden by the Mind,' this speech of ourssinger of praises,'is

1

Lit.

'

with

Somathis

that has not

come'

(to

him

as a guest), so that

the guest-offering (atithya, III, 4, i) could not take place.-

Because ofSeeII, 1,1,

piece of gold, the offering here described'offering with gold.'

is

called *

Hirayavati-ahuti, or

The

gir), cf.

5; 3,1, 15author seems to take gxxk here as nom. of ^ur=gur {gn, ^uri. Some of the native dictio